iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INFORMATION FOR INSTRUCTORS ................................................................................................ 1 A. GETTING STARTED ..........................................................................................................................................1 Determine the Computing Needs of Your Students .................................................................................................................. 1 Familiarize Yourself With the Student Computing Environment ............................................................................................. 1 Install Mathematica Modules and CAS Exercise Examples ..................................................................................................... 1

B. PLANNING YOUR COURSE .............................................................................................................................2 Student Background .................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Integrating Computer Exercises into your Syllabus.................................................................................................................. 2 Familiarize Yourself with the CAS Exercises and the Mathematica Modules ......................................................................... 2

C. ASSIGNING MATHEMATICA MODULES AND CAS EXERCISES ..........................................................2 Do the Exercise Before You Assign Them ............................................................................................................................... 2 Discuss Mathematica Assignments in Class ............................................................................................................................. 2 Assign Only Portions of Certain Modules ................................................................................................................................ 2 Determine if Group Work is Allowed....................................................................................................................................... 3 Determine the Acceptable Form for Completed Assignments.................................................................................................. 3 The Following Section Entitled Information for Students is Also For You!............................................................................. 3

2. INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS ....................................................................................................... 4 A. MATHEMATICA NOTEBOOKS....................................................................................................................4 Cells .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Creating New Cells ................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Executing Mathematica Commands ......................................................................................................................................... 5 Re-executing Mathematica Commands .................................................................................................................................... 6 Closing and Opening Cell Groups ............................................................................................................................................ 6 Deleting Cells............................................................................................................................................................................ 7 Palettes ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

B. COMMON PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED ...................................................................................................8 Storage Problems ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Losing your Work ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Syntax Errors ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8 Printing problems...................................................................................................................................................................... 9

C. MATHEMATICA MODULES .........................................................................................................................9 D. COMPUTER ALGEBRA SYSTEM EXERCISES .......................................................................................14 Study the CAS Exercise Examples ......................................................................................................................................... 14 Note to those using the Early Transcendentals Version.......................................................................................................... 14

INFORMATION FOR INSTRUCTORS

1

1. INFORMATION FOR INSTRUCTORS Many of the exercise sets in Thomas’ Calculus, Tenth Edition and Thomas’ Calculus, Early Transcendentals, Tenth Edition contain Computer Algebra System (CAS) exercises, grouped in special sections labeled “Computer Explorations”, which can be solved using Mathematica. In addition to the CAS exercises, the Thomas’ Calculus CD-ROM and Web Site contain a collection of 38 Mathematica modules designed to help students develop a geometric intuition and deeper understanding and appreciation of calculus concepts, methodologies, and applications. CD/Web site icons mark the locations in the text where material related to these modules is covered. If you plan on using (or are considering using) some of the CAS exercises or Mathematica modules associated with Thomas’ Calculus, then first spend a few minutes reading through the following information containing general advice and tips for successfully integrating Mathematica into your course.

A. GETTING STARTED Determine the Computing Needs of Your Students First, you need to determine where students will complete their Mathematica assignments. If you plan on having students complete their work on campus, then make sure that Mathematica is installed and available in the lab where students will be working. For those of you who need to purchase Mathematica for a campus computer lab, consider an educational site license, which will allow your school to install Mathematica on several machines at a discounted price. Currently, Mathematica runs on most major platforms and operating systems. For more information and technical requirements for the various platforms, visit www.wolfram.com/products/mathematica/platforms/. For more information on the purchasing an academic site license, go to www.wolfram.com/solutions/highered/academicpurchase/. If Mathematica is not available on campus, then you will need to determine if it is feasible for students to purchase their own copies of Mathematica. The student version is called Mathematica for Students and it is available at greatly reduced price (about 90% off the professional version price). Full-time students and in some cases, part-time students are eligible to purchase the student version. Although it is available online, you may want your campus bookstore to have copies of Mathematica for Students available for purchase. For more information about Mathematica for Students, go to www.wolfram.com/products/student/mathforstudents/. This site includes information on eligibility requirements for purchasing Mathematica for Students along with information about the similarities and differences between the student version and professional version of Mathematica.

Familiarize Yourself With the Student Computing Environment If your students will be working with Mathematica on campus, then you will need to spend some time familiarizing yourself with the computer lab. Be sure you determine how students log onto a computer, start the Mathematica program, quit a Mathematica session and log out of a computer when a Mathematica session is completed. Also find out where students will save their completed electronic files and when the computer lab will be open for student use. Keep track of all this information and pass it on to your students.

Install Mathematica Modules and CAS Exercise Examples Although students can access all of the Mathematica Modules on the CD/Web site, be sure you also make these files available in an electronic folder that students can access in the computer lab. In addition, the electronic files for the CAS Computer Exercise examples contained in this manual should also be placed in an electronic folder that students can access. These files can only be downloaded from the Web site, not the CD-ROM. By making this material available in the lab, students will be able to download any files they need, even if they forget to bring their CD into the lab or if they do not have internet access.

2

INFORMATION FOR INSTRUCTORS

B. PLANNING YOUR COURSE Student Background It will very helpful to collect some academic information about your students and to determine if they have had previous experience working with computers. Knowing a little bit of academic information about your students may help you pick appropriate Mathematica modules and CAS exercises to assign to your class. If you plan on having students work in pairs or groups on computer exercises, then you may want to group together students who are less experienced at working with computers with students who have more computer experience. If students will be doing their work in a computer lab and if there are lab assistants working in the lab, you will probably want to provide the lab assistants with some basic information on starting and running Mathematica.

Integrating Computer Exercises into your Syllabus If assigning CAS exercises and/or Mathematica modules is a new experience for you, then I would recommend making the computer exercises worth a relatively small percentage of the total points comprising the course grade. Be very selective in which computer exercises or modules you assign and be sensitive about the amount of time it will take for students to complete the assigned computer labs and exercises.

Familiarize Yourself with the CAS Exercises and the Mathematica Modules Spend some time working through some of the CAS exercises and the Mathematica modules before the semester begins. By doing this, you will get a better feel about which Mathematica modules and exercises are most appropriate for your students. If you are new to the Mathematica computing environment, I highly recommend completing the first Mathematica module, An Overview of Mathematica, found on the Web site and/or CD-ROM. This module will introduce you to some of the basic features and commands of Mathematica. In addition, read through the CAS Exercise Examples contained in this computer manual and try some of the corresponding exercises in the text to become more comfortable with the Mathematica computing environment.

C. ASSIGNING MATHEMATICA MODULES AND CAS EXERCISES Do the Exercise Before You Assign Them Before assigning a CAS exercise or a Mathematica module, complete the problem or module yourself. By working through the exercise or module, you can determine if any additional instructions or hints are appropriate to pass on to your students. Another reason for completing the work first is to make sure you are ready to answer any questions your students might have about the assigned computer exercises. It will give you the opportunity to evaluate the length and the level of difficulty of the computer assignment. Sometimes a given CAS exercise or module may look straightforward and easy to complete, but when you try to solve the problem yourself, you might discover it takes more time to complete than you previously estimated.

Discuss Mathematica Assignments in Class When you are ready to assign a CAS exercise or Mathematica module, you may want to give a brief overview of the assigned work in class. Discuss the relevance of the assignment to the course topics you are concurrently covering in class. Neglecting to discuss computer assignments during class may give your students the misconceived idea that the computer assignment is just “busy work” with no real importance to the lecture material and/or written homework assignments.

Assign Only Portions of Certain Modules It is not necessary to assign an entire module. You might find it appropriate to assign only portions of some of the modules contained on the CD/Web site. For example, in the module Take it to the Limit, the first part of the module only covers Section 1.1 in the text while the remaining parts of the module deal with Section 1.2. Therefore, you might elect to assign only the first part of the module to your students while you are concurrently covering Section 1.1 in the text. You may then decide to assign the remaining parts of the module after covering Section 1.2. There may also be times when you decide to delete parts of a given module to shorten the completion time for students. The key is to customize each module to fit the particular needs of your course.

INFORMATION FOR INSTRUCTORS

3

Determine if Group Work is Allowed Determine whether you want students to complete the computer assignments individually or in pairs or groups. As mentioned earlier, one advantage of allowing or encouraging group work is that you can pair up students with weak computer backgrounds with more computer literate students in order to help the less computer literate students adjust to the computer environment. A disadvantage of group work is the danger of having one or two students doing all the work for the rest of the group. Whatever you decide to do, be sure you clearly explain to students whether or not you want them to work together or individually in the computer lab.

Determine the Acceptable Form for Completed Assignments Be clear on how you would like students to turn in their work. If you assign one of the modules, you will probably not want them to turn in a hard copy of every page of the completed module. Rather have them to print out a portion of the module. For example, if the module concludes with a couple of You Try It exercises for students to complete, then you might have your students only print the last portion of the assignment. Another possibility is have your students turn in their work electronically on a floppy disk or to turn it in as an e-mail attachment. If you decide to have your students turn in their work electronically, be sure to give them clear instructions about the name they should give to their file. For example, if you assign the module entitled Take it to the Limit, then a good file name might be something like smith_lim indicating the last name of the student (Smith) and a key descriptor of the assignment (lim for limits).

The Following Section Entitled Information for Students is Also For You! Although the information in the following section is written for students, you should also read the next section to learn more about the Mathematica computing environment. If you are already familiar with Mathematica, then you might want to quickly skim through the material. However, if you are a new Mathematica user, then you may want to read the contents of the following section very carefully.

4

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

2. INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS The Mathematica modules and the CAS Exercise Examples contained on the CD/Web site were written in files called Mathematica notebooks. Information can be entered into a notebook from the keyboard or from special files called palettes. The purpose of this section is to discuss notebooks and palettes in more detail and to show how Mathematica commands are executed in a notebook.

A. MATHEMATICA NOTEBOOKS Cells A Mathematica notebook is a file organized into a sequence of cells. Each cell contains a specific type of information that has either been entered by the user or has been created as the result of the execution of a Mathematica command. Associated with each cell is a cell bracket in the right margin (see Figure 1).

Examples of Cell Brackets

Figure 1: Example of a Mathematica Notebook There are a variety of cell types such as title and graphics cells. Perhaps the three most common types of cells, as shown in Figure 2, are input cells, output cells and text cells. Input cells contain executable Mathematica commands. The right bracket of

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

an input cell contains a little triangle on the upper end of the cell bracket. An output cell contains the results of an input cell that has been executed. A text cell contains information to be read by the user, but contains no executable commands.

Title Cell

Text Cell

Graphics Cell

Input Cells

Output Cells

Figure 2: Example of Cell Types

Creating New Cells The default cell type is an input cell, which means that if you start to enter information into a Mathematica notebook, then the input cell type is automatically chosen. If instead, for example, you wish to create a text cell type, then pull down the Format menu and select Style and then text (see Figure 3). To begin a new cell, use the down arrow key or the mouse to click on the location of a new cell. A horizontal line will be displayed and a new cell will replace the horizontal line when you start typing (be sure to use the Format menu before typing if you want the cell to be something else other than an input cell).

Executing Mathematica Commands To execute the contents of an input cell, place the cursor anywhere in the input cell and left-click on the mouse button. Then type Shift-Enter or press Enter on the numeric key pad on the far right side of the keyboard. When you do this, the word “running” should appear in the upper left-hand corner of the notebook. This indicates that Mathematica is processing the contents of the input cell. The output should then appear in an output cell .

5

6

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

The text cell will begin at the location of the horizontal line once you start typing.

Figure 3: Selecting a Cell Type

Re-executing Mathematica Commands In a notebook, you can always reexecute the contents of an input cell or you can revise the contents of an input cell and then reexecute the cell. Simply click on the cell, make the necessary changes and press Shift-Enter to execute the contents of the revised cell.

Closing and Opening Cell Groups A group of cells is either open or closed. When a group of cells is open, all the contents of all the cells are visible to the user. If the group is closed, only the first cell in the group is visible. An upside-down flag indicates a closed group of cells (see Figure 4). You can change a closed group of cells to an open group by double clicking on the upside-down flag. A notebook is grouped in closed cells so that you can see the outline of topics covered.

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

Closed cells are indicated by the upsidedown flags.

Figure 4: Examples of Closed Cells in a Mathematica Notebook

Deleting Cells To delete an entire cell, simplify click on the cell bracket and press the Delete key.

Palettes Sometimes you can use palettes instead of the keyboard to enter information into a notebook. A palette is similar to a set of calculator buttons, which provide you with shortcuts to entering commands and symbols into a notebook. A palette that you might find useful is BasicInput . You can find it by pulling down the File menu, then selecting Palettes and then selecting BasicInput. When the palette appears on the screen, drag it to the right side of the screen and resize the notebook so that they both appear on the screen in non-overlapping windows (see Figure 5). Now, for example, suppose you want to compute the square root of 16. Simply click on the square root button on the palette and the square root symbol will then appear in the notebook. Enter 16 and then type Shift-Enter to obtain the result.

7

8

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

BasicInput Palette

Click and drag here to resize the notebook window

Figure 5: A Mathematica Notebook and a Palette

B. COMMON PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED Storage Problems If you plan on saving a Mathematica notebook on a floppy disk, make sure the disk has adequate storage space. Attempting to save your work on a floppy lacking an adequate amount of free memory space may result in your entire file becoming corrupted and unusable! If possible, save your work on a hard drive first and then save a backup on a floppy disk. Be sure that the floppy disk has adequate free storage space before saving your work.

Losing your Work While working with Mathematica, be sure to save your notebook every few minutes to avoid losing your work in case of a power outage or system crash. Nothing is more frustrating that working for a long period of time only to lose your work.

Syntax Errors Incorrectly entering a Mathematica command will result in a syntax error when the command is executed. An error message will be displayed on the screen as shown in Figure 6. Since Mathematica is case-sensitive, make sure you correctly capitalize the appropriate letters in the command before you execute it. When possible, use palettes to enter commands and shortcuts to commands rather than typing commands. More information on correct Mathematica syntax can be found later on in this manual in a section entitled An Introduction to Mathematica and in the first module, An Overview of Mathematica.

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

9

Figure 6: Example of a Syntax Error and an Error Message

Printing problems A Mathematica notebook containing three-dimensional graphics may be very slow to print especially if you are connected to a printer on a local network. To speed of the printing process, hold down the Ctrl key and then click on all the brackets containing graphics. Then pull down the Cell menu and select Convert To followed by Bitmap. Converting the graphics images to bitmap images will speed up the printing process.

C. MATHEMATICA MODULES A list of the 38 Mathematica modules contained in the CD/Web site is given below. The title of each module is followed by a set of parenthesis containing the name of the corresponding file on the CD/Web. The objective of each module is given along with prerequisite reading in Thomas’ Calculus and Thomas’ Calculus, Early Transcendentals, Tenth Edition.

1. An Overview of Mathematica (ChP_intr.nb) The objective of this first module is to introduce you to the basic features, characteristics, and language structure of Mathematica. This module should be completed before you begin any of the other modules. It is also strongly recommended that you work through this module before completing any of the CAS exercises in the text.

10

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

2. Modeling Change: Springs, Driving Safety, Radioactivity, Trees, Fish and Mammals (ChP_mod.nb) The purpose of this module is to use Mathematica to practice a modeling process: consider a behavior, observe data, fit a model, analyze the error, improve the model if appropriate, interpret the model, and make predictions. Prerequisite reading for this module is Section 7 of the Preliminary Chapter.

3. Take It to the Limit (Ch1_lim.nb) The objective of this module is to interpret the limit concept graphically and numerically. Read Section 1.1 before completing Part I of this module and read Section 1.2 before completing the remaining parts of this module.

4. Going to Infinity: What Happens to Functions When the Independent Variable Gets Bigger and Bigger and Bigger? (Ch1_inf.nb) The purpose of this module is to interpret limits going to infinity both graphically and numerically. Read Sections 1.3 and 1.4 to prepare for this module.

5. Convergence of Secant Slopes to the Derivative Function (Ch2_sec.nb) This module will help you visualize the secant line between successive points on a curve, observe what happens as the distance between successive points becomes small, compare the graph of successive secant line slopes with the graph of the derivative function, and apply the definition of the derivative in computing it. Read Sections 2.1 and 2.4 in your text before completing this module.

6. Derivatives, Slopes, Tangent Lines, and Making Movies (Ch3_lin.nb) The objective of this module is to visualize the derivative and the linearization of a function at a point. You will explore the derivative as the slope of a nonlinear function and find the equation of the line tangent to a curve at a point. You will learn how to plot the curve and selected tangents on the same graph. In addition, you will see how to use Mathematica to make a movie animation by generating a sequence of plots, each showing a different tangent to the curve. When the sequence of graphs is animated, the tangent lines appear to roll along the graph of the function. Study Sections 2.1, 2.4, 3.6, and 3.7 in your textbook first to prepare for working through this module.

7. Motion Along a Straight Line, Part I: Position -> Velocity -> Acceleration (Ch3_mo1.nb) In this module, you will apply special Mathematica functions to analyze position, velocity, and acceleration simultaneously. Three specially designed Mathematica commands are introduced here that generate animations to help you visualize the derivative relations among the position, velocity, and acceleration functions. Concepts from Sections 2.2, 2.4, 3.3 are covered in this notebook.

8. Newton’s Amazing Method: Estimating π to How Many Places? (Ch3_nm.nb) The objective of this module is to use Mathematica to implement Newton's Method. Read Section 3.7 to prepare for this module.

9. Bending of Beams or What Does Calculus Have to Do With the Design of Structures? (Ch4_bb.nb) In this module, you will learn how engineers use calculus to design structures. Structural engineers need to calculate how beams bend, and they do so by using principles of structural mechanics and calculus. You will investigate some of the ways that engineers use calculus to ensure that the structures they design are both safe and functional. Before you begin this module, refer to "Maximums, Minimums, and Inflection Points," a Java applet included in the Web/CD. This applet allows you to explore the relationship between the shape of the graph of a function and the values of its first and second derivatives. Read Section 4.1 before completing this module.

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

11

10. Using Riemann Sums to Estimate Areas, Volumes, and Lengths of Arc (Ch4_avl.nb) In this module, Riemann sums are used to approximate areas, volumes, and lengths of arc. You will also construct accumulation functions, and see how the accumulated quantities converge to the antiderivative in the limit. Concepts from Sections 4.3, 5.1 and 5.3 are covered in this lab.

11. Summing It up with Riemann, Definite Integrals and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Ch4_rs.nb) The objective of this lab is to visualize the relationship among Riemann sums, the definite integral, and the Fundamental Theorem of the Calculus. You will use each of these concepts to compute or approximate the signed area under the graph of a function representing various applications. Read Sections 4.4 – 4.6, and 6.1 before completing this module.

12. Rain Catchers, Elevators, and Rockets(Ch4_rc.nb) The purpose of this module is to gain an appreciation for the importance of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and the Mean Value Theorem in practical applications. You will see the wide applicability of some of the basic ideas in calculus of single variable functions. In addition to gaining a better understanding and appreciation for the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and the Mean Value Theorem. You will also see the importance of finding the areas between the graphs of functions and identifying extreme values. Before starting, read Sections 4.4 and 4.5 if you have not done so already.

13. Motion Along a Straight Line, Part II: Acceleration -> Velocity -> Position (Ch4_mo2.nb) This module will help you develop an understanding of the integral relationship between acceleration and velocity, and between velocity and position of an object moving along a straight line. Two specially designed Mathematica commands are introduced here that animate the integral relations between acceleration and velocity, and between velocity and position of an object moving along a straight line. A variety of motions are studied, including constant velocity, constant acceleration, harmonic oscillation, and decaying oscillations. You can also use the specialized Mathematica commands to study other motions that may be of interest to you. Read Section 4.5 before you begin this module.

14. Riemann, Trapezoids and Simpson (Ch4_rts.nb) The objective of this module is to visualize the process of using Riemann sums, the trapezoid rule, and Simpson's rule for approximating definite integrals, and to understand the error associated with each method. Read Section 4.7 before beginning this module.

15. Modeling a Bungee Cord Jump: A Classroom Experiment (Ch5_bcj.nb) In this module, you will be asked to collect data for a bungee cord (or use data collected by Carroll College students); build, test, and refine a model for a bungee jumper; and estimate the length of bungee cord necessary to achieve a desired length of fall. Read Section 5.4 (Section 5.5 in the Early Transcendentals Version) before beginning this module.

16. Drug Dosages: Are They Effective? Are they Safe? (Ch6_dd.nb) The purpose of this module is to use Mathematica to solve differential equations related to drug concentrations in the blood when the drug is administered by a single injection, intravenously, or by periodic injections. You will learn how a simple mathematical model and Mathematica can be used to regulate the concentration of a prescribed drug in the blood. Read Section 6.4 (Section 5.4 in the Early Transcendentals Version) before beginning this module.

17. First-Order Differential Equations and Slope Fields (Ch6_sf.nb) The purpose of this module is to use Mathematica to visualize the slope fields and solution curves for selected first-order differential equations. This module contains a special command that plots slope fields and selected solution curves for first-order differential equations. You can use it to obtain solutions for related problems in the text. In addition, you can use the slope field command to study a wide variety of first-order differential equations and to analyze the long-term behavior of solutions. Read Section 6.6 (Section 5.4 in the Early Transcendentals Version) before beginning this assignment.

18. Games of Chance: Exploring the Monte Carlo Technique for Numerical Integration and Computing Probabilities with Improper Integrals (Ch7_int.nb) The objective of this module is to learn the Monte Carlo method for approximating an integral that cannot be integrated symbolically, and see an application of improper integrals. How can you use a game of chance to evaluate an integral, and what

12

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

do games of chance have to do with improper integrals? This module will give you insight into both of these issues. Read Section 7.5 and 7.7 before beginning this module.

19. Bouncing Ball (Ch8_bb.nb) In this module, you will use geometric series to investigate the behavior of a bouncing ball. Properties such as distance traveled and time bouncing will be determined. Read Section 8.3 before beginning this module.

20. Taylor Approximations of a Function (Ch8_ts.nb) Here you will observe an animated demonstration of the convergence of Taylor polynomials to a function that has derivatives of all orders over some interval of its domain. Read Section 8.7 before beginning this module.

21. Use the Fourier Series to Approximate Discontinuous Functions and to Interpret Music (Ch8_fs.nb) The objective of this module is to use Mathematica to calculate Fourier series and to build even and odd Fourier representations of selected functions. You will also get a chance to see how Fourier series can be used to build mathematical models of musical tones, to look at their graphs, and even to play back the signal to hear how close our model is to the real thing. Read Sections 8.9 and 8.10 to prepare for this module.

22. Using Vectors to Represent Lines and Find Distances (Ch9_lp.nb) Do you remember how you first learned about the equations of lines in a plane? In this module, you will gain insight into why it is to your advantage to interpret lines in the plane using vectors. Read Sections 9.1 and 9.2 before beginning this module.

23. Radar Tracking of a Moving Object (Ch9_rdt.nb) The objective of this module is to determine how to compute velocity and acceleration of a moving object whose position is given in polar coordinates. Using Mathematica, you will animate the trajectory of a moving object together with its position, velocity, and acceleration vectors. Read Sections 9.3 and 9.5 before beginning this module.

24. Parametric and Polar Equations with a Figure Skater (Ch9_m2.nb) Parametric equations are very powerful and the purpose of this module is to help you get used to the idea of expressing curves using parametric equations and analyzing motion in the plane using these parametric equations. Read Sections 9.3 and 9.5 in preparation for this module.

25. Putting a Scene in Three Dimensions onto a Two-Dimensional Canvas (Ch10_It.nb) The purpose of this module is to use linear transformations to map points from three dimensions onto a two-dimensional space. A portion of this lab focuses on parallel projections that resemble a situation in which the results of X-rays demonstrate the need for a CAT-Scan. Section 10.3 and especially Exercise 61 in Section 10.3 are prerequisite reading for this module.

26. Getting Started in Plotting in 3D (Ch10_plt.nb) In this module, you will learn how Mathematica can help you plot the lines, planes, cylinders, and quadric surfaces. In the process of plotting lines and planes, you will gain insight into their vector definitions. Read Sections 10.3 and 10.4 in preparation for this module.

27. Moving in Three Dimensions (Ch10_m3.nb) The objective of this module is to use Mathematica to perform calculations to analyze motion in the equations that are given parametrically. Read Sections 10.5 and 10.6 before beginning this module.

28. Plotting Surfaces (Ch11_ps.nb) In this module, learn how to use Mathematica to plot surfaces, contours, and level curves. Read Section 11.1 before beginning this module.

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

13

29. Exploring the Mathematics Behind Skateboarding: Analysis of the Directional Derivative (Ch11_dd.nb) What is a directional derivative and what does it look like? To find out, this module will allow you get to put yourself in the position of a skateboarder and explore skating on a flat ramp or inside a bowl. The graphical representation of the dot product of the gradient of the surface function and a unit vector in the direction of motion will become clearer. Using Mathematica, you will be able to plot the directional derivative as a function of the parameter t. Read Section 1l.5 in preparation for completing this module.

30. Looking for Patterns and Applying the Method of Least Squares to Real Data (Ch11_ff.nb) The objective of this module is to minimize the sum of squared residuals to fit an arbitrary function to a set of data. Prerequisite reading for this module is Section 11.7.

31. Lagrange Goes Skateboarding: How High Does He Go? (Ch11_lag.nb) How do you maximize or minimize a function subject to constraints? The skateboarder from the directional derivative project returns, and this time it's Lagrange himself. He will use his multipliers to determine precisely where along the figure-8 he reaches the high and low points of the surface. You will also investigate the role of the directional derivative. Read Section 11.8 before beginning this module.

32. How Does Heat Dissipate? (Ch11_heq.nb) The purpose of this module is to explore the heat equation in order to see physical interpretations of the contours and level curves. The heat equation is a partial differential equation and its solution employs the Fourier series in a meaningful way. Review Fourier series (Section 8.9) and the last part of the additional exercises at the end of Chapter 11 in preparation for this module.

33. Take Your Chances: Try the Monte Carlo Technique for Numerical Integration in Three Dimensions (Ch12_mc3.nb) How can you use a game of chance to evaluate a multiple integral? That is just what you will do with this project. Using Mathematica, you will generate random points within a fixed region and then estimate the volume of the desired portion by considering the percentage of random points that fall within the boundaries of the desired portion. Since this will only estimate the exact volume, you will also explore the accuracy of this method. Read Section 12.1 before beginning this module.

34. Means and Moments and Exploring New Plotting Techniques (Ch12_mm.nb) The objective of this module is to extend the concept of the moments of a density function of a solid to applications in probability and engineering. What do means and multiple integrals have to do with probabilities? How can the method of moments be used to help determine whether or not an object will float in an upright position? These questions will be answered as you explore this module. You will also get to practice new and interesting ways to plot functions. Read Sections 12.2 and 12.5 before beginning this module.

35. Volumes that You Can Use (Ch12_vol.nb) The purpose of this module is to use the concept of volume to solve practical problems involving rain catchers and satellite dishes. Read Exercises 31 and 32 in the Additional Exercises at the end of Chapter 12 for background information relevant to this module.

36. Work in Conservative and Non-Conservative Force Fields (Ch13_wk.nb) In this module, you will explore integration over vector fields and experiment with both conservative and non-conservative force functions along different paths. These explorations should help you understand line integrals, as well as better appreciate situations when the work done is independent of the path taken. The background reading for this module is Section 13.3.

37. How Can You Visualize Green’s Theorem? (Ch13_grn.nb) In this module, you will explore integration over vector fields and use parameterizations to compute line integrals. You will also explore how to determine the closed curve around which your work integral is a maximum and whether or not it makes any difference if a force is conservative. Read Section 13.4 in preparation for this module.

14

INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS

38. Visualizing and Interpreting the Divergence Theorem (Ch13_div.nb) In this module, you will see that surface integrals are difficult to evaluate, even with the help of Mathematica. You will then see that using parameterizations to evaluate flux surface integrals and applying the Divergence Theorem can help with integral evaluations. Read Section 13.8 to prepare for this module.

D. COMPUTER ALGEBRA SYSTEM EXERCISES Study the CAS Exercise Examples Many of the exercise sets in Thomas’ Calculus contain Computer Algebra System (CAS) exercises, which you can solve with the help of Mathematica. The following part of this manual contains examples of CAS exercises found in your text and then solutions to these example exercises are found using Mathematica. Before attempting to solve a CAS exercise in your textbook, you will probably find it helpful to first study a relevant example found in this manual.

Note to those using the Early Transcendentals Version The following CAS Exercise Examples correspond to the exercise sets found in the regular version of Thomas’ Calculus and they correspond to all but three sections of the Early Transcendental version (ET) of Thomas Calculus. CAS examples for Section 2.8 of ET can be found in CAS Exercise Examples for Section 6.2, CAS examples for Section 5.4 of ET are contained in CAS Exercise Examples for Section 6.4 and CAS examples for Section 6.4 of ET are found in Section 6.6 of CAS Exercise Example.

An Introduction to Mathematica Á Computer Algebra System (CAS) Exercises In this manual, you will find example exercises, similar to the CAS exercises in your text, and their corresponding solutions, discussed and illustrated with Mathematica. To solve a given CAS exercise with Mathematica, first study the corresponding example exercise in this manual and then use the example to guide you in solving the CAS exercise in your text. But before attempting to solve the CAS exercises, spend a few minutes reading through this introduction to familiarize yourself with the basic features, commands and structure of Mathematica. You are also strongly encouraged to complete the first Mathematica module accompanying the Thomas' Calculus text entitled "An Overview of Mathematica" contained in the file ChP_intr.nb.

Á Mathematica Arithmetic You can think of Mathematica as a powerful calculator which can do exact as well as approximate arithmetic. Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division The symbols , and s are used for adding, subtracting and dividing numbers, respectively. Here are three examples. In[1]:= Out[1]=

In[2]:= Out[2]=

In[3]:= Out[3]=

575754575849849894 748949854985944749598984 748950430740520599448878 87575750 489747598744894574949

489747598744806999199 99686868612732546598686500000000000 s 5000 19937373722546509319737300000000

The asterisk * or better yet, at least one space, is used to multiply numbers. In[4]:=

6868868686 18234987271740

Out[4]=

125253733060463458733640

In[5]:=

6868868686 18234987271740

Out[5]=

125253733060463458733640

An Introduction to Mathematica

16

Powers The ^ stands for the power. In[6]:= Out[6]=

55757 ^ 22 26217227822130734686061732698724649910044114252485611900573633503107377146737g 7455720035345978636911261049

Notice that the last output is such a large number that is fills up several lines! The following input was created by typing 109 Ctrl-^ 5. In[7]:= Out[7]=

1095 15386239549

Palettes Mathematica comes with some standard palettes containing shortcuts to entering commands from the keyboard. A useful palette, called BasicInput, contains shortcuts for computing powers, square roots, summations and much more. To open this palette, pull down the File menu, choose Palettes and then select BasicInput. Drag BasicInput to the side of your current notebook and if necessary, resize your notebook so that the notebook and palette are not overlapping. r

To demonstrate how to use this palette, suppose you want to compute 390625 . In an Input cell, click on the button containr ing f . Then enter 390625 and then execute the cell. Your input and output should look like the following. In[8]:= Out[8]=

r

390625

625

When using any palette key which requires more than one number such as the fraction ccffcc and f , use the Tab key to move from one number to the next. For example, to compute 757555 s 5, use the button containing ccffcc in the palette. Enter 757555, then press the Tab key and finally enter 5. f r

757555

In[9]:= Out[9]=

cccccccccccccccccc

5 151511

Exact vs. Approximate Calculations Study the following input and output statements. In[10]:= Out[10]=

r

27

3

r

3

Notice that Mathematica returns an exact answer. This may not always be helpful. For example, the following output is identical to the input since Mathematica returns the exact answer in reduced from.

An Introduction to Mathematica

17

5899

In[11]:=

Out[11]=

ccccccccccccc 7 5899 ccccccccccccc 7

There are several ways of obtaining an approximate answer as shown in the following cells. Mathematica will display an approximate answer if at least one number in the calculation contains a decimal points. 5899.

In[12]:= Out[12]=

cccccccccccccccc

7 842.714

Placing //N immediately after a calculation will produce the same result. 5899

In[13]:= Out[13]=

ccccccccccccc

ss

N

7 842.714

Instead of placing //N immediately after a calculation, you can instead place a calculation inside N[f]. In[14]:= Out[14]=

5899 N$ ccccccccccccc ( 7 842.714

Entering N[f,n] instructs Mathematica to attempt to find an n-digit approximation. In[15]:= Out[15]=

5899 N$ ccccccccccccc , 15( 7 842.714

Using Previous Results The percent symbol % always represents the last output produced by Mathematica. 625

In[16]:= Out[16]=

cccccccccc

125 5

At this point, 5 is the most recent result produced by Mathematica. So the following example will compute 52 . In[17]:= Out[17]=

%^2 25

The command %n represents the result on output line Out[n]. For example, the following command will subtract 1 from the result in Out[15] (verify). In[18]:= Out[18]=

%15 1 841.714

An Introduction to Mathematica

With Mathematica, you can perform more than one calculation in a single cell by placing two calculations on separate lines using the Enter key. In[19]:=

r

23.1 29

Out[19]=

4.80625

Out[20]=

7

Á Assigning Names Mathematica has two commands that can be used to assign names to values. One assignment command is called the equals command ( ) and the other is the delayed equals command (: ). There is a subtle, yet very important difference between the two commands which will be illustrated shortly. Suppose we want to assign x the value of 2 and y the value of 3. In[21]:=

x

Out[21]=

2

In[22]:=

y

Out[22]=

3

2

3

The number of letters in a name assigned to a value can be of any length as long as it does not begin with number and as long as there are no spaces between any of the characters in the name. For example, suppose you want to compute the product of x and y and assign the name prod to the result. Recall that the space appearing between the x and the y represents multiplication. In[23]:= Out[23]=

prod

x y

6

If you wish to see the value of prod again, just type in the name and execute the cell. In[24]:= Out[24]=

prod 6

Now suppose we change the values of x and y. In[25]:=

x y

Out[25]=

9

Out[26]=

10

9 10

Notice that the product does not change! In[27]:= Out[27]=

prod 6

18

An Introduction to Mathematica

19

The reason the value of prod is still 6 is due to the use of the ment

command. When = is used, the right hand side of the assign-

prod=x y is immediately executed and the resulting value is assignment to prod. If instead you had execute the assignment prod:=x y then the right hand side of the assignment statement will not actually be computed until prod appears later on in the input cell or in some other input cell.

The Clear command removes assignments that you have made. It is always a good idea to clear an assigned name before creating a new assignment for that name. In[28]:=

Clear#prod'

Now the delayed equals := is used to assign prod to be the product of x and y. In[29]:=

prod : x y

Since the current value of x and y are 9 and 10, respectively, then executing the following input cell produces a result of 90. In[30]:= Out[30]=

prod 90

Now suppose you change the value of x to 4. Then the value of prod changes as expected. In[31]:= Out[31]=

In[32]:= Out[32]=

x

4

4 prod 40

Suppressing Output Recall that more than one command can be placed in a single input cell as long as each new command starts on a new line. In[33]:=

x 30 y 40 prod

Out[33]=

30

Out[34]=

40

Out[35]=

1200

Suppose you do not want the values of x and y displayed as output. Placing a semicolon (;) at the end of a line will suppress the result of the current line from being displayed in the output.

An Introduction to Mathematica

In[36]:=

Out[38]=

x 90; y 30; prod 2700

Á Mathematica Commands Built-In Commands and Constants Mathematica commands consist of a string of letters beginning with a capital letter followed by a series of arguments enclosed in square brackets. Two commands which you have already seen in this chapter are N and Clear. Here are a few more examples. If m and n are integers, Range#m, n' produces a list of all the integers from m to n inclusive. In[39]:= Out[39]=

Range#1.1, 10' 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1, 9.1

If list represents a list of numbers, then Min[list] will return the smallest number in list. In[40]:= Out[40]=

Min#%' 1.1

The following Plot command will plot the function f +x/ In[41]:=

Plot#Cos#x' x, x,

cos+ x/ x for values of x ranging from S to 2 S.

S, 2 S'

2 1 -2

2

4

6

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Out[41]=

h Graphics h

Placing a semicolon after a command will suppress any output from being displayed. In studying the last output, the actual output was not the graph itself, but rather the word -Graphics-. So placing a semicolon at the end of a plot command will only suppress -Graphics- from being displayed.

20

An Introduction to Mathematica

21

In[42]:=

S 1 Plot$Sin$ cccc (, x, 0, cccc x 2

;

(

1

0.5

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

1.25

1.5

-0.5

-1 In Mathematica, an equation such as cos+x/ x 0 is represented in Mathematica by Cos[x]-x==0. Since the cosine function is a Mathematica command, it must begin with a capital letter and also note that a double equals sign (==) is used in a Mathematica equation (a single equals sign represents an assignment command and therefore cannot be used). The following FindRoot command locates a solution to cos(x)-x=0 near x 1. In[43]:= Out[43]=

FindRoot#Cos#x' x

0, x, 0, 2'

90 0.739085

Notice that the FindRoot command consists of two words (Find and Root) which are both capitalized. Notice there is no space separating the two words. Mathematica will always capitalize the first letter in each word and will never leave any spaces between the words in a single command. Some Mathematica commands represent constants. For example the command Pi is S and E is Euler's number e. The following commands will display their approximate values. In[44]:=

N#Pi' N#E'

Out[44]=

3.14159

Out[45]=

2.71828

Rather than typing in commands from the keyboard, some commands can be entered from a standard palette. For example, in the palette BasicInput, Pi is represented by S and E is represented by Æ. In[46]:=

N#S' N#Æ'

Out[46]=

3.14159

Out[47]=

2.71828

As another example, the command for computing the square root of a number x is Sqrt[x].

An Introduction to Mathematica

In[48]:= Out[48]=

Sqrt#16' 4

But as seen earlier, a more natural way of computing square roots is the use the button containing

f

r

in BasicInput.

Command Options Many Mathematica functions, especially the commands which produce graphs, contain options for enhancing the output. For example, the option PlotStyle Thickness#.015' adjusts the thickness of the curve being plotted. In[49]:=

Plot#Sin#x' Cos#2 x', x, 0, 2 S, PlotStyle Thickness#.015''; 1 0.5

1

2

3

4

5

6

-0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 In the following Plot command, two functions contained in brackets ..., x2 and x2 sin2 x are plotted simultaneously with an option for changing the thickness of the first curve and the color of the second curve. In[50]:=

Plot#x ^ 2, x ^ 2 Sin#x'2 , x, 5 S, 5 S, PlotStyle Thickness#.012', RGBColor#0, 0, 1''; 250 200 150 100 50

-15

-10

-5

5

10

15

22

An Introduction to Mathematica

23

Help Menu To see information about a given Mathematica command, enter a ? followed immediately by the name of the command. In[51]:=

? FindRoot FindRoot#lhs rhs, x, x0' searches for a numerical solution to the equation lhs rhs, starting with x x0.

For more detailed information use ??. In[52]:=

?? FindRoot FindRoot#lhs rhs, x, x0' searches for a numerical solution to the equation lhs rhs, starting with x x0. Attributes#FindRoot'

HoldAll, Protected

Options#FindRoot' AccuracyGoal Automatic, Compiled True, DampingFactor 1, Jacobian Automatic, MaxIterations 15, WorkingPrecision 16 Another excellent source of information is the Help menu. You are encouraged to explore the Help menu to learn more about Mathematica and its features. Standard Add-On Functions In addition to the standard Mathematica functions which are available to you as soon as you begin a Mathematica session, there are over 1000 add-on functions contained in packages which must first be loaded into computer memory before being used. For example, in a file named Graphics, there is a package called ImplicitPlot containing a function called ImplicitPlot. To use this function, you must first execute the command {{-1,1},{-1,1}} instructs Mathematica to plot the graph with the horizontal axis ranging from 1 to 1 and the vertical axes ranging from 1 to 1. The other option given here is Ticks->None which will leave the axes unlabeled.

An Introduction to Mathematica

In[91]:=

PolarPlot#Sin#5 T',

T, 0, S, PlotRange ! 1, 1, 1, 1, Ticks ! None';

The following Table command will form a list of the graphs PolarPlot#Sin#5 T', for

T0

cccc12Scc , cccc212cScc , cccc312cScc ,

T, 0, T0 },PlotRange->{{-1,1},{-1,1}}, Ticks->None];

...,

S (only the first frame is shown to save space).

To animate the created frames, double click on top of any one of the given frames. In[92]:=

polarframes

Table$PolarPlot#Sin#5 T',

PlotRange !

T, 0, T0 ,

S S 1, 1, 1, 1, Ticks ! None', T0 , ccccccc , S, ccccccc

12

12

;

(

30

An Introduction to Mathematica

31

If you would rather just see the frames all at once on the screen, we can take the list of 12 frames just created and divide the list into a list of 3 lists using the Partition command. In[93]:= Out[93]=

framesdisplay

Partition#polarframes, 4'

h Graphics h, h Graphics h, h Graphics h, h Graphics h, h Graphics h, h Graphics h, h Graphics h, h Graphics h, h Graphics h, h Graphics h, h Graphics h, h Graphics h

Then execute the following command.

An Introduction to Mathematica

In[94]:=

32

Show#GraphicsArray#framesdisplay'';

For a more sophisticated example, suppose you want to create a movie illustrating the relationship between the unit circle and the sine curve. The purpose of the following example is to show you the power of animation, so don't worry about understanding all of the details. First, a plot of y sin+x/ is created and given the name sincurve. The option DisplayFunction->Identity will 2 suppress the graph from being displayed for now and the option AspectRatio ! cccccccc 2 S2cc produces a graph whose ratio of height to width is 2 to 2 S 2. The other options have been described previously in this chapter. In[95]:=

sinecurve

Plot$Sin#x', x, 0, 2 S,

PlotRange !

2, 2 S, 1, 1, DisplayFunction ! Identity,

AspectRatio !

2

cccccccccccccccc , PlotStyle ! RGBColor#1, 0, 0'(; 2S2

Next, a unit circle is created centered at + 1, 0/ with a radius of 1 with the Circle command. The Graphics command is added so that the graph of the circle can be plotted later on with the Show command. In[96]:=

cir

Graphics#Circle# 1, 0, 1', PlotRange ! 2, 2 S,

1, 1';

In the following input cell, a list is created where each element in the list is a plot of the points + 1, 0/, +cos+t / 1, sin+t //, +t, sin+t// are joined together, for t cccc16Scc , cccc216cScc , cccc316cScc , ..., 2 S, using the ListPlot command described earlier in this chapter. In[97]:=

cirptslines

Table$ListPlot$ 1, 0, Cos#t' 1, Sin#t', t, Sin#t',

PlotRange !

2, 2 S, 1, 1, DisplayFunction ! Identity,

AspectRatio !

S S 2 cccccccccccccccc , Ticks ! None, PlotJoined ! True(, t, ccccccc , 2 S, ccccccc 2S2 16 16

;

(

Now the Table command is used to show the frames of the movie. Since the option DisplayFunction->Identity was used in the previous commands to suppress the graphics output, the command DisplayFunction->$DisplayFunction must now be used to instruct Mathematica to show the graphics previously hidden. (Only the first frame of the movie is shown here to save space.)

An Introduction to Mathematica

33

In[98]:=

movieframes Table#Show#cirptslines##i'', cir, sinecurve, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction', i, 1, Length#cirptslines'';

As described earlier, the frames of a movie can be shown together. In[99]:=

arraydisplay Partition#movieframes, 4'; Show#GraphicsArray#arraydisplay'';

Á Fours Types of Brackets in Mathematica Four types of brackets have been described in this chapter: + .../,

...,

#

...' and ## ...''.

Round brackets + .../ are used for mathematical grouping of terms. In[101]:= Out[101]=

7 +3

4/

49

Curly brackets ... are used for creating lists. In[102]:= Out[102]=

mylist

S, Æ, 1

S, Æ, 1

Square brackets [...] are used in defining functions and evaluating built-in, add-on and defined functions. In[103]:=

Out[104]=

g#x_' x Sin#x'; g#S s 2' 1

S cccc 2

An Introduction to Mathematica

In[105]:=

Out[105]=

34

6S Cos$ cccccccc ( 5 1 cccc , 1 r 50 4

Double square brackets [[...]] are used to extract parts of a list. In[106]:= Out[106]=

mylist##2''

Æ

Do not attempt to interchange these symbols! For example, using round brackets instead of square brackets when defining or evaluating a function will produce an undesired result. In[107]:= Out[107]=

g +S/ gS

Á Common Problems and How to Fix Them Misinterpreting Warning Messages If Mathematica thinks that you have executed a command containing an error, it will display a warning message. In[108]:=

Plot#Cos#x', x, 0, 2 S'; Syntax::bktmcp : Expression "x, 0, 2 S" has no closing "". Plot#Cos#x', x, 0, 2 S';

In this case, a right curly bracket was forgotten and can be easily fixed. In[108]:=

Plot#Cos#x', x, 0, 2 S'; 1

0.5

1

2

3

4

5

6

-0.5

-1 In the following example, study the warning message. In this case, there is absolutely nothing wrong with defining a list the name list, but Mathematica notices that this name is nearly the same as a Mathematica command called List with a capital L. In this case, you can ignore the warning message and move on. Therefore, not all warning messages should be interpreted as error messages.

35

In[109]:=

An Introduction to Mathematica

list

1, 2, 4

General::spell1 : Possible spelling error: new symbol name "list" is similar to existing symbol "List". Out[109]=

1, 2, 4

Using an Add-On Function Before Loading it into Memory Problems will occur if you attempt to use an add-on command before it has been loaded into memory. For example, the add-on command DayOfWeek[{year, month, day}] will return the day of the week on which the given date occurred. In[110]:=

DayOfWeek#1962, 6, 6'

Out[110]=

DayOfWeek#1962, 6, 6'

The command did not work because it was not loaded into memory first. The command is contained in a package called Calender inside a folder named Miscellaneous. Now the package is loaded and a warning message occurs. In[111]:=

Miscellaneous`Calendar` DayOfWeek::shdw : Symbol DayOfWeek appears in multiple contexts Miscellaneous`Calendar`, Global`; definitions in context Miscellaneous`Calendar` may shadow or be shadowed by other definitions.

Suppose you ignore the warning message and you try to execute DayOfWeek again. Nothing happens! In[112]:=

DayOfWeek#1962, 6, 6'

Out[112]=

DayOfWeek#1962, 6, 6'

In order to get the DayOfWeek command defined in the package to work correctly, you must first use a command called Remove. In[113]:=

Remove#DayOfWeek'

Now the command will work! In[114]:= Out[114]=

DayOfWeek#1962, 6, 6' Wednesday

Using Reserved Mathematica Words As you already know, all Mathematica commands and constants begin with a capital letter. These commands are reserved words that cannot be used for anything else other than their intended purpose. So when assigning names or creating functions, it is generally a good idea to use names beginning with a lower case letter to avoid reserved Mathematica words. In the following example, if you try to assign the name N to the sum of one plus one, an error message will appear on the screen. In[115]:=

N

11

Set::wrsym : Symbol N is Protected. Out[115]=

2

An Introduction to Mathematica

If N was not a reserved word, then the output of the following input statement would be 2. In[116]:=

N

Out[116]=

N

If you wanted a quick reminder of the N command (introduced earlier), execute ?N. In[117]:=

?N N#expr' gives the numerical value of expr. N# expr, n' attempts to give a result with ndigit precision.

One way to resolve the problem would be to use a lower case letter. In[118]:=

n n

Out[119]=

2

1 1;

Failing to capitalize Reserved Mathematica commands Another common problem when using Mathematica is failing to capitalize the first letter in a Mathematica command. In the following input line, sin[x] should be Sin[x] and therefore undesired results follow.

36

37

In[120]:=

An Introduction to Mathematica

Plot#sin#x', x, 0, 2 S' General::spell1 : Possible spelling error: new symbol name "sin" is similar to existing symbol "Sin". Plot::plnr : sin#x' is not a machinesize real number at x

2.617993877991494`*^-7.

Plot::plnr : sin#x' is not a machinesize real number at x

0.25488992540742256`.

Plot::plnr : sin#x' is not a machinesize real number at x

0.5328694051959509`.

General::stop : Further output of Plot::plnr will be suppressed during this calculation. 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

0.2 Out[120]=

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

h Graphics h

In the following input cell, the first letter is capitalized, but since the FindRoot command consists of two words (i.e., Find and Root), the letter r should instead be R. In[121]:=

Findroot#x2 11, x, 2' General::spell1 : Possible spelling error: new symbol name "Findroot" is similar to existing symbol "FindRoot".

Out[121]=

Findroot# 11 x2 , x, 2'

Making the necessary correction leads to the desirable result. In[122]:= Out[122]=

FindRoot#x2 11, x, 2' x 3.31662

This concludes your brief introduction to Mathematica. As you proceed through the following chapters, you may want to refer back to this chapter on occasion.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 1: Limits and Continuity Á Section 1.1 Rates of Change and Limits Graphical Estimates of Limits In Exercises 47 - 50, you are asked to estimate the value of limxx0 f +x/ by plotting the graph of y evaluate the limit symbolically. The Mathematica command

f +x/ near x

x0 and to then

Plot[f[x],{x,a,b}] will plot the graph of the function f +x/ on the interval #a, b'. Adding the PlotRange option to form the command Plot[f[x],{x,a,b},PlotRange->{c,d}] will plot the graph of the function f +x/ with the range of y values limited to the interval #c, d'. To compute limxx0 f +x/ symbolically with Mathematica, use the command Limit #f#x', x ! x0 '.

sin x Example: Estimate limx0 cccccccc cc by completing the following steps: x

(a) Plot the function near the point x0 being approached and from your plot, guess the value of the limit. (b) Evaluate the limit symbolically. sin x Part (a) First we plot the function and from the graph you can estimate limx0 cccccccc cc x

1.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 1

In[1]:=

Sin#x' Plot$ cccccccccccccccccc , x, 2, 2, PlotRange ! 0, 1(; x 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

-2

-1

1

2

Part (b) To verify your guess in part (a), you can evaluate the limit with Mathematica. In[2]:= Out[2]=

Sin#x' Limit$ cccccccccccccccccc , x 0( x 1

39

40

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 1

Finding Deltas Graphically Executing the Mathematica command Plot[f[x],{x,a,b},PlotRange->{{c,d},{e,f}}] will plot the function on the interval #a, b' and will then display the graph on an portion of the xy-plane with values of x ranging from x c to x d and values of y ranging from y e to y f . Adding the option PlotStyle>RGBColor[0,0,1] will plot the curve in the color blue.

To plot several functions f1 , f2 , ..., fn simultaneously, execute the command Plot#f1 #x', f2 #x', ..., fn #x',{x,a,b}] and add the option PlotStyle->{RGBColor[0,0,1],RGBColor[0,0,1],...,RGBColor[0,0,1]} in order to plot each graph in the color blue.

Another Mathematica function used here is the command ListPlot#x1 , y1 , x1 , y1 , ..., xn , yn , PlotJoined ! True' which will connect the points +x1 , y1 /, +x2 , y2 /, ..., +xn , yn /. Adding the option PlotStyle->RGBColor[0,0,1] will plot the points in the color blue and/or adding the option DisplayFunction->Identity will suppress graph from being displayed on the screen.

Finally, the Show command is used to plot several graphs simultaneously.

Example: Use Mathematica to perform the following steps: x 32 (a) Plot the function y cccccccc cccccc near the point x0 x2 result with Mathematica. 5

(b) Using the value H

2 being approached and guess the value of limxx0 f +x/. Then verify your

0.2, graph the bounding lines y1

L H and y2

L H together with the function y

x 32 cccccccc cccccc near x0 . x2 5

(c) From your graph in part (b), estimate G ! 0 such that for all x 0 « x x0 « G Á « f +x/ L « H. Test you estimate by plotting f , y1 and y2 over the interval 0 « x x0 « G. For your viewing window, use x0 2G x x0 2G and L 2H y L 2H. Part (a) In the following input cell, the current definition of f +x/ is cleared, then redefined and plotted on #1.5, 2.5'. It appears that the limit is 80.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 1

In[3]:=

Clear#f'; x5 32 ccccccccccccccccc ; x2 Plot#f#x', x, 1.5, 2.5'; f#x_' :

120

100

80

1.6

1.8

2.2

2.4

The Limit command is used to verify the limit symbolically. In[4]:= Out[4]=

Limit#f#x', x 2' 80

Part (b) In the following input cell, the value of H is set equal to 0.2 and then the functions f , y1 plotted together. In[5]:=

80 H and y2

80 H are

H : 0.2; y1 : 80 H; y2 : 80 H; Plot#f#x', y1, y2, x, 1.99, 2.01, PlotStyle ! RGBColor#0, 0, 0', RGBColor#0, 0, 1', RGBColor#0, 0, 1''; 80.75 80.5 80.25

1.99

1.995

2.005

2.01

79.75 79.5 79.25 Part (c) A new graph is now plotted over a smaller domain in order to estimate the value of G.

41

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 1

42

In[6]:=

gr1 Plot#f#x', y1, y2, x, 1.995, 2.005, PlotStyle ! RGBColor#0, 0, 0', RGBColor#0, 0, 1', RGBColor#0, 0, 1''; 80.4

80.2

1.996

1.998

2.002

2.004

79.8

79.6 From the graph, you can see that if we choose G

0.002, then it appears that « f +x/ 80 « H whenever « x 2 « G.

In the following input cell, a box is defined in which the function f should pass through without ever crossing the top or the bottom of the box. In each of the assignment statements, a delayed equals (:=) is used so that x1, x2 and GHbox are not are not assigned values until you call them later in the session. In[7]:=

x1 : 2 G; x2 : 2 G; GHbox : ListPlot#x1, y1, x1, y2, x2, y2, x2, y1, x1, y1, PlotJoined ! True, PlotStyle ! RGBColor#0, 0, 1', DisplayFunction ! Identity';

The names gr1 and GHbox were assigned to the previous two graphs, so the command Show[{gr1,GHbox}] can be used to show the two graphs simultaneously. Suppose instead that you had selected G to be 0.003. From the graph below, you can see that the function lies outside the interval #80 H, 80 H'.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 1

In[8]:=

G .003; Show#gr1, GHbox, PlotRange ! 2 2 G, 2 2G, 80 2 H, 80 2 H'; 80.4

80.2

1.994

1.996

1.998

2.002

2.004

79.8

79.6

In fact, G should be smaller as illustrated below.

In[9]:=

Clear#G'; G .002; Show#gr1, GHbox, PlotRange ! 2 2 G, 2 2G, 80 2 H, 80 2 H'; 80.4

80.2

1.996

1.998

2.002

2.004

79.8

79.6 So if G

0.002, then 0 « x x0 « G Á « f +x/ 80 « H.

Á Section 1.2 Finding Limits and One-Sided Limits In Exercises 43 & 44, you are asked to estimate limits by zooming in on the graph of a function. A similar example follows here. Example: Graph the function f +x/

+1 x/1sx to estimate limx0 f +x/, zooming in on the origin as necessary.

43

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 1

44

The function is defined and plotted below. In[10]:=

Clear#f'; f#x_' : +1 x/1sx ; Plot#f#x', x, 1, 1'; 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 -1

-0.5

0.5

1

Choosing a smaller interval in the Plot command will lead to a better estimate of the limit. From the following graph, you can see that limx0 f +x/ 2.71828. In[11]:=

Plot#f#x', x, .0001, .0001'; 2.7184 2.71835 2.7183 2.71825

-0.0001

-0.00005

0.00005

0.0001

2.71815

Á Section 1.3 Limits involving Infinity In Exercises 47 - 50, you are asked to graph a given curve and describe what you see. Consider the graph of the function ln+x2 / f +x/ cccccccc cccccc plotted below. Note that Log[x] is the Mathematica command for the function ln+x/. x2

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 1

In[12]:=

Clear#f'; Log#x2 ' ccccccccccccccccccccc ; x2 Plot#f#x', x, 30, 30, PlotRange .5, .5'; f#x_' :

0.4

0.2

-15

-10

-5

5

10

15

-0.2

-0.4

From the graph it appears that limx f +x/

0, limx

0, limx0 f +x/

.

45

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2: Derivatives Á Section 2.1 The Derivative of a Function The Mathematica command Simplify[expression] will simplify an algebraic expression. Example: For the function f +x/

x3 3x2 5, do the following:

(a) Define the difference quotient q at a general point x, with general stepsize h. (b) Take the limit of the difference quotient as h 0 and let m+x/ represent the function obtained from computing the limit. (c) On the same graph, plot m+x/ together with q for values of h

1, 0.5, and 0.25.

f +x/ together with the graph of the tangent line to f at x0

(d) Plot y

3.

(e) Substitute various values for x larger and smaller than x0 into m+x/. Part (a) Begin by defining f and q. In[1]:=

q Out[1]=

x3 3x2 4; f#x h' f#x' Simplify$ ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ( h

f#x_'

h2 3 h +1 x/ 3 +2 x/ x

Part (b) From the simplified form of q found in part (a), can you determine of q as h 0? Your result can be verified using the Limit command. In[2]:= Out[2]=

m#x_'

Limit#q, h 0'

3 +2 x/ x

Part (c) The difference quotient is plotted below for the specified values of h and then m+x/ is plotted. The ReplaceAll command (/.) is used to replace q with specific values of h. For example, q/.h->1 will output the value of q when h is 1. Since the option DisplayFunctionIdentity is used to suppress all the individual graphs from being displayed, then DisplayFunction$DisplayFunction must be an included option in the Show command to display all the functions on the same graph. The option DisplayFunction$DisplayFunction instructs Mathematica to display a previously suppressed graph. Also note that RGBColor[1,0,0],RGBColor[0,1,0] , and RGBColor[0,0,1] represent the colors red, green and blue, respectively. Study the following input and output. What is happening to the graph of q as h 0? Why?

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2

In[3]:=

47

Plot#q s. h ! 1, x, 0, 5, PlotStyle ! RGBColor#1, 0, 0', DisplayFunction Identity'; p2 Plot#q s. h ! .5, x, 0, 5, PlotStyle ! RGBColor#0, 1, 0', DisplayFunction Identity'; p3 Plot#q s. h ! .25, x, 0, 5, PlotStyle ! RGBColor#0, 0, 1', DisplayFunction Identity'; p4 Plot#m#x', x, 0, 5, PlotStyle ! Dashing#.02', DisplayFunction ! Identity'; Show#p1, p2, p3, p4, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction'; p1

50 40 30 20 10

1

2

3

4

5

Part (d) Since m+x0 / represents the slope of the line tangent to y f +x/ at +x0 , y0 /, the equation of the tangent line at +3, f +3// is easily found and plotted together with y f +x/ in the following cell. In[4]:=

y m#3' +x 3/ f#3'; Plot#f#x', y, x, 0, 5';

10 5 1

2

3

4

5

-5 -10 -15 -20 Part (e) The command Table[m[x],{x,1,5,.2}] will form a list m#1', m#1.2', m#1.4', ..., m#5'. Compare the resulting numbers with the graph of y y f +x/?

f +x/. Do these numbers make sense when compared with the graph of

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2

48

In[5]:= Out[5]=

Table#m#x', x, 1, 5, .2' 3, 2.88, 2.52, 1.92, 1.08, 0., 1.32, 2.88, 4.68, 6.72, 9., 11.52, 14.28, 17.28, 20.52, 24., 27.72, 31.68, 35.88, 40.32, 45.

Computing and Graphing Derivatives with Mathematica There are several ways of computing f '+x/ with Mathematica. Two ways are illustrated below, after first defining a new function. In[6]:=

Out[6]=

Clear#f'; f#x_' 5x3 15x 2; f '#x' 15 15 x2

Here is another way of computing f '+x/. In[7]:=

D#f#x', x'

Out[7]=

15 15 x2

Computing higher order derivatives such as f ''+x/, f '''+x/ and so forth are just as easy. The command D[f[x],{x,n}] will compute the nth derivative of f +x/. Study the following example. In[8]:= Out[8]=

In[9]:= Out[9]=

f ' '#x' 30 x D#f#x', x, 3' 30

Á Section 2.2 The Derivative as a Rate of Change Simulation of Motion on a Vertical Line Consider the motion of the rock in Example 5 in your textbook. Suppose we wish to simulate the motion of the rock. Plotting the points +0, y+t// one at a time, where y+t/ 160 t 16 t2 for values of t 0, .4, .8, ..., 10.0 and then animating the graphs will produce a simulation of the motion of the rock. After defining x+t/ and y+t/, a table of ordered pairs +0, y+t//, which is represented with Mathematica by {0,y[t]}, is created for the position of the rock above the ground at time t. In[10]:=

Out[10]=

Clear#x, y, t'; x#t_' t; y#t_' 160 t 16 t2 ; rock Table#0, y#t', t, 0, 10, .4' 0, 0, 0, 0,

0, 0, 61.44, 0, 117.76, 0, 168.96, 0, 215.04, 0, 256., 0, 291.84, 322.56, 0, 348.16, 0, 368.64, 0, 384., 0, 394.24, 0, 399.36, 399.36, 0, 394.24, 0, 384., 0, 368.64, 0, 348.16, 0, 322.56, 291.84, 0, 256., 0, 215.04, 0, 168.96, 0, 117.76, 0, 61.44, 0, 0.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2

49

The ListPlot command is now used to plot the points one at a time. The output (of which only one frame is shown in the hard copy of this manual), can be animated by double-clicking on any one of the frames. The option PlotStyle->PointSize[.02] is used to increase the displayed size of each point. Also note that rock[[i]] represents the ith ordered pair in the list rock. In[11]:=

rockmotion Table#ListPlot#rock##i'', PlotStyle ! PointSize#.02', PlotRange ! 0, 10, 0, 400', i, 1, Length#rock''; 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 2

4

6

8

10

In the following, a set of ordered pairs +x+t/, y+t// where x+t/ t and y+t/ 160t 16t2 is plotted on point at a time together with (0,y(t)). Again, only the first frame is displayed below in the hard copy of this manual. The frames can be animated to show how the height of the rock corresponds to the point of the graph of s 160t 16t2 . In[12]:=

graphpoints Table#x#t', y#t', t, 0, 10, .4'; rockmotion Table#ListPlot#rock##i'', graphpoints##i'', PlotStyle ! PointSize#.02', PlotRange ! 0, 10, 0, 400', i, 1, Length#rock''; 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 2

4

6

8

10

Graphing the position function s+t /, the velocity function v +t / and the acceleration function a+t /. Here is an example of how to use Mathematica to plot a position vector with its velocity and acceleration functions.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2

50

Example: For the position function s

160t 16t2 , plot its graph together with the velocity and acceleration functions.

The solution is a simple as defining the position function and then plotting it with its first and second derivatives. What information does the graph reveal? In[13]:=

s#t_' 160t 16 t2 ; Plot#s#t', s '#t', s ' '#t', t, 0, 10'; 400 300 200 100

2

4

6

8

10

-100

Á Section 2.5 The Chain Rule The Derivative of Cos+x / cos+xh/cos+x/ cos+xh/cos+x/ d d cc cos+x/ limh0 cccccccccccccccc cccccccc cccccccccccc . To verify that cccc cc cos+x/ sin+x/, the difference quotient cccccccccccccccc cccccccc cccccccccccc is plotted Recall that cccc dx h dx h below for h 1, .5 and .2. Examine the output of the following plot commands and explain what appears to be happening as h 0. I.e., do the graphs appear to be converging to a familiar function? In[14]:=

Clear#q'; Cos#x h' Cos#x' cccccccccccccccc ; q cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc h p1 Plot#q s. h 1., x, 0, 2 S'; p2 Plot#q s. h .5, x, 0, 2 S'; p3 Plot#q s. h .2, x, 0, 2 S';

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2

1

0.5

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

2

3

4

5

6

-0.5

-1 1

0.5

-0.5

-1 1

0.5

-0.5

-1

51

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2

52

Parametrized Curves The following example is similar to Exercises 75 - 80 in your text. Example: Consider the parametrized curve whose equations are x+t/

t cos+t/ and y+t/

t sin+t/ where 0 t 6S.

(a) Plot the curve over the given interval. dy d y cc and cccc cccccc . (b) Find cccc dx dx2 2

(c) Find an equation for the tangent line to the curve at the point where t0

4.

Part (a) The parametric curves are defined and then plotted using the following commands. In[15]:=

Clear#x, y'; x#t_' t Cos#t'; y#t_' t Sin#t'; funplot ParametricPlot#x#t', y#t', t, 0, 6S'; 17.5 15 12.5 10 7.5 5 2.5 5

10

15

20

dy dy d y cc and cccc cccccc are defined. Since cccc cc is used in part (c) to find the slope of a tangent line, the derivative is defined Part (b) Next, cccc dx dx dx2 to be yprime[t] in the following cell. 2

In[16]:=

yprime#t_'

Out[16]=

1 Cos#t' cccccccccccccccccccccccccc 1 Sin#t'

y '#t' cccccccccccccccc x '#t'

Next, the second derivative is defined and simplified. In[17]:=

Out[17]=

yprime '#t' Simplify$ cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ( x '#t' t 2 Sin# ccc c' 2cccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccc 5c t t +Cos# ccc 2c ' Sin# ccc 2c '/

Part (c) Now the tangent line is computed and then the Show command is used to show the graph of the parametrized curve and the tangent line simultaneously.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2

In[18]:=

In[19]:=

tanline yprime#4.'+x x#4.'/ y#4.'; tanlineplot Plot#tanline, x, 0, 2S, DisplayFunction ! Identity'; Show#funplot, tanlineplot'; 17.5 15 12.5 10 7.5 5 2.5 5

10

15

20

Á Section 2.6 Implicit Differentiation The following example illustrates how to manipulate implicit equations with Mathematica. Example: Given the equation +x 1/4

x2 y2 , use Mathematica to do the following.

dy cc . (a) Solve the equation of y and then differentiate the result to find cccc dx dy (b) Use implicit differentiation to find cccc dxcc and verify that the result agrees the derivative found in part a. r

703 ccccccc 0. (c) Plot the graph of the equation together with the line tangent to the curve at , cccc74 , cccccccc 16

Part (a) Begin by assigning the equation the name eq and then use the Solve command to solve the equation for y. In[20]:=

Out[20]=

Clear#x, y, eq'; eq +x 1/4 x2 y2 ; solutions Solve#eq, y' r r y 1 4 x 5 x2 4 x3 x4 , y 1 4 x 5 x2 4 x3 x4

The solutions for y can be extracted using the commands solutions[[1,1,2]] and solutions[[2,1,2]]. Next, the dy D command is used to find and simplify cccc dxcc for each solution. In[21]:=

D#solutions##1, 1, 2'', x' ss Simplify D#solutions##2, 1, 2'', x' ss Simplify

Out[21]=

2 5 x 6 x2 2 x3 cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc cccccccc ccccccc r 1 4 x 5 x2 4 x3 x4

Out[22]=

2 5 x 6 x2 2 x3 cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc cccccccc ccccccc r 1 4 x 5 x2 4 x3 x4

53

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2

54

dy cc using implicit differentiation. The result is an equation which is arbitrarily Part (b) The Dt command can be used to find cccc dx assigned the name implicitder. In[23]:= Out[23]=

implicitder 4 +1 x/3

Dt#eq, x' 2 x 2 y Dt#y, x'

dy cc . The Mathematica command The Mathematica notation Dt[y,x] above represents cccc dx

Solve[implicitder,Dt[y,x]] in the following input cell will solve the equation for Dt[y,x]. In[24]:= Out[24]=

impsolution

Solve#implicitder, Dt#y, x''

2 5 x 6 x2 2 x3 cccccccccccccccc Dt#y, x' cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc y

To verify that the derivative obtained using implicit differentiation is the same as the derivative obtained earlier, replace the value of y with the explicit solutions found earlier.

In[25]:=

impsolution s. y solutions##1, 1, 2'' impsolution s. y solutions##2, 1, 2''

Out[25]=

4 10 x 12 x2 4 x3 2 5 x 6 x2 2 x3 cccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc cc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc cccccccc ccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc r r 2 1 4 x 5 x2 4 x3 x4 1 4 x 5 x2 4 x3 x4

Out[26]=

4 10 x 12 x2 4 x3 2 5 x 6 x2 2 x3 cccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc cc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc cccccccc ccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc r r 2 1 4 x 5 x2 4 x3 x4 1 4 x 5 x2 4 x3 x4

Part (c) To plot the equation, the ImplicitPlot command found in the package called ImplicitPlot, must be loaded into memory first using the Needs command.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2

In[27]:=

Graphics`ImplicitPlot` eqgraph ImplicitPlot#eq, x, 4, 4';

1.5

1

0.5

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

r

r

703 703 ccccccc 0, +x0 , y0 / is assigned the value , cccc74 , cccccccc ccccccc 0 and then the To find the equation of the line tangent to the equation at , cccc74 , cccccccc 16 16 dy c c ReplaceAll is replaced with this ordered pair using the (/.) command. implicit solution for cccc dx

In[29]:=

x0 m

Out[29]=

r 7 703 cccc ; y0 cccccccccccccccc ; 4 16 impsolution##1, 1, 2'' s. x x0 , y y0

29 cccccccc cccccccccc r 2 703

Now the tangent line is formed and the plotted. The Show command is then used to plot the implicit curve and the tangent line together on a single graph.

55

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 2

56

In[30]:=

Clear#x, y'; y m+x x0 / y0 ; tangraph Plot#y, x, 0, 3, DisplayFunction ! Identity'; Show#eqgraph, tangraph';

2

1

0.5

-1

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3: Applications of Derivatives

Á Section 3.1 Extreme Values of Functions Finding Solutions of g+x / 0 By graphing a function g+x/, the approximate locations of the roots of g+x/ can be found. Then the command FindRoot#g #x', x, x0 ' can be used to find a solution to g+x/ 0 where x0 is the approximate location of the given root determined by observing the graph of y g+x/. The FindRoot command will be useful in the following example. Using Mathematica to locate absolute extrema on a closed interval Example: Given the function f +x/

3 r x2 x 1 sin+x/ and the closed interval #1, 1', perform each of the following.

(a) Plot the function over the interval to see its general behavior there. (b) Find interior points where f '

0.

(c) Find the interior points where f ' doesn't exist. (d) Evaluate the function at all points found in parts (b) and (c) and at the endpoints of the interval. (e) Find the functions absolute extreme values on the interval and identify where they occur. Part (a) The function is defined and plotted first.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3

58

In[1]:=

3 r f#x_' x2 x 1 Sin#x'; Plot#f#x', x, 1, 1';

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

-1

-0.5

0.5

1

-0.2

To see the approximate locations where f '(x)=0, plot the derivative.

In[3]:=

Plot#f '#x', x, 1, 1';

6

4

2

-1

-0.5

The derivative is zero at about x In[4]:= Out[4]=

sol1

0.5

0.95 and x

FindRoot#f '#x'

0.4. The following FindRoot command will locate the negative root.

0, x, .95'

x 0.913313

From the graph of f '+x/, it is clear that another root lies near x In[5]:= Out[5]=

1

sol2

FindRoot#f '#x'

x 0.394546

0, x, .4'

0.4.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3

Part (c) From observing the function f '+x/ in the following output cell, you can see that f '+x/ is never undefined at point in the interior of #1, 1'. In[6]:= Out[6]=

Simplify#f '#x'' x +6 7 x/ cccccccccccccccccccccccc cccc Cos#x' 3 +1 x/2s3

Part (d) Now we evaluate the function at the two values of x where f '+x/ 0 and at the endpoints. Note that N[f[x]] or equivalently, f[x]//N will give a numerical approximation of the value of f +x/. Recall that the command sol1[[1,2]] will extract the first solution found in part (b). In[7]:=

f#sol1##1, 2''' f#sol2##1, 2''' f#1' ss N f#1' ss N

Out[7]=

1.1607

Out[8]=

0.210473

Out[9]=

0.841471

Out[10]=

0.41845

Part (e) From observing the output in part (d), you can see that on the interval #1, 1', the function has an absolute maximum of approximately 1.1607 at x 0.913313 and an absolute minimum value of about 0.210473 at x 0.394546.

Á Section 3.2 The Mean Value Theorem and Differential Equations

Solving Differential Equations with Mathematica The command DSolve[eqn, y[x], x] will solve a differential equation involving y'+x/ for y in terms of x. For example, 3 the following input command is used to solve the differential equation y' x +x 1/2 for y in terms of x. In[11]:=

Out[11]=

sol

3 DSolve$y '#x' m x +x 1/2 , y#x', x(

y#x' ++1 x/2 /

1s3

9 3x 3 x2 ] L M ccccccc cccccccc cccccccccc \ C#1' 20 8 ^ N 40

The solution is extracted using the command sol[[1,1,2]]. The value C[1] in the solution represents an arbitrary constant. In the following input cell, the command /. is used to replace C[1] with specific values and the solution is then plotted for these specific values of C[1].

59

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3

60

In[12]:=

Plot#sol##1, 1, 2'' s. C#1' 2, sol##1, 1, 2'' s. C#1' 1, sol##1, 1, 2'' s. C#1' 0, sol##1, 1, 2'' s. C#1' 1, sol##1, 1, 2'' s. C#1' 2, x, 4, 4'; 8

6

4

2

-4

-2

2

4

-2 Now suppose you want to find and plot the solution passing through + cccc12 , 2/. Begin by letting y equal the solution found earlier with x replaced with cccc12 . In[13]:=

Out[13]=

1 sol##1, 1, 2'' s. x cccc 2 33 cccccccccccccccc cccc C#1' 160 22s3 y

The command Solve[eqn, var] will attempt to find the solutions to the variable var in the equation eqn. Therefore you can use the Solve command to find the value of the constant C[1] for which y=-2. In[14]:= Out[14]=

const

Solve#y

2, C#1''

1 C#1' cccccccccc +640 33 21s3 / 320

Now the specific solution is plotted by replacing C[1] with the constant just obtained.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3

In[15]:=

61

Plot#sol##1, 1, 2'' s. C#1' const##1, 1, 2'', x, 4, 4'; 3 2 1

-4

-2

2

4

-1 -2

Á Section 3.3 The Shape of a Graph

The following example is similar to the CAS exercise found in Section 3.3.

Example: Let f +x/ (a) Let b

a cccccccc cccccc with b ! 0 and a 0. 1bx2

1. On a common screen, graph f +x/ for a

1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.

(b) Let b 1. Produce a sequence of plot frames showing the graph of y the frames.

f +x/ for a

1, 0.9, 0.8, ..., 1 and then animate

(c) Show that f is decreasing on +, 0/ and increasing on +0, /. (d) Find the location of the inflection point(s) of f . Part (a) The function f is defined below and then the Plot command is used to graph the function for the specified values of a.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3

62

In[16]:=

Clear#a, b, c, f'; a x2 cccccccccccccccccc ; 1 b x2 Plot#f#x' s. a 1, b 1, f#x' s. a .5, b 1, f#x' s. a .25, b 1, f#x' s. a 0, b 1, f#x' s. a .25, b 1, f#x' s. a .5, b 1, f#x' s. a 1, b 1, x, 3, 3'; f#x_'

0.75 0.5 0.25 -3

-2

-1

1

2

3

-0.25 -0.5 -0.75

Part (b) Now the frames of a movie are produced using the Table command (only the first frame of the movie is shown in the hard copy of this manual). After the frames have been produced, you can double-click on any frame to produce an animation. What do the graphs tell you about the number of inflections points and the concavity of the graph of y f +x/? In[19]:=

Table# Plot#f#x' s. a a0 , b 1, x, 3, 3, PlotRange ! 1, 1', a0 , 1, 1, .1'; 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 -3

-2

-1

1

2

3

-0.25 -0.5 -0.75 -1 Part (c) The first derivative is computed and simplified in the following cell. From observing the output, it is clear that f '+x/ 0 when x 0 and since b ! 0, the derivative is never undefined. Furthermore, if a ! 0, then f '+x/ ! 0 when x ! 0 and f '+x/ 0 when x 0. Hence f is increasing on +0, / and decreasing on +0, / when a ! 0. What if a 0?

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3

In[20]:= Out[20]=

63

Simplify#f '#x'' 2ax cccccccccccccccccccccccc2cc +1 b x2 /

Part (d) The second derivative is displayed in the following output and then the candidates for inflection points are obtained using the Solve command. In[21]:= Out[21]=

In[22]:= Out[22]=

g#x_'

Simplify#f ' '#x''

a +2 6 b x2 / cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc +1 b x2 /3 Solve#g#x'

0, x'

1 1 x cccccccc rcccccccc rcc rcccccccc rcc , x cccccccc 3 b 3 b

1 1 1 To determine the inflection points and the concavity of the curve, the intervals ,, cccccccc rcccc 0, , cccccccc rcccc , cccccccc rcccc 0 and rcccccccc rcccccccc rcccccccc 1 , cccccccc rcccc , 0 are examined by computing the value of the second derivative at x rcccccccc 3

b

In[23]:=

3

b

3

b

2 2 cccccccc cccccc , 0, and cccccccc cccccc . r r r r 3

b

3

3

b

b

2 g$ cccccccc rcccccccc rcccc ( 3 b g#0' 2 g$ cccccccc rcccccccc rcccc ( 3 b

Out[23]=

162 a cccccccccccccc 343

Out[24]=

2a

Out[25]=

162 a cccccccccccccc 343

From the output, it can be seen that for a given value of a, the second derivative changes signs at x So the points of inflection occur at x

1 cccccccc rcccc and x rcccccccc

concave down? How about when a 0?

3

b

3

b

Comparing Functions and their Linearizations r x1, I

#0, 3' and let a

3

b

1 cccccccc rcccc . rcccccccc 3

b

1 cccccccc rcccc . If a ! 0, where is the graph of f concave up and where is it rcccccccc

Á Section 3.6 Linearization and Differentials

Example: Let f +x/

1 cccccccc rcccc and x rcccccccc

1.

(a) Find the linearization L of f at the point a and plot f and L on a single graph. (b) Plot the absolute error « f +x/ L+x/ « over I and find its maximum value. (c) For the graph in part (b), estimate as large a G>0 as possible satisfying « x a « G Á « f +x/ f +a/ « H

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3

64

for H

0.01. Then check graphically to see if your G-estimate is true.

Part (a) The function and its corresponding linearization are given below along with a plot of their graphs. In[26]:=

Clear#f'; r x1; f#x_' L#x_' : f '#1'+x 1/ f#1'; Plot#f#x', L#x', x, 0, 3'; 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Part (b) The graph of « f +x/ L+x/ « is shown next. The Mathematica command Abs[exp] represents the absolute value of an expression exp. In[30]:=

Plot#Abs#f#x' L#x'', x, 0, 3'; 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

Part (c) From the graph given in part (b), it appears that G 0.5 is needed in order for « f +x/ f +a/ « 0.01 when « x a « G. To see if G is small enough, a graph of y « f +x/ f +a/ « and y 0.01 over the interval « x 1 « 0.5 (which is equivalent to #0.5, 1.5' ) is given in the following output cell.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3

In[31]:=

Plot#Abs#f#x' L#x'', 0.01, x, .5, 1.5'; 0.012 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

It appears that the G-estimate needs to be a little smaller. So now try G In[32]:=

0.45.

Plot#Abs#f#x' L#x'', .01, x, .55, 1.45'; 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

It looks like the updated G-estimate still needs to be slightly smaller, say G

.44.

65

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3

66

In[33]:=

Plot#Abs#f#x' L#x'', .01, x, .56, 1.44'; 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002

0.6 So G

0.8

1.2

1.4

.44 will satisfy the following: « x a « G Á « f +x/ f +a/ « H when H

.01.

Á Section 3.7 Newton's Method Finding Roots of an f +x / using Newton's Method Example: Find the smallest root of f +x/

cos+5x/ x to 5 decimal places.

To find a rough approximation of the roots, the Plot function is used to graph y In[34]:=

f +x/ first.

Plot#Cos#5x' x, x, 2, 2'; 2 1

-2

-1

1

2

-1 -2 -3 It appears that there are two negative roots - one near 0.8 and 0.4. To use Newton's method, let g+x/ In[35]:=

f#x_' g#x_'

Cos#5 x' x; f#x' x cccccccccccccccc ; f '#x'

f +x/ ccccc . x cccccccc f '+x/

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 3

To find the smallest root, start with x0 In[37]:= Out[37]=

0.8and then find x1 using x1

f +x0 / cccccccc which is equivalent to x1 x0 cccccccc f '+x0 /

67

g+x0 /.

g#.8' 0.769407

Therefore x1 0.769407. Now we find x2 by computing g+x1 /. The % symbol refers to the last output, therefore computing g#%' will yield the value of x2 . In[38]:= Out[38]=

g#%' 0.767502

Now the value of x3 is computed. In[39]:= Out[39]=

g#%' 0.767493

Next, the value of x4 is computed. In[40]:= Out[40]=

g#%' 0.767493

Since the values of x3 and x4 are identical to 6 decimal places, the smallest root approximately equals 0.767493. Can you find the other two approximate roots using Newton's method?

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 4: Integration Á Section 4.1 Indefinite Integrals, Differential Equations, and Modeling

Computing Indefinite Integrals with Mathematica The Mathematica command Integrate[f[x],x] will attempt to evaluate ¼ f +x/dx. A shortcut way of using the Integrate command is to open the palette entitled BasicInput and then click on the button containing ¼ fÅ f. Enter the function f #x', then press the Tab key followed by x. For example, to integrate ln x, the following command is executed. In[1]:= Out[1]=

Ã Log#x'Å x x x Log#x'

Notice that the general form of the antiderivative is x x ln x C and Mathematica does not include the constant C in the answer above. Solving Initial Value Problems Example: Use Mathematica to solve the initial value problem y'

5e3x , y+0/

10.

Begin by letting y #x' equal the antiderivative and add a c to the answer. In[2]:=

Out[2]=

y#x_'

3 x Å x c Ã5Æ

5 E3 x c ccccccccccccccc 3

The Solve command is now used to find the value of c. In[3]:= Out[3]=

cval

Solve#y#0'

10, c'

25 c ccccccc 3

Now the command cval[[1,1,2]] is used to extract the value of c in the following assignment statement. In[4]:= Out[4]=

c

cval##1, 1, 2''

25 ccccccc 3

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 4

69

The Factor command can be used to factor the value of y+x/. In[5]:= Out[5]=

Factor#y#x'' 5 cccc E3 x +1 5 E3 x / 3

Here is a slightly more challenging example. Example: Solve the initial value problem y''

1 cc y+1/ e2x cccc x2 ,

Study the following steps used to find the solution. In[6]:=

Out[6]=

In[7]:= Out[7]=

In[8]:= Out[8]=

In[9]:=

yprime#x_'

1 \ L 2 x cccccc c] MÆ ]Å x c1 ÃM x2 ^ N

1 E2 x c1 ccccccccccc cccc 2 x sol

Solve#yprime#1'

4, c1'

1 c1 5 cccccccc2cc 2E c1

sol##1, 1, 2''

1 5 cccccccc2cc 2E Clear#y'; y#x_'

Ã yprime#x'Å x c2

Out[9]=

E2 x +1 10 E2 / x c2 ccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccc ccccccc Log#x' 4 2 E2

In[10]:=

sol

Out[10]=

In[11]:= Out[11]=

Solve#y#1'

2, c2'

3 +1 4 E2 / cccc c2 cccccccccccccccccccccccc 4 E2 c2

sol##1, 1, 2''

3 +1 4 E2 / cccccccccccccccccccccccc cccc 4 E2

Here is the solution: In[12]:= Out[12]=

y#x' E2 x 3 +1 4 E2 / +1 10 E2 / x ccccccc Log#x' ccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccc cccc cccccccccccccccccccccccc 2 2 E2 4 4E

2, y'+1/

4

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 4

Á Section 4.3 Estimating with Finite Sums The following example is similar to Exercises 25 - 28 in your text. Example: Let f +x/

x3 sin x on #1, S' and use Mathematica to perform the following steps.

(a) Plot the function over the given interval. (b) Partition the given interval into 100 subintervals of equal length and evaluate the function at the midpoint of each subinterval. (c) Compute the average value of the function values generated in part (b). (d) Solve the equation f +x/

+average value/ for x using the average value calculation in part (c).

Part (a) First, the function is defined and graphed over the given interval. In[13]:=

f#x_' x3 Sin#x'; Plot#f#x', x, 1, S, PlotRange ! 0, S3 Sin#S''; 30 25 20 15 10 5

1.5

2

2.5

3

Part (b) The value of 'x is defined below where the greek letter ' was entered from the BasicInput palette. Then the Table command is used to partition the interval and to evaluate the function at the midpoint of each subinterval.

70

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 4

71

In[14]:=

Out[14]=

S1 cccccccccccc ; 100 fvals Table#f#1 +i .5/'x', i, 1, 100'

'x

1.87968, 1.95789, 2.03855, 2.12171, 2.20743, 2.29575, 2.38674, 2.48045, 2.57693, 2.67624, 2.77843, 2.88356, 2.99169, 3.10286, 3.21715, 3.33459, 3.45526, 3.5792, 3.70648, 3.83715, 3.97126, 4.10888, 4.25007, 4.39487, 4.54335, 4.69558, 4.85159, 5.01147, 5.17525, 5.34301, 5.5148, 5.69069, 5.87072, 6.05497, 6.24349, 6.43635, 6.63359, 6.8353, 7.04151, 7.25231, 7.46774, 7.68787, 7.91277, 8.14249, 8.37709, 8.61665, 8.86121, 9.11085, 9.36563, 9.62561, 9.89085, 10.1614, 10.4374, 10.7188, 11.0057, 11.2983, 11.5964, 11.9003, 12.21, 12.5255, 12.8469, 13.1743, 13.5077, 13.8472, 14.193, 14.5449, 14.9031, 15.2678, 15.6388, 16.0164, 16.4005, 16.7912, 17.1887, 17.5929, 18.004, 18.422, 18.8469, 19.2789, 19.718, 20.1642, 20.6177, 21.0786, 21.5467, 22.0224, 22.5055, 22.9963, 23.4947, 24.0008, 24.5147, 25.0364, 25.5661, 26.1037, 26.6495, 27.2033, 27.7654, 28.3357, 28.9143, 29.5014, 30.0969, 30.701

Part (c) For a given list lis, the Mathematica command Plus@@lis will compute the sum of all the numbers in the lis. In[15]:= Out[15]=

averageval

+Plus fvals/ s 100

11.9734

Part (d): Solving f +x/ +average value/ for x is equivalent to solving f +x/ average value 0 for x. You can plot the f +x/ +average value/ first to obtain the approximate location of the root and then use the FindRoot command to obtain the root. In[16]:=

Plot#f#x' averageval, x, 1, S';

15 10 5

1.5

2

2.5

-5 -10 In[17]:= Out[17]=

r

FindRoot#f#x' averageval, x, 2.2'

x 2.23651

3

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 4

Á Section 4.4 Riemann Sums and Definite Integrals In Exercises 41 - 46, you are asked to draw rectangles associated with Riemann sums. There is no built-in Mathematica function which will do this, but by executing the following command, you will create a function RiemannSum#a, b, n, m' which will illustrate and compute the sum ½nk 1 f +ck /'x where ck is the midpoint of the corresponding subinterval if m 0.5. In[18]:=

RiemannSum#a_, b_, n_, m_' : Module$deltax

ba cccccccccccc , recs, fungraph, intest , n

n

intest

deltax Å f#a +i 1 m/deltax'; i 1

recs ListPlot#Flatten# Table#a +i 1/deltax, 0, a +i 1/deltax, f#a +i 1 m/deltax', a i deltax, f#a +i 1 m/deltax', a i deltax, 0, i, 1, n', 1', PlotJoined ! True, DisplayFunction ! Identity, PlotRange ! All'; fungraph Plot#f#x', x, a, b, DisplayFunction ! Identity, PlotRange ! All'; Show#recs, fungraph, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction'; Return#intest'(

This newly created command is now used in the following example.

In[19]:=

f#x_' : x3 1; RiemannSum#1, 2, 6, .5'

8

6

4

2

1.2 Out[19]=

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

4.73958

The value of m in RiemannSum[a, b, n, m] can be any value between 0 and 1 inclusive. Repeat the command above, but try different values of m and describe what is happening. For example, let m 1 and observe how the rectangles are formed. What happens if you use m 0?

72

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 4

73

Á Section 4.5 The Mean Value and Fundamental Theorems Computing Definite Integrals with Mathematica b

The Mathematica command Integrate[f[x],{x,a,b}] will attempt to evaluate ¼a f +x/dx. A shortcut way of using the f Integrate command is to open the palette entitled BasicInput and then click on the button containing ¼f fÅ f. 2 In[20]:=

Ã Log#x'Å x 1

Out[20]=

1 Log#4'

Example: Let f +x/ x sin+2x/ cos2 x on #a, b' x F+x/ ¼a f +x/dx and solve F '+x/ 0.

#0, 1' and use Mathematica to perform the following steps. Let

The solution to this example is straight forward. First the function F is defined. In[21]:=

Clear#f'; f#x_' x Sin#2x' Cos#x'2 ; x

F#x_'

Ã f#t'Å t 0

Out[21]=

1 1 cccc cccc +2 x 2 x2 2 Cos#2 x' Sin#2 x'/ 2 4

Now the approximate location of the root F '+x/ is found after first graphing the function to determine the approximate location of the root. In[22]:=

Plot#F '#x', x, 0, 1'; 1 0.5

0.2

0.4

-0.5 -1 -1.5

In[23]:= Out[23]=

FindRoot#F '#x', x, .3' x 0.314959

0.6

0.8

1

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 4

Á Section 4.6: Substitution in Definite Integrals Example: Let f +x/

sin2 x and g+x/

x+x 1/+x 3/+x 4/. Use Mathematica to complete the following steps.

(a) Plot the curves together to determine the number of points of intersection. (b) Determine where the curves intersect. (c) Integrate « f +x/ g+x/ « over consecutive pairs of intersection values. (d) Sum together the integrals found in part (c). Part (a) Study the following input and output. How many points of intersection do you see? In[24]:=

Clear#f, g'; f#x_' Sin#x'2 ; g#x_' x+x 1/+x 3/+x 4/; Plot#f#x', g#x', x, 1, 5'; 10 8 6 4 2

-1

1

2

3

4

5

-2 Part (b) Solving f +x/ g+x/ is equivalent to solving f +x/ g+x/ 0. By plotting f +x/ g+x/, you can see the approximate locations of the roots. One of the roots is 0 (why?) and the remaining roots can be found using the FindRoot command.

74

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 4

75

In[25]:=

Plot#f#x' g#x', x, 1, 5'; 2

-1

1

2

3

4

5

-2 -4 -6 -8 -10

In[26]:=

int2 int3 int4

FindRoot#f#x' g#x', x, 1.1' FindRoot#f#x' g#x', x, 3' FindRoot#f#x' g#x', x, 4'

Out[26]=

x 1.13558

Out[27]=

x 2.99652

Out[28]=

x 4.04794

Parts (c) and (d) Now you can integrate « f +x/ g+x/ « over consecutive pairs of intersection values and sum up the values obtained. int2##1,2'' In[29]:=

area1

+f#x' g#x'/Å x

Ã

Out[29]=

1.78766 int3##1,2''

In[30]:=

area2

+g#x' f#x'/Å x

Ã

int2##1,2''

Out[30]=

3.81784 int4##1,2''

In[31]:=

area3

Ã

+f#x' g#x'/Å x

int3##1,2''

Out[31]=

In[32]:= Out[32]=

1.6636 area1 area2 area3 7.26909

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 4

Á Section 4.7 Numerical Integration Numerical Integration b

The Mathematica command NIntegrate[f[x],{x,a,b}] will numerically integrate ¼a f +x/dx. NIntegrate$Æx , x, 1, 1( 2

In[33]:= Out[33]=

1.49365 b

If you want a command that will estimate ¼a f +x/dx with the Trapezoidal rule for a given value of n, then execute the following command to create the function. A picture is given illustrating the trapezoids formed by the Trapezoidal rule. The command b TrapPic#a, b, n' will use n subintervals to estimate ¼a f +x/dx In[34]:=

TrapPic#a_, b_, n_' : Module$h intest

ba cccccccccccc , traps, fungraph, intest , n

n1 \ h L ] M ] M cccc M 2 f#a' Å f#a i h' f#b'] ]; M 2 N i 1 ^

traps ListPlot#Flatten#Table#a i h, 0, a i h, f#a i h', a +i 1/h, f#a +i 1/h', a +i 1/ h, 0, i, 0, n 1', 1', PlotJoined ! True, DisplayFunction ! Identity, PlotRange ! All'; fungraph Plot#f#x', x, a, b, DisplayFunction ! Identity, PlotRange ! All'; Show#traps, fungraph, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction'; Return#intest'(

If you don't care to see a picture, use the following command instead.

In[35]:=

TrapRule#a_, b_, n_' : Module$h intest

n1 \ h L ] M ] M cccc M 2 f#a' Å f#a i h' f#b'] ]; M 2 N i 1 ^

Return#intest'( Here is an example.

ba cccccccccccc , intest , n

76

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 4

77

In[36]:=

Clear#f'; f#x_' Æx ; N#TrapPic#1, 1, 8'' 2

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

-1 Out[36]=

-0.5

1.48597

Here is the same thing without a displayed picture In[37]:= Out[37]=

N#TrapRule#1, 1, 8'' 1.48597

0.5

1

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 5: Applications of Integration

Á Section 5.3 Lengths of Plane Curves Determining the Arc Length of a Smooth Curve b r To determine the length of a curve, you can first try to integrate using ¼a 1 f '#x'2 Å x and if this fails to produce an r answer, then use the numerical integration command NIntegrate[ 1 f '#x'2 ,{x,a,b}]. In the following example, both commands produce the desired result.

In[1]:=

f#x_' 1

Ã

r 4 2 3 cccccccccccccc x ccc2c 1; 3

1 f '#x'2 Å x

Out[1]=

In[2]:= Out[2]=

13 ccccccc 6 NIntegrate$

1 f '#x'2 , x, 0, 1(

2.16667

Comparing the Length of the Polygonal Path with the Length of a Curve

The following example is similar to Exercises 31 - 36. Example: Let f +x/ x3 , 0 V x V 2. (a) Plot the curve together with the polygonal path approximation for n 3. (b) Find the corresponding approximate length of the curve by summing the lengths of the line segments and then evaluate the actual length using an integral. b a ?????? where a 0, b 2 and n 3, the command Part (a) Given that x is defined as ???? n

Table[{a+i 'x,f[a+i 'x]},{i,0,n}] will form a table of ordered pairs representing the endpoints of each straight line in the polygonal path. You can then use the ListPlot command to plot the polygonal path. Study the following input and output.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 5

79

In[3]:=

f#x_' x3 ; a 0; b 2; n 3; ba 'x cccccccccccc ; n pts Table#a i 'x, f#a i 'x', i, 0, n'; polypath ListPlot#pts, PlotJoined ! True, PlotRange ! All, DisplayFunction ! Identity, PlotStyle ! RGBColor#1, 0, 0''; fungraph Plot#f#x', x, a, b, DisplayFunction ! Identity, PlotRange ! All'; Show#fungraph, polypath, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction'; 8

6

4

2

0.5

1

1.5

2

r Part (b) The command Table$ 'x2 +f#a i 'x' f#a +i 1/'x'/2 , i, 1, n( will form a table whose entries are the lengths of each line segment making up the polygonal path. Then we can add these lengths together using Plus@@. In[4]:= Out[4]=

Plus Table$ 'x2 +f#a i 'x' f#a +i 1/'x'/2 , i, 1, n( ss N 8.57709

Compare this value to the actual length of the curve. In[5]:= Out[5]=

NIntegrate$ 8.63033

1 f '#x'2 , x, 0, 2(

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 6: Transcendental Functions and Differential Equations

Á Section 6.2 Exponential Functions (Section 2.8 Derivatives of Inverse Trigonometric Functions in Early Transcendentals Version)

Plotting Functions and their Inverses on One Graph

The purpose of the following example is it explore a function and its inverse together with their derivatives.

Example: Let f +x/ a) Plot y

f +x/ and y

cos x, 0 x ccccS2 and x0

ccccS6 . Complete each of the following with Mathematica.

f '+x/ together on one graph.

b) Find the equation of the line tangent to f at x

x0 . Plot the tangent line together with f .

c) Find the inverse (call it g) of f and then find the line tangent to g at + f +x0 /, x0 /. (Use Theorem 1.) d) Plot f , g, the two tangent lines, the identity and the line segment joining the points +x0 , f +x0 // and + f +x0 /, x0 /. Part (a) Study the following input and output.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 6

81

In[1]:=

f#x_' Cos#x'; Plot#f#x', f '#x', x, 0, S s 2'; 1

0.5

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

1.25

1.5

-0.5

-1 Part (b) The following two input cells show how to create a tangent line along with the graph of the tangent line and the function. In[2]:=

Out[2]=

In[3]:=

L#x_' f#S s 6' f '#S s 6'+x S s 6/ r 3 1 S ccccccccc cccc , cccc x0 2 2 6 fplot Plot#f#x', x, 0, S s 2, DisplayFunction ! Identity'; ftanplot Plot#L#x', x, 0, S, DisplayFunction ! Identity'; Show#fplot, ftanplot, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction';

1 0.75 0.5 0.25

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

-0.25

Part (c) The Solve command is now used to find the inverse of f (ignore the warning message in the following output).

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 6

In[4]:=

invsol

Solve#y

f#x', x'

Solve::ifun : Inverse functions are being used by Solve, so some solutions may Out[4]=

not be found.

x ArcCos#y', x ArcCos#y'

A function g is now created for the inverse. In[5]:=

Out[5]=

g#y_' g#x'

invsol##2, 1, 2'';

ArcCos#x'

The tangent line to the inverse is now created. In[6]:=

1 cccccccccccccccccccccccc ; f '#S s 6' LInv#x_' S s 6 m+x f#S s 6'/; m

The inverse, its tangent line and the identity y In[7]:=

x are all plotted for later use. Ignore the warning messages.

gplot Plot#g#x', x, 0, 1, PlotStyle ! RGBColor#0, 0, 1', DisplayFunction ! Identity'; gtanplot Plot#LInv#x', x, 0, 2, PlotStyle ! RGBColor#0, 0, 1', DisplayFunction ! Identity'; identityplot Plot#x, x, 0, 2, PlotStyle ! RGBColor#1, 0, 0', DisplayFunction ! Identity'; General::spell1 : Possible spelling error: new symbol name "gplot" is similar to existing symbol "fplot". General::spell1 : Possible spelling error: new symbol name "gtanplot" is similar to existing symbol "ftanplot".

The line segment joining the points +x0 , f +x0 // and + f +x0 /, x0 / is now created and then the required graph is displayed. In[8]:=

S S S S ListPlot$ cccc , f$ cccc ( , f$ cccc (, cccc , PlotJoined ! True, 6 6 6 6 PlotStyle ! Thickness#.01', DisplayFunction ! Identity(;

segment

82

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 6

83

In[9]:=

Show#fplot, ftanplot, gplot, gtanplot, identityplot, segment, PlotRange ! 0, 1.2, 0, 1.2, AspectRatio ! 1, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction';

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Á Section 6.4 First-Order Separable Differential Equations (Section 5.4 in Early Transcendentals Version)

Slope Fields A package called PlotField, contained in a file called Graphics, contains a command called PlotVectorField which can be used to plot the slope field of a differential equation. In[10]:=

Graphics`PlotField`

r xy and a graph of the solution curve passing through +0, 1/. r 1 cccccc dy First, the solution is found by first noting that the differential equation is equivalent to cccc x dx. So you can begin by r Example: Obtain a slope field for the differential equation y'

y

assigning an arbitrary name (such as eq) to the equation after the antiderivative of each side has been computed. In[11]:=

Out[11]=

eq 2

r y

Ã 1t

r y Å y

2 x3s2 c ccccccccccccccc 3

Ã

r x Å x c

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 6

Now the value of c is obtained using the Solve and /. commands. In[12]:= Out[12]=

In[13]:= Out[13]=

cval

Solve#eq s. x 0, y 1, c'

c 2 cval##1, 1, 2'' 2

The Solve command is used again to find the solution for y in terms of x. In[14]:= Out[14]=

sol

Solve#eq s. c cval##1, 1, 2'', y'

1 y cccc +9 6 x3s2 x3 / 9

Now you can create a function y In[15]:=

Out[15]=

f +x/ representing the solution just found.

Clear#f'; f#x_' sol##1, 1, 2'' 1 cccc +9 6 x3s2 x3 / 9

The Mathematica command PlotVectorField[{1,f[x,y]},{x,xmin,xmax},{ymin,ymax}] will plot the slope field of the differentiable equation y' f +x, y/. The option AspectRatio->1 makes the graph height to width ratio equal to one. The option PlotStyle ! Thickness#.015', RGBColor#0, 0, 1' is used to increase the thickness of the solution curve and to display the curve in color blue. In[16]:=

dirfield

PlotVectorField$1,

r x y , x, 0, 1,

y, 1, 2, AspectRatio ! 1, DisplayFunction ! Identity(; In[17]:=

solgraph Plot#f#x', x, 0, 1, AspectRatio ! 1, PlotStyle ! Thickness#.015', RGBColor#0, 0, 1', DisplayFunction ! Identity';

84

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 6

85

In[18]:=

Show#solgraph, dirfield, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction';

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Á Section 6.6 Euler's Method; Population Models (Section 6.4 in Early Transcendentals Version)

Using Mathematica to Perform Euler's Method Using Mathematica, you can define the functions x[i] to represent xi , y[i] to represent yi and f[x,y] to equal f +x, y/. Then, after defining x[0] and y[0] to equal the given values of x0 and y0 and setting dx to equal the step size, let x[i_]:=x[i-1] + dx

and

y[i_]:=y[i-1] + f[x[i-1],y[i-1]] dx

Notice also that delayed equals (: ) are used for these two assignment statements since we do not want to evaluate the right hand side of the equations until a specific value of i is used. When Mathematica is then asked to compute y[3] for example, it will first compute y[0], y[1] and y[2] using the assignment statements above. If you then have Mathematica compute y[4], it will first recompute all the previous values y[0] through y[3] again. To let Mathematica remember the previous values of x and y, use the following assignment statements instead: x[i_]:=x[i]=x[i-1]+dx

and

y[i_]:=y[i]=y[i-1]+f[x[i-1],y[i-1]] dx Consider the following example.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 6

Example: Use Euler's method to estimate the value of the solution to the initial value problem y' 1 x e y , y+0/ point x 2 using the step size dx 0.1. Compare the accuracy of your solution with the exact solution.

1 at the

Here are the necessary assignment statements for Euler's method.

In[19]:=

Clear#f, x, y'; f#x_, y_' 1 x2 y; x#0' 1.; y#0' 2.; dx 0.1; x#i_' : x#i' x#i 1' dx y#i_' : y#i' y#i 1' f#x#i 1', y#i 1'' dx

The command Table[{x[i],y[i]},{i,0,n}] will form +x0 , y0 /, +x1 , y1 /, ..., +xn , yn /. In[21]:= Out[21]=

eulervals

Table#x#i', y#i', i, 0, 10'

1., 2., 1.1, 2.3, 1.2, 2.6783, 1.3, 3.16398, 1.4, 3.79869, 1.5, 4.64323, 1.6, 5.78796, 1.7, 7.36967, 1.8, 9.59951, 1.9, 12.8097, 2., 17.5341

A nice command for better visualization of the list of order pairs is the TableForm command and the additional option TableHeadings, appearing in the following input cell, will place appropriate headings on each column. In[22]:=

TableForm#eulervals, TableHeadings ! None, "xi ", "yi "'

Out[22]//TableForm=

xi 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.

yi 2. 2.3 2.6783 3.16398 3.79869 4.64323 5.78796 7.36967 9.59951 12.8097 17.5341

From the table, it appears that y 17.5341 when x

2.

If you want, you can now take the ordered pairs in the table and plot them to get an approximation of the solution curve.

86

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 6

87

In[23]:=

eulerplot

ListPlot#eulervals, PlotJoined ! True';

17.5 15 12.5 10 7.5

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

2.5

The exact solution to y' DSolve#y '#x'

In[24]:=

f +x, y/ where y+x0 / f#x, y', y#x0 '

Clear#x, y'; sol DSolve#y '#x' x3 cccc 3c

Out[24]=

Out[25]=

y0 , y#x', x'.

1 x2 y#x', y#1'

1s3 +x3 /

1 1 Gamma# ccc 3c , ccc 3c ' 32s3

2, y#x', x'

2 1 x E ,3 ccccccccc 0 31s3 x Gamma$ ccc , cccccccc E1s3 cccccccccccccccc 3c , ccccc 3 (0 cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccc cccc y#x' cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 1s3 3 3 +x /

Now the exact value of y when x In[25]:=

y0 can be found using the command

exactyval

3

2 is found.

sol##1, 1, 2'' s. x ! 2.

25.6527

To see why our approximation is so far off, a plot of the approximate solution and the exact solution are displayed in the following output cell. To obtain a better approximation, a smaller value of dx should be used.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 6

In[26]:=

exactplot Plot#sol##1, 1, 2'', x, 1, 2, DisplayFunction ! Identity'; Show#eulerplot, exactplot'; 25 20 15 10 5

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

Improved Euler's Method

If you replace the previous code for Euler's method with the following improved Euler's method, much better results will usually be obtained. Study the following input cell.

In[27]:=

Clear#f, x, y'; f#x_, y_' 1 x2 y; x#0' 1.; y#0' 2.; dx 0.1; x#i_' : x#i' x#i 1' dx; z#i_' : z#i' y#i 1' f#x#i 1', y#i 1'' dx; f#x#i 1', y#i 1'' f#x#i', z#i'' cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc dx; y#i_' : y#i' y#i 1' cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 2

In[28]:=

improvedEulervals

Out[28]=

Table#x#i', y#i', i, 0, 10'

1., 2., 1.1, 2.33915, 1.2, 2.77667, 1.3, 3.35345, 1.4, 4.1308, 1.5, 5.20266, 1.6, 6.71654, 1.7, 8.9097, 1.8, 12.1739, 1.9, 17.1734, 2., 25.0678

From the table, it appears that y25.0678 when x=2. Much better! The plot of the graphs show how good the approximate solution is compared to the exact solution. In[29]:=

improvedeplot ListPlot#improvedEulervals, PlotJoined ! True, DisplayFunction ! Identity';

88

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 6

89

In[30]:=

Show#improvedeplot, exactplot, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction'; 25 20 15 10 5

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

Õ CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 7: Integration Techniques, L'Hopital's Rule and Improper Integrals Á Section 7.5 Integral Tables, Computer Algebra Systems, and Monte Carlo Integration

Integration with a Computer Algebra System The command Integrate[f[x],x] or ¼ f #x'Å x can be used to find indefinite integrals. See the following examples. In[1]:=

x Ã x Æ Å x 2x Ã x Æ Å x 3x Ã x Æ Å x 4x Ã x Æ Å x

Out[1]= Out[2]=

Out[3]=

Out[4]=

Ex +1 x/ 1 x E2 x - cccc cccc 1 4 2 1 x E3 x - cccc cccc 1 9 3 1 x E4 x - ccccccc cccc 1 16 4

Here is the general result found with Mathematica. In[5]:=

Out[5]=

nx Ã x Æ Å x

1 x En x - cccccc c cccc 1 n2 n

Á Section 7.7 Improper Integrals Here are a couple examples of improper integrals computed directly with Mathematica.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 7

In[6]:=

x Ã x Æ Å x 1

Out[6]=

In[7]:=

Out[7]=

2 cccc E 2 1 cccc Å x Ã cccccccccccccccc r 0 4 x2 S cccc 2

91

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8: Infinite Series Á Section 8.1 Limits of Sequences of Numbers Mathematica is a great tool for exploring sequences as the following example illustrates. Example: Suppose an

2 arctan+n3 /.

(a) Calculate and then plot the first 35 terms of the sequence. Determine the limit L of the sequence. (b) Find an integer N such that « an L « 0.0001. Part (a) The sequence is defined and then the Table command is used to display the first 35 terms in the sequence. In[1]:=

Out[1]=

a#n_' 2 ArcTan#n3 '; seq Table#N#a#n', 10', n, 1, 35' 1.570796327, 3.135761766, 3.140682321, 3.141301066, 3.141464654, 3.141525519,

2.892882664, 3.137686409, 3.140863791, 3.141342654, 3.141478862, 3.141531618,

It appears that the sequence converges to L

3.067552422, 3.138849171, 3.141000061, 3.141376694, 3.141491043, 3.141537001,

3.110345196, 3.139592654, 3.141104372, 3.141404825, 3.141501546, 3.141541768,

3.125592995, 3.13233346, 3.140090024, 3.140435246, 3.14118557, 3.141249718, 3.141428275, 3.141447978, 3.141510649, 3.14151858, 3.141546006

S.

Next, the ListPlot command is used to plot the sequence. The option PlotRangeAll is added to make sure all the points appear in the plot of the sequence. The option AxesLabel ! n, an is added to give appropriate labels to the horizontal and vertical axes.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8

In[2]:=

seqplot

ListPlot#seq, PlotStyle ! PointSize#.02', AxesLabel ! "n", "an "';

an 3.14 3.138 3.136 3.134 3.132 n 5

10

15

20

25

30

35

3.128 Part (b) To determine n such that « an S « 0.0001, the horizontal lines y In[3]:=

S 0.0001 are plotted first.

band Plot#S .0001, S .0001, n, 0, 35, DisplayFunction ! Identity'; Show#band, seqplot, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction';

3.1415 3.14125 3.141 3.14075 3.1405 3.14025 5

10

15

The sequences begins to lie inside the lines y better view.

20

25

30

35

S .0001 somewhere between 25 and 30. Next, the graph is magnified to get a

93

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8

94

In[4]:=

Show#band, seqplot, PlotRange ! 20, 35, S .0002, S .0002, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction';

3.14175 3.1417 3.14165 3.1416 3.14155 3.1415 3.14145 22

24

26

28

30

32

34

It is now clear that « an S « 0.0001 for n 28. To verify this, the value « an S « is computed for n In[5]:=

27 and n

28.

Abs#a#27' S' ss N Abs#a#28' S' ss N

Out[5]=

0.000101611

Out[6]=

0.0000911079

Therefore it appears that N

28.

Á Section 8.2 Subsequences, Bounded Sequences, and Picard's Method Example: Let a1

1 and an1

1 cccccccc cccc . 1an

(a) Use Mathematica to calculate and plot the first 25 terms of the sequence. Does the sequence appear to converge and if so, to what value L? (b) If the sequences does converge, find an integer N such that « an L « 0.00001 for n N. Part (a) The following input cell defines an recursively and then uses the Table command to display the first 25 terms of the sequence.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8

In[7]:=

Clear#a'; a#1' 1; 1 cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ; 1 a#n 1' Table#N#a#n', 10', n, 1, 25'

a#n_' : a#n' seq Out[7]=

1., 0.5, 0.6666666667, 0.6, 0.625, 0.6153846154, 0.619047619, 0.6176470588, 0.6181818182, 0.6179775281, 0.6180555556, 0.6180257511, 0.6180371353, 0.6180327869, 0.6180344478, 0.6180338134, 0.6180340557, 0.6180339632, 0.6180339985, 0.618033985, 0.6180339902, 0.6180339882, 0.618033989, 0.6180339887, 0.6180339888

Now the Plot command is used to obtain a graph of the sequence. In[8]:=

seqplot

ListPlot#seq, PlotStyle ! PointSize#.02', AxesLabel ! "n", "an "';

an 0.6184

0.6182

n 5

10

15

20

25

0.6178

Part (b) From part (a), it appears that L 0.618033989. The value of N needed so that « an L « 0.00001 for n N is determined by plotting the horizontal lines y L 0.00001 with the sequence.

95

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8

96

In[9]:=

L 0.618033989; band Plot#L .00001, L .00001, x, 0, 25, DisplayFunction ! Identity'; Show#seqplot, band, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction, PlotRange ! 10, 15, L .00002, L .00002'; an 0.61805

0.61804

0.61803

n 11

It appears that N In[10]:= Out[10]=

12

13

14

12. To verify this, the value « an L « is computed for n

15

12.

Abs#a#12' L' 8.23793 106

Section 8.4 Series of Nonnegative Terms Á Computing Infinite Series with Mathematica There are several ways of attempting to find the sum of an infinite series with Mathematica. 1 cccccccc , the following nth The first method is to define the nth partial sum of the series. For example, to find the value of ½ n 1 cccccccc n+n1/ partial sum can be defined.

In[11]:=

n 1 s#n_' : Å cccccccccccccccccccccc i +i 1/ i 1

Now the value of limn sn is computed. In[12]:= Out[12]=

Limit#s#n', n ' 1

1 cc , the limit is not found. However, if this same method is applied to ½ n 1 cccc n2

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8

In[13]:=

Clear#s'; n 1 s#n_' : Å ccccccc ; i2 i 1

Limit#s#n', n ' Out[13]=

S2 Limit$ ccccccc PolyGamma#1, 1 n', n ( 6

Another way of evaluating an infinite series to enter ½n 1 an . Here are a couple of examples.

In[14]:=

Out[14]=

In[15]:=

Out[15]=

1 c Å cccccc 2 n n 1 S2 ccccccc 6 1 cccccc Å cccccccccccccccc 2 n n1 n 1 r r r r 5 S 5 S 5 S 4 Sec$ cccccccc 2 cc ( S Sin$ cccccccc 2 cc (0 2 cc ( , 5 Cos$ cccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccc r r r 5 ,1 5 0 ,1 5 0

Use the N command to see the numerical approximation of the last output. The value of the last output is represented by %. In[16]:= Out[16]=

N#%' 1.54625

Sometimes Mathematica will produce the output of an infinite series in terms of a nonelementary function as seen in the following cells. In[17]:=

Out[17]=

1 cccccc Å cccccccc 3 n 1 n 1

1 EulerGamma cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c 2 +1 +1/1s3 / +1 +1/1s3 / 1 cccc +PolyGamma#0, 1 +1/1s3 ' +1/2s3 PolyGamma#0, 1 +1/1s3 ' 3 +1/2s3 PolyGamma#0, 1 +1/2s3 '/

In this case, either execute the command N[%] or use NSum command as shown next. In[18]:= Out[18]=

1 NSum$ cccccccccccccc , n, 1, ( 3 n 1 0.686503

97

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8

98

Á Section 8.7 Taylor and Maclaurin Series Finding Taylor Polynomials with Mathematica The Mathematica command Series#f #x', x, a, n' is used to produce the Taylor series generated by f at x Terms up to a power of +x a/n will be displayed. Here is an example. In[19]:= Out[19]=

a.

x Series$ cccccccccccc , x, 2, 3( 1x 2 +x 2/ +x 2/2 +x 2/3 O#x 2'4

The notation O#x 1'4 represents terms of +x 1/ to powers of 4 and higher, which are not explicitly displayed. The Mathematica command Normal[Series[f[x],{x,a, n}]] will produce the Taylor polynomial of order n, Pn +x/, generated by f at x a. In[20]:= Out[20]=

x Normal$Series$ cccccccccccc , x, 2, 3(( 1x 4 +2 x/2 +2 x/3 x

Á Cubic Approximations Example: Let f +x/

x cccccccc cccccccc2cc . Complete each of the following. r 1x

(a) Find the Taylor polynomial P3 +x/ at x

0 and plot P3 +x/ together with f +x/ over the interval #1, 1'.

(b) Calculate the fourth derivative f +4/ +c/ associated with the remainder term for P3 +x/. Plot the derivative as a function of c over the interval #1, 1' and estimate the maximum absolute value M . (c) Calculate the remainder R3 +x/ over the interval #1, 1', using the value of M found in part (b) in place of f +4/ +c/. Plot R3 +x/ over the interval #1, 1'. Use the plot to determine the values of x for which the function f +x/ can be replaced by P3 +x/ with an error of less than 0.01. (d) Compare the estimated error R3 +x/ with the actual error E3 +x/

« f +x/ P3 +x/ « over the interval found in part (c).

Part (a) As previously described, the Normal and Series commands can combined to obtain the Taylor polynomial. x cccccccccccccccc cccc ; r 1 x2 p3 #x_' Normal#Series#f#x', x, 0, 3''

In[21]:=

f#x_'

Out[21]=

x3 x ccccccc 2

The function and the Taylor polynomial can now be plotted.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8

In[22]:=

Plot#f#x', p3 #x', x, 1, 1'; 0.6 0.4 0.2

-1

-0.5

0.5

1

-0.2 -0.4 -0.6

Part (b) The Mathematica command D[f[x],{x,n}] will compute f +n/ +x/. After computing the fourth derivative,, a graph is obtained using the Plot command. In[23]:=

Out[23]=

g#x_' D#f#x', x, 4' ss Simplify Plot#g#c', c, 1, 1, AxesLabel ! c, "f+6/ +c/", PlotRange ! All'; 15 x +3 4 x2 / cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccc +1 x2 /9s2 f+6/+c/ 7.5 5 2.5 c -1

-0.5

0.5

1

-2.5 -5 -7.5 The maximum value of « f +4/ +c/ « is obtained near x mate of M .

0.3. Zooming in on the graph reveals that M

9 is a reasonable esti-

99

100

In[25]:=

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8

Plot#g#c', c, .2, .4, AxesLabel ! c, "f+4/ +c/", PlotRange ! All'; f+4/ +c/ c 0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

7.8 7.6 7.4 7.2 Part (c): An approximation of R3 +x/ can now be formed and plotted. In[26]:=

M

9;

M x4 cccccccccc ; 4 Plot#R3 #x', x, 1, 1, PlotRange ! All';

R3 #x_'

0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 -1

-0.5

0.5

1

The goal now is to zoom in on the graph by trial and error to the point where « R3 +x/ « 0.01 for all values of x in the graph.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8

In[27]:=

Plot#0.01, R3 #x', x, .5, .5, PlotRange ! All';

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

-0.4 In[28]:=

-0.2

0.2

0.4

Plot#0.01, R3 #x', x, .4, .4, PlotRange ! All'; 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002

-0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

From the last graph just obtained, it is clear that « R3 +x/ « 0.01on #0.4, 0.4' implying that « f +x/ P3 +x/ « 0.01 on this interval. Part (d) As the following output shows, the actual error « f +x/ P3 +x/ « is much smaller than 0.01 on [-0.4,0.4].

101

102

In[29]:=

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 8

Plot#Abs#f#x' p3 #x'', x, .4, .4, PlotRange ! All';

0.003 0.0025 0.002 0.0015 0.001 0.0005 -0.4

-0.2

0.2

0.4

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 9: Vectors in the Plane and Polar Functions

Á Section 9.5 Polar Coordinates and Graphs Polar Graphing The Mathematica command PolarPlot[r[T],{T,Tmin,Tmax}] will plot the graph of a polar function. But before using this command, it must be loaded into memory first using the Graphics`Graphics` command. Study the following example. In[1]:=

Graphics`Graphics`

In[2]:=

PolarPlot#Sin#3 T' Cos#2T', T, 0, 2 S';

0.5

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2

1

1.5

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 9

104

The following is an example of plotting two functions simultaneously in different colors in a way completely analogous to the Plot command. The option PlotStyle{RGBColor[1,0,0],RGBColor[0,0,1]} will plot the graph of cos+26/ in red and the graph of sin+26/ in blue. In[3]:=

PolarPlot#Cos#2 T', Sin#2 T', T, 0, 2S, PlotStyle RGBColor#1, 0, 0', RGBColor#0, 0, 1''; 1

0.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1

-0.5

-1

Finding Simultaneous Intersections In the last part of Section 9.5 in the textbook, the simultaneous intersections of r cos26 and r sin26 are discussed. To visualize these intersections with Mathematica, the Table command can be used to plot frames of a movie showing the graphs being formed. Study the following input and output (only the first frame of the movie is shown in the hard copy of this manual). Double click on any frame to animate the frames. How many times do the graphs intersect simultaneously? In[4]:=

Table$PolarPlot#Cos#2 T', Sin#2 T', T, 0, T0 , PlotStyle RGBColor#1, 0, 0', RGBColor#0, 0, 1', S S PlotRange ! 1, 1, 1, 1', T0 , ccccccc , 2 S, ccccccc (; 24 24

105

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 9

1 0.75 0.5 0.25

-1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 -0.25 -0.5 -0.75 -1

0.25 0.5 0.75

1

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 10: Vectors and Motion in Space

Á Section 10.4 Cylinders & Quadric Surfaces As indicated at the end of Section 10.4 in the textbook, quadric surfaces can be plotted using a CAS such as Mathematica after first describing the equation in parametric form. In the following examples, quadric surface equations of the form r r y2 x2 cccc cc cccc cc f +z/ are given where f is a function of z. By letting x a f +z/ cos+T/ and y b f +z/ sin+T/, then a2 b2 2 r ,a f +z/ cos+T/0

2 r ,b f +z/ sin+T/0

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccc ccccccccccccc a2 b2 2

a f +z/cos +T/ b f +z/sin +T/ cccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccc a2 b2 2

2

2

2

f +z/+cos2 T sin2 T/

f +z/

2

y x cc cccc cc f +z/ is satisfied. To display the graph of the quadric surface, use the Mathematica and therefore the equation cccc a2 b2 command r r ParametricPlot3D$a f #z' Cos#T', b f #z' Sin#T', z, T, 0, 2S, z, zmin , zmax ' .

Example: Use Mathematica to plot the following surfaces. 2

2

y x cc cccc cc (a) cccc 4 16 2

2

y z cc cccc cc (b) cccc 25 16

2

z cccc c 9 2

x cccc cc 1 9

Part (a) In this case, a2 4, b2 z2 4z cccc cc sin+T/ cccc ccc sin+T/. y 4 9

3

16 and f +z/

z z 2z cccc cc . Therefore, let x 2 cccc cc cos+T/= cccc ccc cos+T/ and let 9 9 3 2

2

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 10

107

In[1]:=

2z 4z ParametricPlot3D$ cccccccc Cos#T', cccccccc Sin#T', z , T, 0, 2 S, z, 5, 5(; 3 3 5 0 -5 5 2.5 0 -2.5 -5 -2

0 2 2

2

y z cc cccc cc Part (b) Rearrange the equation cccc 25 16

2

2

2

2

y x x z cccc cc 1 to get cccc cc cccc cc cccc cc 1. This is a hyperboloid of two sheets (why?). In 9 9 16 25 y2 y2 cc 1 , z 4sin+T/ cccc cc 1 . Notice that x and z are defined only when this case, the equation is satisfied if x 3cos+T/ cccc 25 25 y 5 or y 5 which corresponds to the two parts of the graph. Study the following input commands. The option BoxRatios{1,1.5,1} scales the plot so that the length in the y direction is 1.5 times as long as the lengths in the other two directions.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 10

In[2]:=

backpart

y2 y2 ccccccc 1 , y, 4 Sin#T' ccccccc 1 , ParametricPlot3D$3 Cos#T' 25 25

T, 0, 2 S, y, 5, 15, DisplayFunction ! Identity(; frontpart

y2 y2 ParametricPlot3D$3 Cos#T' ccccccc 1 , y, 4 Sin#T' ccccccc 1 , 25 25

T, 0, 2 S, y, 15, 5, DisplayFunction ! Identity(; Show#frontpart, backpart, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction, BoxRatios ! 1, 1.5, 1, ViewPoint ! 1.442, 1.680, 2.559, AxesLabel ! x, y, z'; 10 y

-5

x 0 5

10

-10

5 0 z -5 -10

Á Section 10.5 Vector-Valued Functions and Space Curves

Here is an example similar to CAS exercises found in Section 10.5.

Example: Let r+t/

#+4 sin+10 t// cos+t/'i#+4 sin+10 t// cos+t/'j +2cos+10 t//k and complete each of the following.

(a) Plot the space curve traced out by the position vector for 0 t 2S. (b) Find the components of the velocity vector dr s dt. (c) Evaluate the velocity vector at t

ccccS6 and determine the equation of the tangent line to the curve at r+ ccccS6 /.

(d) Plot the tangent line together with the curve. Part (a) First, the x, y and z components of the curve are defined parametrically and then the curve is plotted.

108

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 10

109

In[3]:=

x#t_' +4 Sin#10 t'/ Cos#t'; y#t_' +4 Sin#10 t'/ Sin#t'; z#t_' 2Cos#10 t'; spacecurve ParametricPlot3D#x#t', y#t', z#t', t, 0, 2S, PlotPoints ! 250, AxesLabel ! x, y, z';

2 z

1 0 -1 -2 -5

5 2.5 0

y

-2.5 -2.5

0 x

2.5 5

-5

Part (b): Now the derivative of each component is computed to obtain the velocity vector. In[4]:= Out[4]=

v#t_'

x '#t', y '#t', z '#t'

10 Cos#t' Cos#10 t' Sin#t' +4 Sin#10 t'/, 10 Cos#10 t' Sin#t' Cos#t' +4 Sin#10 t'/, 20 Sin#10 t'

Part (c) Next, the velocity vector is evaluated and the parametric equations of the tangent line are computed. In[5]:= Out[5]=

In[6]:=

S v$ cccc ( ss N 6 2.76314, 5.2141, 17.3205 S S xl#t_' : x$ cccc ( x '$ cccc ( t; 6 6 S S yl#t_' : y$ cccc ( y '$ cccc ( t; 6 6 S S zl#t_' : z$ cccc ( z '$ cccc ( t; 6 6

Part (d) The space curve and the tangent line are displayed in the following output cell. Instead of plotting the curve for values of t from 0 to 2S, a smaller interval of values is used so that the tangent line is easier to see.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 10

In[7]:=

tanline

ParametricPlot3D$xl#t', yl#t', zl#t', S S t, cccccccc , cccc , DisplayFunction ! Identity(; 4 4

S ParametricPlot3D$x#t', y#t', z#t', t, 0, cccc , 4 PlotPoints ! 250, AxesLabel ! x, y, z, DisplayFunction ! Identity(;

spacecurve

Show#spacecurve, tanline, PlotRange ! 2, 6, 3, 3, 2, 5, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction'; 2

y 0 -2

4

z

2

-2 2 3 4 x

5 6

110

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 10

111

Á Section 10.7 The TNB Frame; Tangential and Normal Components of Acceleration Example: Let r+t/

+cos t/i +2 cccc12 sin t/j, 0 t 2S and let t0

ccccS4 . Complete each of the following steps.

(a) Plot the plane curve over the specified interval. (b) Calculate the curvature N of the curve at the given point t0 . (c) Find the unit normal vector N at t0 . (d) If C aibj is the vector from the origin to the center +a, b/ of the osculating circle, find the center C from the vector equation c1ccccc N+t0 /. The point P+x0 , y0 / on the curve is given by the position vector r+t0 /. C=r+t0 / cccc N+t0 / (e) Plot the curve and the osculating circle together. Part (a) The curve is plotted parametrically with Mathematica. In[8]:=

x#t_'

Cos#t'; y#t_'

1 2 cccc Sin#t'; 2

curve ParametricPlot#x#t', y#t', t, 0, 2S, AspectRatio ! 1, PlotRange ! 1, 3'; 3

2.75

2.5

2.25

2

1.75

1.5

1.25

-1

-0.5

0.5

1

Part (b) Using the formula found in Exercise 24 in your text, the value of N is computed.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 10

In[9]:=

Out[9]=

N#t_'

112

Abs#x '#t' y ' '#t' y '#t' x ' '#t'' cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc ccccccccc ; 3 2 2 ccc 2c +x '#t' y '#t' /

S N$ cccc ( ss N 4 1.01193

Part (c) Since N is a reserved Mathematica word, you can instead use n to represent the unit normal vector. See Exercise 25 to see why the following formula was used to compute the normal vector. Is this the formula you should always use to find the unit normal vector? Why or why not? In[10]:=

Out[10]=

n#t_'

y '#t', x '#t' v

x '#t'2 y '#t'2 ;

S n$ cccc ( 4 1 2 ccccccccc r , ccccccccc r 5 5

Part (d) The center of the osculating circle is found using the following input cell. In[11]:=

c Out[11]=

x#t', y#t'; S S 1 r$ cccc ( ccccccccSccccccc n$ cccc ( ss N 4 4 c' N# ccc 4

r#t_'

0.265165, 2.53033

Part (e) The Mathematica command ContourPlot[f[x,y],{x, xmin, xmax},{y, ymin, >{c}] will plot the graph of f +x, y/

ymax},ContourShading->False, Contours-

c. Therefore the following command is used to graph the osculating circle.

113

In[12]:=

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 10

osccir

ContourPlot$+x c##1''/2 +y c##2''/2 , x, 1, 2,

1 y, 1, 4, ContourShading ! False, Contours ! ccccccccccccccccc (; S 2 c' N# ccc 4 4

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1 -1

-0.5

Now the curve and circle are shown together.

0.5

1

1.5

2

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 10

In[13]:=

Show#curve, osccir, PlotRange ! 1, 1.6, 1, 3.6, AspectRatio ! 1'; 3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1

1.5

114

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 11: Multivariable Functions and Their Derivatives

Á Section 11.1 Functions of Several Variables Explicit Surfaces In this section, you are asked to plot surfaces and level curves. The first example below uses the command Plot3D[f[x,y],{x,xmin,xmax},{y,ymin,ymax}] to plot the surface of f +x, y/ over the rectangle xmin x xmax, ymin y ymax. The Mathematica command ContourPlot[f[x,y],{x,xmin,xmax},{y,ymin,ymax},ContourShading False] will plot level curves of f +x, y/ in the rectangle xmin x xmax, ymin y ymax. Deleting the option ContourShadingFalse will result in the level curves being shaded, with lighter shading corresponding to higher parts of the surface of f +x, y/. Adding the option Contours c1 , c2 , ...cn will instruct Mathematica to plot the level curves corresponding to f +x, y/ ci for i 1, 2, ..., n. Example: Consider the function f +x, y/

ex y over the rectangle 2 x 2, 2 y 2. 2

2

(a) Plot the surface over the given rectangle. (b) Plot several level curves in the rectangle. (c) Plot the level curve of f though the point +1, 1/. Part (a) The graph of the surface is obtained using the Plot3D command. The option PlotPoints->20 increases the resolution of the displayed graph (the default value is PlotPoints->15).

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 11

f#x_, y_' Æx y ; surface Plot3D#f#x, y', x, 2, 2, y, 2, 2, PlotPoints ! 20'; 2

In[1]:=

2

1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 -2

2 1 0 -1 -1

0 1 2 -2

Part (b) Before plotting some level curves of the surface, you might find it helpful to see the three-dimensional images represented by level curves. For example, the following Plot3D commands are used to display the level curves corresponding to the horizontal planes z .25, z .5 and z .75. The ViewPoint option (found under the Input menu), contained in the Show command, allows you to control the angle at which you view the image. In[2]:=

plane1 Plot3D#.25, x, 2, 2, y, 2, 2, PlotPoints ! 2, DisplayFunction ! Identity'; plane2 Plot3D#.5, x, 2, 2, y, 2, 2, PlotPoints ! 2, DisplayFunction ! Identity'; plane3 Plot3D#.75, x, 2, 2, y, 2, 2, PlotPoints ! 2, DisplayFunction ! Identity'; Show#surface, plane1, plane2, plane3, DisplayFunction ! $DisplayFunction, ViewPoint ! 0.072, 3.303, 0.730'; 2 1 0 -1 -2 1 0.75 0.5 0.25 0 -2

-1

1

2

Now to show the actual level curves, the following ContourPlot command is executed.

116

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 11

117

In[3]:=

ContourPlot#f#x, y', x, 2, 2, y, 2, 2, PlotPoints ! 50, ContourShading False, Contours .25, .5, .75'; 2

1

-1

-2 -2

-1

1

2

Deleting the Contours option allows Mathematica to choose the level curves to be plotted. In[4]:=

ContourPlot#f#x, y', x, 2, 2, y, 2, 2, PlotPoints ! 50, ContourShading False'; 2

1

-1

-2 -2

-1

1

2

Part (c) The following graph plots the level curve passing through +1, 1/. Why?

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 11

In[5]:=

ContourPlot#f#x, y', x, 2, 2, y, 2, 2, PlotPoints ! 50, ContourShading False, Contours f#1, 1'';

2

1

-1

-2 -2

-1

1

2

Implicit Surfaces The package ContourPlot3D contains the command ContourPlot3D[f[x,y,z],{x, xmin, xmax},{y, ymin, which will plot the level surface f +x, y, z/ Example: Plot the level surface x2 y 3z2

ymax},{z,zmin,zmax},Contours->{c)]

c. 1.

First, the package containing ContourPlot3D must be loaded. In[6]:=

Graphics`ContourPlot3D`

Now the surface is plotted where the options Axes->True and AxesLabel->{x,y,z} are added so that the x, y and z axes are labeled.

118

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 11

119

In[7]:=

ContourPlot3D#x2 y 3z2 , x, 4, 4, y, 4, 4, z, 4, 4, Contours ! 1, Axes ! True, AxesLabel ! x, y, z';

2 z

4 2

-2 0

-4

y

-2 -2

0 x

2 4

-4

Parametrized Surfaces The Mathematica command ParametricPlot3D#f#u, v', g#u, v', h#u, v', u, umin, umax, v, umin, umax' can be used to plot a surface described by the parametric equations x

f +u, v/, y

g+u, v/ and z

h+u, v/. Consider the following example.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 11

In[8]:=

ParametricPlot3D# u Cos#v', u Sin#v', u2 +Cos#v'2 Sin#v'2 /, u, 0, 1, v, 0, 2 S'; 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

Á Section 11.2 Limits and Continuity in Higher Dimensions Using the Plot3D command, some interesting surfaces can be plotted such as the graph of f +x, y/

In[9]:=

r 5 Sin$ Abs#x y' ( Plot3D$ cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc r cccccccccc , x, 1, 1, y, 1, 1(; 5 Abs#x y'

1 0.95

1

0.9

0.5

0.85 -1

0 -0.5 -0.5

0 0.5 1 -1

r 5 sin, «x y« 0

cccccccccccccccc cccc ccccc . r 5 «x y«

120

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 11

121

The ViewPoint option (under the Input menu) can be used to view a surface from a different angle. In[10]:=

r 5 Sin$ Abs#x y' ( Plot3D$ cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc r cccccccccc , x, 1, 1, y, 1, 1, 5 Abs#x y' PlotPoints ! 60, ViewPoint ! 2.377, 2.363, 0.464(;

0.95 0.9

1

0.5

0 -0.5

-0.5

0.85 -1

0.5 -1 1

Á Section 11.7 Extreme Values and Saddle Points Computing Partial Derivatives The command x f #x, y ' or D[f[x,y],x] can be used to compute fx +x, y/ and the command x,y f #x, y ' or D[f[x,y],x] can be used to find fxy +x, y/. In[11]:= Out[11]=

In[12]:= Out[12]=

In[13]:= Out[13]=

x Sin#x2 y' 2 x y Cos#x2 y' x,y Sin#x2 y' 2 x Cos#x2 y' 2 x3 y Sin#x2 y' D#Sin#x2 y', x, y' 2 x Cos#x2 y' 2 x3 y Sin#x2 y'

Example: Consider the function f +x, y/ x3 y2 3xy on 5 x 5, 5 y 5. Plot the function over the given rectangle and then find and classify the critical points. Here is a plot of the function.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 11

In[14]:=

Clear#f'; f#x_, y_' x3 y2 3x y ; Plot3D#f#x, y', x, 5, 5, y, 5, 5, PlotPoints ! 25';

200 100 0 -100

4 2 0

-4 -2

-2 0 2

-4 4

Now the first partial derivatives are found. (Ignore the warning messages.)

In[15]:=

Out[15]=

xparder yparder

x f#x, y' ss Simplify y f#x, y' ss Simplify

3 +x2 y/ General::spell1 : Possible spelling error: new symbol name "yparder" is similar to existing symbol "xparder".

Out[16]=

3 x 2 y

The command Solve[{m[x,y]==0,n[x,y]==0},{x,y}] can be used to simultaneously solve m+x, y/ 0 and n+x, y/ 0. In[17]:= Out[17]=

sol

Solve#xparder

0, yparder

0, x, y'

9 3 y 0, x 0, y cccc , x cccc 4 2

Now the second partial derivatives of the function are computed. (Ignore the warning messages.)

122

123

In[18]:=

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 11

xxparder x,x f#x, y' ss Simplify; yyparder x,y f#x, y' ss Simplify; xyparder x,y f#x, y' ss Simplify; discrim xxparder yyparder xyparder2 ; General::spell1 : Possible spelling error: new symbol name "xxparder" is similar to existing symbol "xparder". General::spell1 : Possible spelling error: new symbol name "yyparder" is similar to existing symbol "yparder". General::spell : Possible spelling error: new symbol name "xyparder" is similar to existing symbols xparder, xxparder, yparder, yyparder.

From the following work, you can conclude that both critical points are saddle points.

In[19]:=

xxparder s. sol##1'' discrim s. sol##1''

Out[19]=

Out[20]=

9

In[21]:=

xxparder s. sol##2'' discrim s. sol##2''

Out[21]=

9

Out[22]=

36

Á Section 11.8 Lagrange Multipliers Example: Minimize the function f +x, y/

xz xy subject to the constraints x2 z2 4

0 and x2 y2 5

0.

Step one: First the functions f , g1 , g2 and h are defined as shown in the following input cell. In[23]:=

Clear#f, h'; f x z x y; g1 x2 z2 4; g2 x2 y2 5; h f O1 g1 O2 g2 ;

Step two: The partial derivatives are then computed and placed in equations which all have zero on the right side.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 11

In[24]:=

eq1 eq2 eq3 eq4 eq5

x h y h z h O1 h O2 h

0; 0; 0; 0; 0;

Step Three: The Solve command is used to solve the system of equations formed in step two. In[25]:=

sol

Out[25]=

O1 O1 O1 O1

Solve#eq1, eq2, eq3, eq4, eq5, x, y, z, O1 , O2 ' r r 5 1 5 4 2 5 , y , z , x ccccccccc , O2 ccccccccc cccc cccc cccccccc ccccc , r 4 3 3 3 5 r r 2 5 5 1 4 5 , x , z , y cccccccc ccccc , ccccccccc , O2 ccccccccc cccc cccc r 3 4 3 3 5 r r 2 5 4 5 1 5 , y cccc , z cccc , x ccccccccccccc , ccccccccc , O2 ccccccccc r 3 3 4 3 5 r r 2 5 4 5 1 5 , y cccc , z cccc , x ccccccccccccc ccccccccc , O2 ccccccccc r 3 3 4 3 5

Step Four: The function f is then evaluated at each solution to determine the extreme values subject to the constraints asked for in the exercise. What are the extreme values based upon the following work? In[26]:=

Out[26]= Out[27]= Out[28]= Out[29]=

f s. sol##1'' f s. sol##2'' f s. sol##3'' f s. sol##4'' r 2 5 r 2 5 r 2 5 r 2 5

124

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 12: Multiple Integrals Á Section 12.1 Double Integrals 1

1

sin x cc dx dy using Mathematica. Example: Integrate ¼0 ¼ y cccccccc x f

The easiest way to compute double integrals is to open the BasicInput palette and then click on the button containing ¼f fÅ f. f Enter 0, then the Tab key and then enter 1. Press the Tab key again and then click on ¼f fÅ f in the BasicInput palette. Enter Sin#x' cccccc , then press the tab key and enter x. Enter y, then press the Tab key and then enter 1. Press the Tab key, enter the function cccccccc x y after pressing the Tab key. You can then let Mathematica compute the integral. In[18]:=

Out[18]=

1 1 Sin#x' Ã Ã cccccccccccccccccc Å xÅ y x 0 y

1 Cos#1'

If you want to compute a double integral by entering all your keystrokes from the keyboard, enter the following.

In[19]:= Out[19]=

Integrate#Integrate#Sin#x' s x, x, y, 1', y, 0, 1' 1 Cos#1'

Á Section 12.3 Double Integrals in Polar Form 1

y s5

Example: Given the double integral ¼0 ¼y s5 x

r x2 y 2 dx dy , complete each of the following.

(a) Plot the cartesian region of integration in the xy-plane. (b) Change each boundary curve of the Cartesian region in part (a) to its polar representation by solving its Cartesian equation for r and T. (c) Using part (b), plot the polar region of integration in the rT-plane. (d) Change the integrand from Cartesian to polar coordinates. Determine the limits of integration from your plot in part (c) and evaluate the polar integral using Mathematica. Part (a) Since x integration.

y s 5 is equivalent to y

5x, the following Plot command can be used to plot the cartesian region of

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 12

In[20]:=

1 1 Plot$5x, 1, 5x, x, ccccccc , cccc , PlotRange ! 0, 1(; 5 5 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

Part (b) Replacing y with r sinT and x with r cosT, the Solve command can then be used to find the values of r and T. (Ignore the warning messages.) In[21]:=

Solve#r Cos#T' Solve#r Cos#T' Solve#r Sin#T'

r Sin#T' s 5, T' r Sin#T' s 5, T' 1, r'

Solve::ifun : Inverse functions are being used by Solve, so some solutions may Out[21]=

not be found.

1 1 cccc ( cccc ( , T ArcCos$ cccccccc T ArcCos$ cccccccc r r 26 26 Solve::ifun : Inverse functions are being used by Solve, so some solutions may

Out[22]=

1 1 cccc ( , T ArcCos$ cccccccc cccc ( T ArcCos$ cccccccc r r 26 26

Out[23]=

r Csc#T'

not be found.

Part (c): The command PolarPlot is contained in the Graphics package and the package ComplexMap contains the command PolarMap used to plot a portion of the polar coordinate system. In[24]:=

Graphics`Graphics` Graphics`ComplexMap`

The following command will plot the polar coordinate system for r

0 to 1.5.

126

127

In[26]:=

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 12

PolarMap#Identity, 0, 1.5'; 1.5

1

0.5

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1

1.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5 1 1 Since our region of integration is bounded by the lines T ArcCos$ ccccccccc r ( and T=ArcCos$ ccccccccc r (, the next command is used 26 26

to plot the portion of the polar coordinate system of interest.

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 12

In[27]:=

polargr

PolarMap$Identity, 0, 1.1, 1.1,

1 1 1 1 ccccc ( , ccccc ( ArcCos$ cccccccc ccccc (, ArcCos$ cccccccc ccccc (, ArcCos$ cccccccc ArcCos$ cccccccc r r r r 26 26 26 26 AspectRatio ! 1.1, Ticks ! None, GridLines ! None(;

The upper bound on the region of integration is r PolarPlot command.

csc T and the corresponding graph of this function can be found using the

128

129

In[28]:=

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 12

upperbd

1 1 c ccc c cccccccc ccccc ( , PolarPlot$Csc#T', T, ArcCos$ cccccccc ArcCos$ (, r r 26 26

PlotRange .25, .25, 0, 1.1, AspectRatio ! 1(;

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

The region of integration can now be displayed in the polar coordinate system.

0.2

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 12

In[29]:=

Show#upperbd, polargr, PlotRange ! 0, 1';

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

Part (d) The integral is now converted to polar form and evaluated.

1 cc ( ArcCos$ cccccccc r

In[30]:=

Ã

26

ArcCos$ cccccccccc ( 1

r

1 cccccccc ccccc Sin cT #

Ã

'

r4 Cos#T'2 Å rÅ T

26

Out[30]=

1 7 1 7 169 , ccccccccc 169 , ccccccccc r Cos$3 ArcCos$ ccccccccc r ((0 r Cos$3 ArcCos$ ccccccccc r ((0 26 26 26 26 cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc cccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccc cccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 25000 25000 1 1 1 1 1 1 ccccccc Log$Cos$ cccc ArcCos$ cccccccc cccc ((( ccccccc Log$Cos$ cccc ArcCos$ cccccccc cccc ((( r r 40 2 40 2 26 26

1 1 1 1 1 1 ccccccc Log$Sin$ cccc ArcCos$ cccccccc cccc ((( ccccccc Log$Sin$ cccc ArcCos$ cccccccc cccc ((( r r 40 2 40 2 26 26 Now the numerical approximation of the integral is obtained. In[31]:= Out[31]=

N#%' 0.00107938

130

131

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 12

In order to check the answer, suppose you attempt to integrate in Cartesian coordinates.

y ccc 5c

1 In[32]:=

2 Ã Ã y x 0

Out[32]=

cccc 5c

r x2 y2 Å xÅ y

Integrate::gener : Unable to check convergence r r r 54 26 625 Log$1 26 ( 625 Log$1 26 ( cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ccccccccccccccccccccc 25000

Despite the warning message, the solution obtained with Mathematica agrees with the earlier answer when the N command is used. In[33]:= Out[33]=

N#%' 0.00107938

Á Section 12.4 Triple Integrals in Rectangular Coordinates Evaluating triple integrals with Mathematica is completely analogous to computing double integrals. For example, the triple integral found in Example 3 in your textbook, is evaluated below. 1 In[34]:=

Out[34]=

1

yx

Ã Ã Ã 1 cccc 6

x

1Å zÅ yÅ x

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 13: Integration of Vector Fields

Á Section 13.1 Line Integrals Example: Let f +x, y, z/

r 1 x2 y2 and r+t/

ti t2 j t3 k, 0 t ccccS2 . Evaluate ¼C f ds using Equation (2) in the text.

First, the function f is defined along with the components of r+t/. In[1]:=

r f#x_, y_, z_' 1 x2 y2 ; g#t_', h#t_', k#t_' t, t2 , t3 ;

Next, the integrand is formed and simplified. In[3]:= Out[3]=

integrand f#g#t', h#t', k#t'' r r 1 t2 t4 1 4 t2 9 t4

g '#t'2 h '#t'2 k '#t'2 ss Simplify

If you try to evaluate the integral with Mathematica, an answer is not found. Therefore the NIntegrate command is used instead to obtain a numerical answer. S ccc 2c

In[4]:=

Ã

integrandÅ t

0 S ccc 2c

Out[4]=

Ã

r r 1 t2 t4 1 4 t2 9 t4 Å t

In[5]:= Out[5]=

NIntegrate#integrand, t, 0, 2' 27.5197

Á Section 13.2 Vector Fields, Work, Circulation, and Flux Example: Find the work done by the force F

xz izj yz k over the curve r+t/

t2 itjt3 k, 0 t 1.

The package VectorAnalysis contains the command DotProduct which will compute the dot product of two lists of equal size. Study the following input and output used to solve the work problem. In[6]:=

Calculus`VectorAnalysis`

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 13

133

In[7]:=

In[10]:= Out[10]=

In[11]:= Out[11]=

In[12]:= Out[12]=

F#x_, y_, z_' x z, z, y z; g#t_', h#t_', k#t_' t2 , t, t3 ; r#t_' g#t', h#t', k#t'; F#g#t', h#t', k#t'' t5 , t3 , t4 r '#t' 2 t, 1, 3 t2 integrand

DotProduct#F#g#t', h#t', k#t'', r '#t''

t3 5 t6 1

In[13]:=

Ã integrandÅ t 0

Out[13]=

27 ccccccc 28

Á Section 13.4 Green's Theorem in the Plane Example: Find the counterclockwise circulation of the field F 4x2 y2 16.

+x 2 y/i+3x y/j around the simple closed curve C:

ContourPlot is used to see the C. In[14]:=

ContourPlot#4x2 y2 , x, 4, 4, y, 4, 4, Contours ! 16, ContourShading ! False'; 4

2

-2

-4 -4

-2

2

4

CAS Exercise Examples for Chapter 13

The second form of Green's Theorem in equation (4) in your text is used here to compute the circulation.

3x y;

In[15]:=

m#x_, y_'

x 2y; n#x_, y_'

In[16]:=

integrand

x n#x, y' y m#x, y'

Out[16]=

5 2

In[17]:=

Ã Ã

Out[17]=

40 S

r2 164 x

r 2 164 x2

integrandÅ yÅ x

134