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Magna Carta—Tūtohinga Nui

We will sell to no man, we will not deny or defer to any man either justice or right.

Kore rawa e hoko ki te tangata, e kore e whakakāhoretia,

e tautuku rāneite tangata kite ture, tika ranei.

NZS 4541 (2007) (English): Automatic fire sprinklersystems [By Authority of New Zealand Fire Safety andEvacuation of Buildings Regulations 2006 (SR2006/123)]

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STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND

P A ER E WA AOT EA ROA

NZS 4541:2007 Incorporating Amendment NO.1

New Zealand Standard

Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems

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)

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NZS 4541 :2007

Incorporating Amendment No.1

New Zealand Standard

Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems (Superseding NZS 4541 :2003)

ISBN 978-1-86975-075-6

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COMMITTEE REPRESENTATION This Standard was prepared under the supervision of the Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems Committee (P 4541) for the Standards Council established under the Standards Act 1988.

The Committee consisted of representatives of the following nominating organisations:

Nominating Organisation Automatic fire sprinkler systems community of interest BRANZ Ltd Cement and Concrete Association of New Zealand Cement and Concrete Association of New Zealand

Corporation of Insurance Brokers of New Zealand Department of Building and Housing (DBH) Fire Protection Association, New Zealand (FPA NZ) Fire Protection Association, New Zealand (FPA NZ) Fire Protection Association, New Zealand (FPA NZ) Fire Protection Industry Contractor's Association

of New Zealand Fire Protection Inspection Services (FPIS) Institute of Professional Engineers New Zealand Inc (IPENZ) Institution of Fire Engineers

Insurance Council of New Zealand Master Plumbers, Gasfitters and Drainlayers (NZ) Inc. New Zealand Fire Equipment Association Inc. New Zealand Fire Equipment Association Inc. Co-opted

by Standards New Zealand from June 2007 New Zealand Fire Service New Zealand Fire Service Property Council of New Zealand

Committee Member Neil O'Dea Ed Soja Dene Cook (From May 2006) Chris Munn (November 2004 to May 2006) Geoff Broadhead Nick Saunders

Ian Makgill (October 2004 to June 2005) Tim O'Brien (From June 2005) John Powell Brent Cooper

Brent Houston Michael Dunn Peter Hughes Robin McRae (From February 2005) Eric Palmer

Dave Hipkins (From June 2007) Chris Mak (Chair)

Alistair Henderson Murray Kidd Antony Walker

Society of Fire Protection Engineers New Zealand Chapter Neil Gravestock

and other individuals who were co-opted onto the committee by Standards New Zealand.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Standards New Zealand gratefully acknowledges the financial support provided by the Department of Building and Housing, the Fire Protection Association New Zealand, the Insurance Council of New Zealand and the New Zealand Fire Service.

In particular we wish to thank Factory Mutual Global (FM Global) and Standards Australia for generously supplying material from their organisational resources for use in this Standard.

COPYRIGHT The copyright of this document is the property of the Standards Council. No part of it may be reproduced by photocopying or by any other means without the prior written permission of the Chief Executive of Standards New Zealand unless the circ*mstances are covered by Part III of the Copyright Act 1994.

The copyright has been waived for a number of forms within this Standard. These are marked 'copyright waived'.

Standards New Zealand will vigorously defend the copyright in this Standard. Every person who breaches Standards New Zealand's copyright may be liable to a fine not exceeding $50,000 or to imprisonment for a term not to exceed three months. If there has been a flagrant breach of copyright, Standards New Zealand may also seek additional damages from the infringing party, in addition to obtaining injunctive relief and an account of profits.

Published by Standards New Zealand, the trading arm of the Standards Council, Private Bag 2439, Wellington 6140. Telephone: (04) 498 5990, Fax: (04) 4985994, Website: www.standards.co.nz.

Cover photo by courtesy of Wormald.

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NZS 4541 : 2007

Contents

Committee representation ................................................................................................................... I FC Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................................... IFC Copyright ............................................................................................................................................. IFC Referenced documents ........................................................................................................................ xiii Latest revisions ................................................................................................................................... xvii Foreword ............................................................................................................................................. xviii

SCOPE AND GENERAL INFORMATION 101 1-1 102 Interpretation ................................................................................................................... 1-1 103 Definitions ....................................................................................................................... 1-1 104 Inspection, testing and maintentance ............................................................................. 1-8 1 05 Seismic resistance .......................................................................................................... 1-8 106 Workmanship .................................................................................................................. 1-8 107 Typical arrangements ..................................................................................................... 1-8 108 Welding ........................................................................................................................... 1-9 109 Hydrostatic tests ............................................................................................................. 1-9 110 Roles and responsibilities of SSC ................................................................................. 1-1 0 111 Formal interpretations ................................................................................................... 1-11 112 Sprinkler system certificate of compliance methodology .............................................. 1-11 113 Listing of contractors ..................................................................................................... 1-14 114 Listing of equipmenL. ................................................................................................... 1-15 115 Existing installations ..................................................................................................... 1-15 116 Withdrawal of listing ...................................................................................................... 1-16

2 BASIC RULES OF DESIGN 201 Installer to be listed ......................................................................................................... 2-1 202 Minimum required discharge and design flow ................................................................ 2-1 203 Determination of fire hazard ........................................................................................... 2-1 204 Extent of sprinkler protection .......................................................................................... 2-9 205 Fire loads adjoining, linked, or adjacent to the sprinkler protected building or

sprinkler protected firecell ............................................................................................. 2-1 0 206 Water supply requirements for external sprinklers and internal drenchers .................. 2-15 207 Permitted exceptions from sprinklering ........................................................................ 2-16 208 Provision of hand operated fire fighting appliances ..................................................... .2-19 209 Provision of block plan .................................................................................................. 2-19 210 Provision of water supply reference information ........................................................... 2-20 211 Multi-storeyed buildings ................................................................................................ 2-24 212 Buildings constructed with expanded plastic cored insulated panels ........................... 2-24

3 TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS 301 General ........................................................................................................................... 3-1 302 Conventional sprinkler installations ................................................................................ 3-1 303 Deluge installations ....................................................................................................... 3-10 304 Water mist installations ................................................................................................. 3-11 305 Methods to determine water delivery for gas filled sprinkler installations .................... 3-12

4 SYSTEM COMPONENTS 401 General ........................................................................................................................... 4-1 402 Sprinklers ........................................................................................................................ 4-1 403 Pipework ......................................................................................................................... 4-7

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404 Valves .......................................................................................................................... 4-26 405 Enhanced safety valve set ........................................................................................... 4-35 406 Pressure gauges .......................................................................................................... 4-36 407 Alarm devices ............................................................................................................... 4-37 408 Storage height limitation indicators .............................................................................. 4-45 409 Aerosol warning signs .................................................................................................. 4-47 410 Fire doors ..................................................................................................................... 4-47

5 LOCATION OF SPRINKLERS 501 GeneraL .......................................................................................................................... 5-1 502 Walls and partitions ........................................................................................................ 5-1 503 Ceilings and roofs .......................................................................................................... 5-1 504 Staggered spacing ......................................................................................................... 5-4 505 Position of sprinklers ...................................................................................................... 5-4 506 Vertical obstructions to sprinkler discharge ................................................................... 5-5 507 Columns ......................................................................................................................... 5-7 508 Open roof trusses ........................................................................................................... 5-8 509 Clear space below sprinklers ......................................................................................... 5-8 510 Spacing and location of sidewall sprinklers ................................................................... 5-8 511 Locations or conditions requiring special consideration ................................................ 5-9 512 Obstructions below sprinklers ...................................................................................... 5-15 513 Film and television production studios ......................................................................... 5-17 514 Theatres and music halls ............................................................................................. 5-17 515 Cupboards and wardrobes ........................................................................................... 5-17 516 Skylight shafts .............................................................................................................. 5-18 517 External sprinklers ........................................................................................................ 5-18 518 Special requirements for suppression mode sprinklers ............................................... 5-20 519 Special requirements for control mode specific application sprinklers ........................ 5-31 520 Extended coverage ordinary hazard (ECOH) and extended coverage light

hazard (ECLH) sprinklers Special requirements ....................................................... 5-35

6 WATER SUPPLY 601 General. .......................................................................................................................... 6-1 602 Classes of water supply ................................................................................................. 6-1 603 Flow and pressure requirements ................................................................................... 6-5 604 Town's mains, boosted town's mains, supplemented town's mains .............................. 6-6 605 Pumped supplies Water sources .............................................................................. 6-15 606 Water storage ............................................................................................................... 6-16 607 Pumped supplies - Pump units ................................................................................... 6-22 608 Elevated tanks .............................................................................................................. 6-42 609 Pressure tanks ............................................................................................................. 6-43 610 Fire sprinkler inlets ....................................................................................................... 6-43 611 Proving of water supplies ............................................................................................. 6-49 612 Private site fire mains ................................................................................................... 6-49

7 EXTRA LIGHT HAZARD SYSTEM DESIGN DATA 701 Water supplies ............................................................................................................... 7-1 702 Sprinkler type and spacing ............................................................................................. 7-2 703 Pipework ......................................................................................................................... 7-4 704 Storage areas and drying rooms .................................................................................... 7-4

8 ORDINARY HAZARD SYSTEM DESIGN DATA 801 Design criteria, pipe sizing and water supplies .............................................................. 8-1 802 Sprinkler type and spacing ............................................................................................. 8-4

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9 EXTRA HIGH HAZARD SYSTEM DESIGN DATA 901 Scope ................................................................................................ , .......... , ............ , ..... 9-1 902 Extra high hazard class terminology ............................................................................... 9-1 903 General system design requirements ........................................................................... 9-19 904 General hydraulic design requirements ........................................................................ 9-21 905 Hydraulic design requirements ..................................................................................... 9-29 906 Categorised commodities ............................................................................................. 9-41 907 Special commodities ............................................................................................... , ..... 9-93 908 Control mode specific application sprinklers .............................................................. 9-157 909 Suppression mode sprinklers ..................................................................................... 9-173 910 Fire protection scheme A ............................................................................................ 9-182

1 0 FULLY HYDRAULICALLY CALCULATED DESIGN 1001 General ......................................................................................................................... 1 0-1 1002 Design requirements ............................................................................................... , ..... 10-3 1003 Determination of area of operation ............................................................................... 1 0-3 1004 Determination of design flow and pressure .................................................................. 10-8 1005 Method of calculation ................................................................................... , ................ 10-9 1006 Documentation ............................................................................................................ 10-13

11 PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN WHEN AN INSTALLATION IS RENDERED INOPERATIVE 1101 General ......................................................................................................................... 11-1 1102 Notification .................................................................................................................... 11-1 1103 Authorisation ................................................................................................................. 11-4 1104 Hot work ........................................................................................................................ 11-4 1105 Sectional valves ............................................................................................................ 11-4 1106 Blanking pieces ............................................................................................................. 11-4 1107 Water supplies .............................................................................................................. 11-5

12 ROUTINE TESTING, MAINTENANCE AND INSPECTIONS 1201 General ......................................................................................................................... 12-1 1202 Routine tests and maintenance ................................................................... , ................ 12-2 1203 Routine inspections ...................................................................................................... 12-5 1204 Twelve-yearly inspections ............................................................................................. 12-7 1205 Testing of sprinklers ...................................................................................................... 12-7 1206 Water supply strainers .................................................................................................. 12-7

Appendix

A Sprinkler system storage declaration (Informative) ................................................................. A-1 B Material classifications (Informative) ........................................................................................ B-1 C Testing of territorial authority water mains (Normative) ........................................................... C-1 D Information to be provided when ordering a pump unit (Informative) ...................................... D-1 E Orifice plates (Informative) ....................................................................................................... E-1 F Retrospective upgrades (Informative) ...................................................................................... F-1 G Recommendations for frost protection measures for fire sprinkler systems

(Informative) .................................................... , .. ' .................. , ..................... , .......... , ................. G-1 HZ-values and shortest major fault distances D for New Zealand (Informative) ........................ H-1 J Sprinkler protection design requirements for buildings constructed with foamed

plastic cored insulated panels (Normative) ................................................ " .................... " ....... J-1 K Aerosols Supplementary design considerations (Normative) ............................................... K-1 L Aerosol warning signs (Normative) .................................................................. " ....................... L-1

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M Contractor's material and test certificate for underground piping (Informative) ...................... M-1 N Water mist fire protection (Informative) .................................................................................... N-1 o Embankment supported membrane pillow tanks (Normative) ................................................ 0-1 P Maintenance provisions for non-standard sprinkler systems (Informative) .............................. P-1 Q Guidance on the testing of sprinklers (Informative) ................................................................. Q-1 R Evaluation of contractors by a sprinkler system certifier (SSC) (Normative) ........................... R-1 S Certificate of listing of contractor (Normative) .......................................................................... S-1 T Guidelines for evaluation of equipment for listing by a sprinkler system certifier

(SSC) (Normative) .................................................................................................................... T -1 U Sprinkler system certificate of compliance (Normative) ........................................................... U-1

Table

2.1 Representative schedule of occupancies ............................................................................ 2-3 2.2 Ordinary hazard storage limits ............................................................................................ 2-6 2.3 Comparison of classification of flammable liquids designations as specified in

ANSI/NFPA 30 and Hazardous Substances (Classification) Regulations .......................... 2-8 2.4 Block plan sprinkler information ........................................................................................ 2-20 2.5 Typical reference pressure schedule ................................................................................ 2-22 2.6 Design data for protection of expanded plastic cored panels ........................................... 2-25 3.1 Antifreeze solutions ............................................................................................................. 3-8 3.2 Gas filled water delivery calculation design requirements ................................................ 3-12 4.1 Acceptable types of sprinklers ............................................................................................ 4-5 4.2 Pipes to be used upstream of control valves ...................................................................... 4-8 4.3 Pipes to be used downstream of alarm valves ................................................................... 4-9 4.4 Suitable supports ............................................................................................................... 4-13 4.5 Weight calculations ........................................................................................................... 4-18 4.6 Allowable horizontal loads of typical pipework braces ...................................................... 4-23 4.7 Horizontal load capacity of typical connections ................................................................ 4-25 5.1 Spacing arrangements Standard and staggered ............................................................. 5-4 5.2 Sprinkler distances from obstructions ................................................................................. 5-5 5.3 Maximum distance of residential sprinklers above bottom of ceiling obstruction

(where not specified by manufacturer) ................................................................................ 5-7 5.4 Obstructions to standard sidewall sprinkler discharge ........................................................ 5-9 5.5 Extended coverage and extra light hazard spray sprinkler distances from

suspended or floor mounted obstructions ......................................................................... 5-15 5.6 Sprinkler spacing and location .......................................................................................... 5-19 5.7 Suppression mode sprinklers - Allowable distances below ceiling .................................. 5-23 5.8 Required deflector height above range centreline ............................................................ 5-31 5.9 Minimum and maximum distances of deflectors below ceiling ......................................... 5-32 5.10 Position of deflector when located above bottom of ceiling obstruction ........................... 5-32 5.11 Position of sprinklers relative to obstructions located entirely below ................................ 5-33 5.12 ECOH and ECLH sprinkler distances from ceiling mounted obstructions ........................ 5-36 6.1 Duration of water supplies for EHH occupancies .............................................................. 6-17 6.2 Nominal fuel duration ........................................................................................................ 6-36 6.3 Number of inlets ................................................................................................................ 6-46 7.1 Minimum pipe sizes for precalculated extra light hazard sprinkler arrays .......................... 7-2 8.1 Maximum number of sprinklers on tabular pipework .......................................................... 8-2 9.1 Temperature ratings of spray sprinklers ............................................................................ 9-22 9.2 Maximum area coverage per roof/ceiling sprinkler ........................................................... 9-24 9.3 Maximum in-rack sprinkler horizontal spacing (racks without solid shelves) .................... 9-26 9.4 In-rack sprinkler vertical spacings, storage height up to 7.6 m ......................................... 9-27

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Table (continued) 9.5 Steel column sprinkler protection, option 904.4(c) - Category 1, 2 and 3

commodities (higher density in lieu of column sprinklers) .................................................. v--L.U

9.6 Water demands for sprinklers under non-solid floors; solid-piled, palletised, shelf and bin box storage ................................................................................................... 9-32

9.7 Design density and design area for process occupancies ................................................ 9-37 9.8 Roof/ceiling sprinkler design density adjustments ............................................................. 9-38 9.9 Minimum in-rack sprinkler hydraulic design criteria ........................................................... 9-39 9.10 Minimum roof/ceiling sprinklers hydraulic design criteria for excessive

clearance ............................................................................................................................ 9-40 9.11 (a) Design criteria for categories 1 to 4: Solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin box

storage ............................................................................................................................... 9-43 9.11 (b) Design criteria for category 5: Solid pile, palletised and shelf storage .............................. 9-45 9.11 (c) Design criteria for category 6: Solid pile, palletised and shelf storage .............................. 9-47 9.11 (d) Design criteria for category 5: Bin box storage .................................................................. 9-48 9.11 (e) Design criteria for category 6: Bin box storage .................................................................. 9-50 9.12(a) Design criteria for category 1: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, without solid

shelves ............................................................................................................................... 9-52 9.12(b) Design criteria for category 1: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, soid shelves

1.9 to 5.9 m2 ....................................................................................................................... 9-54

9.12(c) Design criteria for category 1: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves greater than 5.9 m2

............................................................................................................ 9-55 9.12(d) Design criteria for category 2: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, without solid

shelves ............................................................................................................................... 9-56 9.12(e) Design criteria for category 2: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves

1.9 to 5.9 m2 ....................................................................................................................... 9-57

9.12(f) Design criteria for category 2: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves greater than 5.9 m2

............................................................................................................ 9-58 9.12(g) Design criteria for category 3: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m. without solid

shelves ............................................................................................................................... 9-59 9.12(h) Design criteria for category 3: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves

1.9 to 5.9 m2 ....................................................................................................................... 9-61

9.12(i) Design criteria for category 3: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves 2 greater than 5.9 m ............................................................................................................ 9-62

9.120) Design criteria for category 4: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, without solid shelves ............................................................................................................................... 9-63

9.12(k) Design criteria for category 4: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves 1.9 to 5.9 m2

....................................................................................................................... 9-65 9.12(1) Design criteria for category 4: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves

greater than 5.9 m2 ............................................................................................................ 9-66

9.12(m) Design criteria for category 5: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, without solid shelves ............................................................................................................................... 9-67

9.12(n) Design criteria for category 5: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves 1.9 to 5.9 m2

....................................................................................................................... 9-70 9.12(0) Design criteria for category 5: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves

greater than 5.9 m2 ............................................................................................................ 9-73

9.12(p) Part (a) Design criteria for category 6: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m without solid shelves Maximum roof/ceiling height up to 9.1 m .................................................. 9-74

9.12(p) Part (b) Design criteria for category 6: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m without solid shelves Maximum roof/ceiling height from 9.2 m up to 13.7 m .............................. 9-76

9.12(q) Design criteria for category 6: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves 1.9 to 5.9 m2

....................................................................................................................... 9-78

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Table (continued) 9.12(r) Design criteria for category 6: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves

greater than 5.9 m2 ...•.•..•.••.••.•..•.•..•.•..•.•..••.•..•..........•.•..•..•..•....•....•.•.•...•..•..................•..•.. 9-81

9.13(a) Design criteria for categories 1 to 6: Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m,

9.13(b)

9.13(c)

9.13(d)

9.13(e)

9.13(f)

9.14(a)

9.14(b)

9.14(c) 9.14(d) 9.14(e) 9.14(f) 9.15 9.16(a) 9.16(b) 9.16(c) 9.17(a) 9.17(b) 9.17(c) 9.17(d) 9.17(e) 9.17(f) 9.17(g) 9.17(h) 9.17(i) 9.170) 9.17(k) 9.17(1) 9.17(m) 9.17(n) 9.17(0) 9.17(p) 9.17(q) 9.17(r)

9.17(s)

vi

single row rack without solid shelves, aisle width not less than 1.2 m and rack depth up to 2.7 m .............................................................................................................. 9-82 Design criteria for categories 1 to 5: Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m, double row rack without solid shelves, aisle width not less than 1.2 m and rack depth up to 2.7 m .............................................................................................................. 9-84 Design criteria for categories 1 to 5: Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m, double row rack without solid shelves, aisle width not less than 1.2 m and rack depth grater than 2.7 m ..................................................................................................... 9-86 Design criteria for categories 1 to 5: Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m, multiple row rack without solid shelves or single/double row rack without solid shelves and aisle width not less than 1.2 m ...................................................................... 9-88 Design criteria for category 6: Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m, double row rack with aisle width not less than 1.2 m .................................................................... 9-90 Design criteria for category 6: Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m, multiple row rack or single/double row rack and aisle width less than 1.2 m ................................. 9-92 On-side storage in permanent tyre racks or partially loaded portable tyre racks, without solid shelves ......................................................................................................... 9-96 On tread storage in permanent tyre racks or portable tyre racks, without solid shelves .............................................................................................................................. 9-97 On floor or on side storage in fully loaded portable tyre racks .......................................... 9-98 Locations other than warehouses and 'green' tyres ......................................................... 9-99 Control mode specific application criteria for on-side and on-tread rubber tyres ............ 9-105 Suppression mode sprinklers for rubber tyre storage ..................................................... 9-105 Area coverage and spacing per roof/ceiling .................................................................... 9-110 Lightweight roll paper, stored-on-end .............................................................................. 9-111 Lightweight roll paper, stared-on-side ............................................................................. 9-112 Control mode specific application sprinklers for lightweight roll paper storage .............. 9-113 Medium weight roll paper, stored-an-end, open/standard array, un banded ................... 9-114 Medium weight roll paper, stored-on-end, open/standard array, banded ....................... 9-114 Medium weight roll paper, stored-on-end, closed array, unbanded/banded ................... 9-115 Medium weight/heavyweight roll paper, stared-on-side, nested ..................................... 9-116 Medium weight/heavyweight roll paper, stared-on-side, with dunnage .......................... 9-116 Medium weight roll paper, stored-an-end, open/standard array, unbanded ................... 9-117 Medium weight roll paper, stored-on-end, open/standard array, banded ....................... 9-117 Medium weight roll paper, stored-an-end, closed array, unbanded/banded ................... 9-118 Heavyweight roll paper, stored-an-end, open array, unbanded ...................................... 9-119 Heavyweight roll paper, stored-an-end, open array, banded .......................................... 9-119 Heavyweight roll paper, stored-an-end, standard array, unbanded ................................ 9-120 Heavyweight roll paper, stored-on-end, standard array, banded .................................... 9-120 Heavyweight roll paper, stored-on-end, closed array, un banded/banded ...................... 9-121 Heavyweight roll paper, stored-an-end, open array, unbanded ...................................... 9-122 Heavyweight roll paper, stored-an-end, open array, banded .......................................... 9-122 Heavyweight roll paper, stored-an-end, standard array, unbanded ................................ 9-123 Heavyweight roll paper, stored-on-end, standard array, banded .................................... 9-123 Control mode specific application criteria for medium weight paper (number of sprinklers at pressure in kPa) .......................................................................................... 9-124 Control mode specific application criteria for heavyweight paper (number of sprinklers at pressure in kPa) .......................................................................................... 9-124

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Table (continued) 9.17(t) Protection of medium weight paper with suppression mode sprinklers (number

of sprinklers at pressure in kPa) ...................................................................................... 9-124 9.17(u) Protection of heavyweight roll paper with suppression mode sprinklers (number

9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22

9.23(a)

9.23(b) 9.24 9.25(a) 9.25(b) 9.25(c) 9.25(d) 9.26(a)

9.26(b)

9.26(c)

9.26(d)

9.26(e)

9.26(f)

9.26(g)

9.26(h)

9.26(i)

9.260)

9.26(k)

9.26(1)

9.26(m)

9.26(n)

9.26(0)

9.26(p)

of sprinklers at pressure in kPa) ...................................................................................... 9-125 Solid pile storage of waste paper and baled fibres (natural and synthetic) ..................... 9-125 Protection for hanging garment storage on stationary pipe racks ................................... 9-130 Rack and tube storage of carpets .................................................................................... 9-134 Protection of on-floor idle pallet storage using standard sprinklers ................................. 9-139 Control mode specific application criteria for Group 1 idle pallets in rack or on floor .................................................................................................................................. 9-142 Suppression mode sprinklers for idle pallet storage Group 1 or Group 2 in-rack and Group 2 on floor ........................................................................................................ 9-143 Suppression mode sprinklers for idle pallet storage Group 1 on floor. ............................ 9-143 Roof/ceiling hydraulic design requirements ..................................................................... 9-148 Palletised barrel storage up to six barrels high ................................................................ 9-151 Case goods storage - Palletised or solid pile .................................................................. 9-151 Single row or double row rack storage of barrels ............................................................ 9-152 Multiple row rack storage of barrels ................................................................................. 9-152 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of category 1 and 2 commod ities with open shelves .................................................................................... 9-158 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of category 1 and 2 commodities with solid shelves 2.0 to 6.0 m2

•.....•.•...••.••............................•....•.•.••.•..•.. 9-159 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of category 1 and 2 commodities with solid shelves greater than 6.0 m2

..................................................... 9-159 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of category 3 commodities with open shelves ....................................................................................... 9-160 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of category 3 commodities with solid shelves 2.0 to 6.0 m2

.................................................................. 9-160 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of category 3 commodities with solid shelves greater than 6.0 m2

........................................................ 9-161 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of category 4 commodities with open shelves ....................................................................................... 9-161 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of category 4 commodities with solid shelves 2.0 to 6.0 m2

................••.••••..•••.•..•....•..•..••...••••••••..•.•.•... 9-162 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of category 4 commodities with solid shelves greater than 6.0 m2

•.......•.......••........................•...•.••.•.... 9-162 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of cartoned expanded plastic and cartoned unexpanded plastic with open shelves .......................... 9-163 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of cartoned expanded plastic, cartoned unexpanded plastic and uncartoned unexpanded plastic with solid shelves 2.0 to 6.0 m2

..........••••.•..••••.................................•••..•••••........... 9-164 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of cartoned expanded plastic, cartoned unexpanded plastic and uncartoned unexpanded plastic with solid shelves greater than 6.0 m2

......•.•..................•...........................•.......... 9-165 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of uncartoned expanded plastic and uncartoned unexpanded plastic with open shelves ...................... 9-166 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of uncartoned expanded plastic with solid shelves 2.0 to 6.0 m2

........................................................... 9-167 Control mode specific application sprinklers for rack storage of uncartoned expanded plastic with solid shelves greater than 6.0 m2

................................................. 9-168 Control mode specific application sprinklers for solid-piled, palletised, shelf and bin-box storage of category 1,2, 3, and 4 commodities .................................................. 9-169

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Table (continued) 9.26(q) Control mode specific application sprinklers for shelf and bin-box storage of

cartoned and uncartoned unexpanded plastic and cartoned expanded plastic .............. 9-170 9.26(r) Control mode specific application sprinklers for solid-piled and palletised

storage of caroned and uncartoned unexpanded plastic and cartoned expanded plastic ............................................................................................................. 9-171

9.26(s) Control mode specific application sprinklers for solid-piled, palletised, shelf and bin-box storage of uncartoned expanded plastic ............................................................ 9-172

9.26(t) Control mode specific application in-rack sprinkler design criteria ................................. 9-172 9.27(a) Suppression mode sprinklers for rack storage of category 1, 2, 3 and 4

commodities and cartoned, unexpanded plastic with open shelves ............................... 9-174 9.27(b) Suppression mode sprinklers for rack storage of uncartoned unexpanded

plastics with open shelves ............................................................................................... 9-175 9.27(c) Suppression mode sprinklers for rack storage of cartoned expanded plastics

with open shelves ............................................................................................................ 9-176 9.27(d) Suppression mode sprinklers for rack storage of uncartoned expanded plastics

with open shelves ............................................................................................................ 9-177 9.27(e) Suppression mode sprinklers for solid-piled, palletised, shelf and bin-box

storage of category 1, 2, 3, and 4 commodities and cartoned unexpanded plastics ............................................................................................................................ 9-178

9.27(f) Suppression mode sprinklers for solid-piled, palletised, shelf and bin-box storage of uncartoned unexpanded plastics ................................................................... 9-179

9.27(g) Suppression mode sprinklers for solid-piled, palletised, shelf and bin-box storage of cartoned, expanded plastic ............................................................................ 9-180

9.27(h) Suppression mode sprinklers for solid-piled, palletised, shelf and bin-box storage of uncartoned expanded plastics ....................................................................... 9-181

10.1 Values of 'R' for steel and chlorinated PVC pipes .......................................................... 10-11 A 1 Representative list of material categories ........................................................................... A-3 B1 Commodity and category examples Alphabetical listing .................................................. B-1 B2 Commodity and category examples - Listed by category .................................................. B-6 E1 Pipes of 50 mm and 65 mm diameter and 500 Umin flow .................................................. E-1 E2 Pipes of 80 mm to 200 mm diameter and 5000 Umin flow ................................................. E-2 H1 Z-values and shortest major fault distances D for New Zealand locations (north

to south) .............................................................................................................................. H-1 K1 Aerosol classification ........................................................................................................... K-1 K2 Chemical heat of combustion for various materials ............................................................ K-4 K3 Chemical heat of combustion data ...................................................................................... K-5 R1 Scope of listing .................................................................................................................... R-2

Figure

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.1 (a) 2.1 (b) 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.1 4.1 4.2

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Definition of range and distribution pipes ............................................................................ 1-3 Typical end-centre arrangement ......................................................................................... 1-4 Typical end-side arrangement. ............................................................................................ 1-5 Typical fire sprinkler system ................................................................................................ 1-9 Link to unprotected building with eave height 600 mm or greater .................................... 2-12 Link to unprotected building with eave height less than 600 mm ..................................... 2-12 Typical external sprinklers ................................................................................................. 2-14 Permitted exceptions from sprinklering of concealed spaces ........................................... 2-18 Display of water supply reference information .................................................................. 2-23 Typical tail-end antifreeze installation valves ...................................................................... 3-9 Seismic flexible joint .......................................................................................................... 4-17 Location of pipework bracing ............................................................................................ 4-19

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Figure (continued) 4.3 Examples of load distribution to pipework bracing ............................................................ 4-20 4.4 Pipework bracing details ................................................................................................... .4-22 4.5 Enhanced safety valve set arrangement .......................................................................... .4-36 4.6 Wet pipe control valve showing an acceptable arrangement for type 'X'

signalling complying with 407.2.2.1 .................................................................................. .4-40 4.7 Wet pipe control valve showing an acceptable arrangement for type 'Y'

signalling complying with 407.2.2.2 .................................................................................. .4-42 4.8 Typical dry pipe control valve arrangement.. ..................................................................... 4-43 4.9 Storage height limitation sign ............................................................................................ .4-46 5.1 Positioning of sprinkler heads .............................................................................................. 5-3 5.2 Spacing arrangements - Standard and staggered .............................................................. 5-4 5.3 Sprinkler distances from obstructions .................................................................................. 5-6 5.4 Position of residential sprinkler deflector when located above the bottom of a

ceiling obstruction ................................................................................................................ 5-7 5.5 Sprinkler positions for machines in tiers ............................................................................ 5-11 5.6 Location of sprinklers in extraction ducts ........................................................................... 5-13 5.7 Position of sprinkler head to avoid suspended or floor mounted obstruction to

sprinkler discharge (extended coverage or extra light hazard spray sprinklers) ............... 5-15 5.8 Examples of allowable extended spacings for suppression mode sprinklers to

avoid obstructions .............................................................................................................. 5-22 5.9 Area where obstructions not allowed ................................................................................. 5-24 5.10 Alternative arrangement for obstructions no more than 300 mm wide at ceilings ............. 5-24 5.11 Minimum clearances to bar joists ...................................................................................... 5-25 5.12 Obstructions greater than 20 mm and up to 50 mm wide below sprinklers ....................... 5-27 5.13 Obstructions greater than 50 mm and up to 300 mm wide below sprinklers ..................... 5-27 5.14 Obstructions greater than 300 mm and up to 600 mm wide below sprinklers ................... 5-27 5.15 Flat horizontal obstructions greater than 600 mm wide below sprinklers .......................... 5-28 5.16 Round or rectangular obstructions less than 600 mm wide below sprinklers .................... 5-28 5.17 Round or rectangular obstructions below sprinklers less than 600 mm wide .................... 5-29 5.18 Position of deflector when located above bottom of ceiling obstruction ............................ 5-33 5.19 Position of sprinklers relative to obstructions located entirely below ................................. 5-33 5.20 Position of sprinklers in relation to obstructions located 900 mm or more below

deflectors ............................................................................................................................ 5-34 5.21 Position of sprinklers in relation to obstructions running parallel to and directly

below range pipes .............................................................................................................. 5-35 5.22 Position of sprinkler head to avoid obstruction to sprinkler discharge (extended

coverage upright and pendent spray sprinklers) ................................................................ 5-36 6.1 Water supply classes - Typical diagrammatic layouts ........................................................ 6-2 6.2 Diagrammatic key to water supply requirements ................................................................. 6-4 6.3 Permissible supply to hydrants from town's main sprinkler connections -

Diagrammatic layout (class C1 supply) ............................................................................... 6-9 6.4 Illustrative example of hydrant allowance .......................................................................... 6-11 6.5 Typical arrangement for boosted town's main without pressure relief line ........................ 6-12 6.6 Typical arrangement for boosted town's main with pressure relief line ............................. 6-13 6.7 Typical arrangement for boosted town's main with pressure reducing valve

system ................................................................................................................................ 6-14 6.8 Typical arrangement for pump and tank supply ................................................................. 6-16 6.9 Pump suction waterway fittings ......................................................................................... 6-27 6.10 Diesel engine controller logic unit.. .................................................................................... 6-34 6.11 FSI standard requirements ................................................................................................ 6-44 6.12 Details of box lock .............................................................................................................. 6-45 6.13 Fire service inlet arrangement for multiple valve sets ....................................................... 6-47

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Figure (continued) 9.1 Bundled tyres (with horizontal flue spaces) ......................................................................... 9-1 9.2(a) Double row racks - Without solid or slatted shelves ........................................................... 9-2 9.2(b) Double row racks - With solid shelves ................................................................................ 9-3 9.2(c) Double row racks - With slatted shelves ............................................................................ 9-3 9.3 Typical double row (back-to-back) rack arrangement... ...................................................... 9-5 9.4 Fully loaded (tyre storage) .................................................................................................. 9-6 9.5 Typical green tyre storage (storage two carts high or 4.9 m high) ...................................... 9-6 9.6(a) Typical storage arrangement - Using pallet-based portable rack (fully loaded) ................. 9-7 9.6(b) Typical storage arrangement - On tread ............................................................................ 9-7 9.7 Typical storage arrangements In locations other than warehouses ................................ 9-8 9.8(a) Multiple row rack - Drive-in rack, two or more pallets deep ............................................. 9-10 9.8(b) Multiple row rack - Flow-through racks ............................................................................. 9-11 9.8(c) Multiple row rack - Double deep rack, serviced by reach (forklifts) truck ......................... 9-11 9.9(a) On-floor storage - On-tread storage ................................................................................. 9-12 9.9(b) On-floor storage - Pyramid tyre storage, on-side ............................................................. 9-12 9.10 Double row rack storage with on-side palletised storage .................................................. 9-13 9.11 Rack frequently used for on-tread storage ........................................................................ 9-13 9.12 Typical pallets .................................................................................................................... 9-14 9.13 Portable racks ................................................................................................................... 9-14 9.14(a) Rack storage Automatic storage type rack .................................................................... 9-15 9.14(b) Rack storage Flow-through pallet rack ........................................................................... 9-16 9.14(c) Rack storage - Drive-in rack. two or more pallets deep Forklift truck drives

9.14(d) 9.15 9.16 9.17(a) 9.17(b) 9.18(a)

9.18{b)

9.18{c)

9.19 9.20

9.21

9.22 9.23(a)

9.23(b)

9.23(c)

x

into rack to deposit or withdraw loads in the depth of the rack ......................................... 9-16 Rack storage - Cantilever rack ......................................................................................... 9-17 Portable rack using wood pallet base and steel frame ..................................................... 9-18 Examples of adjacent areas with differing design criteria ................................................. 9-23 Multiple row racks up to 7.6 m high - Only one level of in-rack sprinklers ....................... 9-26 Multiple row racks up to 7.6 m high - More than one level of in-rack sprinklers ............. 9 -27 Design examples for rack storage on a non-solid floor structure showing clear aisle ................................................................................................................................... 9-33 Design examples for double row rack storage under a non-solid floor structure to be considered as one level of in-rack sprinklers ........................................................... 9-34 Design examples for multiple row rack storage under a non-solid floor structure under non-solid floor structure to be considered as one level of in-rack sprinklers ........................................................................................................................... 9-34 Design example for rack storage with grated, slatted or solid walkway ............................ 9-35 DeSign example for bin box and shelf storage with grated, slatted or solid walkway ............................................................................................................................. 9-36 Optional arrangement for all categorised commodities with clearance greater than 6.1 m ......................................................................................................................... 9-40 Categorised commodities design decision tree ................................................................ 9-42 Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m Categories 1 to 6: Single row rack without solid shelves, aisle width not less than 1.2 m and rack depth up to 2.7 m .................................................................................................................................. 9-83 Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m - Categories 1 to 5: Double row rack without solid shelves, aisle width not less than 1.2 m and rack depth up to 2.7 m .................................................................................................................................. 9-85 Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m - Categories 1 to 5: Double row rack without solid shelves, aisle width not less than 1.2 m and rack depth greater than 2.7 m ......................................................................................................................... 9-87

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Figure (continued) 9.23(d) Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m - Categories 1 to 5: Multiple row rack

without solid shelves or single/double row rack without solid shelves and aisle width less than 1.2 m ......................................................................................................... 9-89

9.23(e) Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m Category 6: Double row rack with

9.23(f)

9.24(a) 9.24(b) 9.24(c) 9.24(d) 9.24(e)

9.24(f) 9.25 9.26 9.27(a) 9.27(b) 9.28(a) 9.28(b) 9.29(a) 9.29(b) 9.29(c) 9.30(a) 9.30(b) 9.30(c) 9.31 (a) 9.31(b) 9.32 9.33(a) 9.33(b) 9.33(c)

9.33(d)

9.33(e) 9.34(a) 9.34(b) 9.34(c) 9.34(d) 10.1 10.2 11.1 11.2 A1 C1 K1 K2(a)

K2(b)

aisle width not less than 1.2 m ........................................................................................... 9-91 Rack storage height greater than 7.6 m - Categorey 6: Multiple row rack or single/double row rack and aisle width less than 1.2 m ..................................................... 9-93 On-side, double row rack, with barriers -IRS horizontal and vertical spacings .............. 9-100 On-side, double row rack, without barriers - IRS horizontal and vertical spacing .......... 9-101 On-side, multiple row rack IRS horizontal and vertical spacing .................................... 9-102 On-tread, double row rack, with barriers IRS horizontal and vertical spacing .............. 9-103 On-tread, double row rack, without barriers - IRS horizontal and vertical spacing ............................................................................................................................. 9-103 On-tread, multiple row rack - IRS horizontal and vertical spacing .................................. 9-104 Roll paper, design decision tree ...................................................................................... 9-107 Protection of hanging garments to 4.6 m high ................................................................. 9-129 Vertical carousel elevation ............................................................................................... 9-131 Vertical carousel plan ....................................................................................................... 9-131 Vertical carousel elevation ............................................................................................... 9-132 Vertical carousel plan ....................................................................................................... 9-133 Typical standard rack for carpet storage ......................................................................... 9-135 Typical cubicle rack for carpet storage ............................................................................ 9-136 Typical tube storage of carpets ........................................................................................ 9-136 In-rack sprinkler arrangement Single row rack ............................................................. 9-140 Typical horizontal barrier. ................................................................................................. 9-141 In-rack sprinkler arrangement - Multiple row rack ........................................................... 9-142 Multiple row racks, level 2 aerosols ................................................................................. 9-145 Multiple row racks, level 2 aerosols ................................................................................. 9-146 In-rack sprinkler arrangement, single row racks .............................................................. 9-147 Single row racks Location of in-rack sprinklers, method A ........................................... 9-153 Double row racks Location of in-rack sprinklers, method A .......................................... 9-154 Double row racks - Location of in-rack sprinklers, method (can also be applied to single row racks) .......................................................................................................... 9-155 Double row racks - Location if in-rack sprinklers, method C (can also be applied to single row racks) ............................................................................................. 9-156 Multiple row racks - Location of in-rack sprinklers .......................................................... 9-157 Fire protection Scheme A Using single-row racks (Option A) ...................................... 9-183 Fire protection Scheme A Using single-row racks (Option B) ...................................... 9-184 Fire protection Scheme A - Using double-row racks ...................................................... 9-185 Fire protection Scheme A - Using multiple-row racks ..................................................... 9-186 Determination of mean area per sprinkler ......................................................................... 10-5 Location and shape of hydraulically "most remote" area of operation ............................... 1 0-6 Typical form for notifying that an installation is to be rendered inoperative ....................... 11-2 Typical form for isolation tag card ...................................................................................... 11-3 Declaration of storage intentions ........................................................................................ A-2 Water supply flow graph .............................................................................. __ ..................... C-3 Aerosol classification .......................................................... _ ................ _ ...... _ ....................... K-4 Arrangement of barriers around dedicated Level 2 storage areas. Examples of storage areas defined by building walls and barriers in racks near walls ........................... K-9 Arrangement of barriers around dedicated Level 2 storage areas. Examples of storage area defined by barriers offences away from walls (Method 1 and 2) ................ K-10

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Figure (continued) K2(c) Provisions for additional in-rack sprinklers around dedicated Level 2 aerosol

storage area ...................................................................................................................... K-11 L 1 Example of a graphic symbol to accompany warning signs prohibiting the

storage of aerosols .............................................................................................................. L-2 01 Typical details of embankment supported membrane pillow tank ..................................... 0-3 U1 Compliance flowchart for new systems ............................................................................... U-2 U2 Compliance flowchart for biennial inspections .................................................................... U-3 U3 Compliance flowchart for systems installed to other Standards ......................................... U-4

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Referenced Documents Reference is made in this document to the following:

NEW ZEALAND STANDARDS

NZS 1170: - - - -Part 5:2005

NZS 1900.5:1988

NZS/AS 2033:1980 NZS 3106:1986 NZS 3404: 1997 NZS 3501:1976 NZS 3603:1993 NZS 4219:2009 NZS 4442:1988

NZS 4503:2005

NZS 4510:1998 NZS 4512:2003 NZS 4515:2003 NZS 4541:1972P NZS 4541:1987 NZS 4541:1996 NZS 4541 :2003 NZS4711:1984 NZS 4781:1973 NZS 5807:1980 NZS 7702:1989 SNZ PAS 4505:2007 SNZ PAS 4509:2003

Structural design actions Earthquake actions New Zealand Model building bylaw Fire resisting construction and means of egress (Withdrawn) Installation of polyethylene pipe systems Code of practice for concrete structures for the storage of liquids Steel structures Standard Copper tubes for water, gas, and sanitation Timber structures Seismic performance of engineering systems in buildings Welded steel pipes and fittings for water, sewage and medium pressure gas The distribution, installation and maintenance of hand operated fire fighting equipment for use in buildings Fire hydrant systems for buildings Fire detection and alarm systems in buildings Fire sprinkler systems for residential occupancies Automatic fire sprinkler systems (Withdrawn) Automatic fire sprinkler systems (Withdrawn) Automatic fire sprinkler systems (Withdrawn) Automatic fire sprinkler systems Qualification tests for metal-arc welders Code of practice for safety in welding and cutting Industrial identification by colour, wording or other coding Colours for identification, coding and special purposes Specification for firefighting waterway equipment New Zealand Fire Service fire fighting water supplies code of practice

JOINT AUSTRALIAN/NEW ZEALAND STANDARDS

AS/NZS 1170 set Part 0:2002 Part 1 :2002 Part 2:2002 Part 3:2003

AS/NZS 1221:1997 AS/NZS 1477:2006 AS/NZS 1530: - - - -

Part 3:1999

AS/NZS 1905:­Part 1:1997

AS/NZS 2032:2006 AS/NZS 2566:­

Part 1:1998 AS/NZS 2642:- - - -

Part 1 :2007 Part 2:1994

Structural design actions General principles Permanent, imposed and other actions Wind actions Snow and ice actions Fire hose reels PVC pipes and fittings for pressure applications Methods for fire tests on building materials, components and structures Simultaneous determination of ignitability, flame propagation, heat release and smoke release Components for the protection of openings in fire-resistant walls Fire resistant doorsets Installation of PVC pipe systems Buried flexible pipelines Structural design Polybutylene pipe systems Polybutylene (PB) pipe extrusion compounds Polybutylene (PB) pipe for hot and cold water applications

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NZS 4541 :2007

Part 3:1994

AS/NZS 3000:2007

AS/NZS 4130:2003 AS/NZS 4765:2007 AS/NZS 4766:2006 AS/NZS ISO 9000:2006 AS/NZS ISO/IEC 17020:

2000

Mechanical jointing fittings for use with polybutylene pipes for hot and cold water applications Electrical Installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand wiring rules) Polyethylene (PE) pipes for pressure applications Modified PVC (PVC-M) pipes for pressure applications Polyethylene storage tanks for water and chemicals Quality management systems - Fundamentals and vocabulary General criteria for the operation of various types of bodies performing inspection

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS

IEC 60947:- - -­Part 4:2002

IS06182---­Part 1 :2004 Part 7:2004

ISO 9705:1993 ISOIIEC Guide 62:1996

Low voltage switchgear and control gear Contactors and motor-starters Fire protection - Automatic sprinkler systems Requirements and test methods for sprinklers Requirements and test methods for early suppression fast response (ESFR) sprinklers Fire tests - Full-scale room test for surface products General requirements for bodies operating assessment and certificationl registration of quality systems

AMERICAN STANDARDS

AI'JS liN FPA 13-2002 ANS I/NFPA 130-2002

ANSI/NFPA 13R-2002

ANSI/NFPA 15-1990 ANSI/NFPA 16-2003 ANSI/NFPA 22-1993 ANSI/NFPA 25-2005

ANSI/NFPA 30-1993 ANSIINFPA 409-2004 ANSI/NFPA 750-2003 ASTM A53-2007

ASTM A 135-2006 ASTM A312-92 ASTM A403-93 ASTM 0482-03 ASTM 0751-00 ASTM 01183-96

ASTM 02261-96(2002)

ASTM E84-06

ASTM E711-87(2004)

xiv

Installation of sprinkler systems Installation of sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings and manufactured homes Installation of sprinkler systems in residential occupancies up to and including four stories in height Water spray fixed systems for fire protection Deluge foam-water sprinkler and foamwater spray systems Water tanks for private fire protection Inspection, testing and maintenance of water-based fire protection systems Flammable and combustible liquids code Aircraft hangars Water mist fire protection systems Standard specification for pipe, steel, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless Specification for electric-resistance-welded steel pipe Specification for seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipe Specification for wrought austenitic stainless steel piping fittings Standard test method for ash from petroleum products Standard test methods for coated fabrics Standard test methods for resistance of adhesives to cyclic laboratory aging conditions Standard test method for tearing strength of fabrics by the tongue (single rip) procedure (constant-rate-of-extension tensile testing machine) Standard test method for surface burning characteristics of building materials Standard test method for gross calorific value of refuse-derived fuel by the bomb calorimeter

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ASTM F439-06

ASTM F442/F442M-99 (2005)

NZS 4541 :2007

Standard specification for chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride) (CPVC) plastic pipe fittings, schedule 80 Standard specification for chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride) (CPVC) plastic pipe, (SDR-PR)

AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS

AS 1074:1989 AS 1851:2005 AS 2149:2003 AS 2417:2001

AS 2845: Part 3:1993

AS 4041 :2006 AS 4118: - - - -

Part 2.1:1995 AS 4441 (Int):2003 AS 4587:1999

BRITISH STANDARDS

BS 1387:1985 BS 1780:1985 BS 2971:1991

BS 3600:1997

BS 5252:1976 BS 5514: - -­

Part 1 :1996

GERMAN STANDARD

DIN 16005:1987

MILITARY STANDARDS

MIL-C-8068B:2000 MIL-T-6396E:2006

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

API SPEC 5L:2007 FED-STD 191A-5872:1978 FED-STD 601-8311 :1955 FM Approval Standard

4880:2005 FM Global Data Sheet 1-57

Steel tubes and tubulars for ordinary service Maintenance of fire protection systems and equipment Starter batteries - Lead-acid Rotodynamic pumps Grades 1 and 2

Hydraulic performance acceptance tests -

Water supply - Backflow prevention devices Field testing and maintenance Pressure piping Fire sprinkler systems Piping - General Oriented PVC (OPVC) pipes for pressure applications Water mist fire protection systems System design, installation and commissioning

Steel tubes and tubulars suitable for screwing to BS 21 pipe threads Bourdon tube pressure and vacuum gauges Specification for class II arc welding of carbon steel pipework for carrying fluids Specificatin for dimensions and masses per unit length of welded and seamless steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes Framework for colour coordination for building purposes Reciprocating internal combustion engines: performance Standard reference conditions, declarations of power, fuel and lubricating oil consumptions and test methods (ISO 3046/1 :1995)

General purpose pressure gauges with elastic pressure-responsive elements; requirements and testing

Cloth, coated, nylon, rubber-coated fuel-resistant Tanks, aircraft propulsion fluid system, internal removable, non-self­sealing

Specification for pipe line Temperature, high; Effect on cloth blocking Adhesion, seams (Seam strength) Class 1 fire rating of insulated wall or wall and roof/ceiling panels, interior finish materials or coatings, and exterior wall systems Plastic building materials in construction, 2005 Edition

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NZS 4541:2007

FM Global Data Sheet 2-2 Installation rules for suppression mode automatic sprinklers, 2002 Edition

FM Global Data Sheet 2-7 Installation rules for sprinkler systems using control mode specific application (CMSA) ceiling sprinklers for storage application, 2005 Edition

FM Global Data Sheet 4-3N Medium and high expansion foam systems, 2001 Edition FM Global Data Sheet 7 -11 Belt conveyors, 2005 Edition FM Global Data Sheet 7-31 Storage of aerosol products, 2003 Edition FM Global Data Sheet 8-1 Commodity classification, 2004 Edition FM Global Data Sheet 8-18 Storage of hanging garments, 2000 Edition FM Global Data Sheet 8-29 Refrigerated storage, 2000 Edition FMRC 4880: 1994 Approval requirements for Class 1 fire classification with no height

LPCB LPS 1181:

Part 1 :2005

Part 2:2005

LPCB LPS 1208:2005

NFPA 11A-1999 UBC 26-3 UL 199:2005 UL 300:2005

restriction Series of fire growth tests for LPCB approval and listing of construction product systems Requirements and tests for built-up cladding and sandwich panel systems for use as the external envelope of buildings Requirements and tests for sandwich panels and built up systems for use as internal construction in buildings LPCB fire resistance requirements for elements of construction used to provide compartmentation Medium- and high-expansion foam systems Room fire test standard for interior of foam plastic systems Standard for automatic sprinklers for fire-protection service Safety for fire testing of fire extinguishing systems for protection of restaurant cooking areas

UL 1626:2001 Standard for Residential sprinklers for fire-protection service Environmental Protection Agency. Cross-connection control manual. Washington, DC: Office of ground water and drinking water, 2003. Fire Offices' Committee. Rules for automatic sprinkler installations, 29th ed. London: Fire Offices' Committee, 1968. New Zealand Building Code Handbook and compliance documents

NEW ZEALAND LEGISLATION

Building Act 2004 Building (Forms) Regulations 2004 Building (Specified Systems, Change the Use, and Earthquake-Prone Buildings) Regulations 2005 Building Regulations 1992 Chartered Professional Engineers of New Zealand Act 2002 Electricity Act 1992 Electricity Regulations 1997 Fire Service Act 1975 Fire Safety and Evacuation of Buildings Regulations 2006 Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (HSNO) Act 1996 Hazardous Substances (Classification) Regulations 2001 Resource Management Act (RMA)1991 Standards Act 1988

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NZS 4541 :2007

REVIEW OF STANDARDS

Suggestions for improvement of this Standard will be welcomed. They should be sent to the Chief Executive. Standards New Zealand. Private Bag 2439. Wellington 6140.

LATEST REVISIONS

The users of this Standard should ensure that their copies of the above-mentioned New Zealand Standards are the latest revisions. Amendments to referenced New Zealand and Joint Australian/New Zealand Standards can be found on www.standards.co.nz.

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NZS 4541 :2007

FOREWORD

This revised edition of NZS 4541 supersedes NZS 4541 :2003. It provides rules for the design, installation, and maintenance of sprinkler systems so that systems reliably achieve their fire control function. That function is twofold: firstly, the fire should be controlled within a specified area and secondly, control should be achieved before levels of toxic by-products of combustion become life­threatening.

It is intended that the Compliance Documents to the New Zealand Building Code and the Fire Safety and Evacuation of Buildings Regulations will reference this edition of the Standard, NZS 4541 :2007, as the means of compliance. This is subject to:

(a) Publication of an amendment to Acceptable Solution C/AS1 and F7/AS1 of the Compliance Documents to the New Zealand Building Code; and

(b) An amendment to the Fire Safety and Evacuation of Buildings Regulations.

These changes are expected to be made in the first half of 2008. Until then NZS 4541 :2003 remains current as the means of compliance. Once NZS 4541 :2003 is no longer referenced in the Acceptable Solution C/AS1 and F7/AS1 of the Compliance Documents to the New Zealand Building Code, and in the Fire Safety and Evacuation of Buildings Regulations, NZS 4541 :2003 will be advertised for withdrawal by Standards New Zealand.

For this reason there will be a transition period with both NZS 4541 :2003 and NZS 4541 :2007 in force. It is hoped that users will apply the latest edition where circ*mstances enable this so that experience is built up in working with NZS 4541 2007 before NZS 4541 :2003 is withdrawn.

If users require assistance over this interim period, the Committee recommends that guidance should be sought from territorial authorities, Standards New Zealand or the Fixed Fire Protection Formal Interpretation Committee.

Users of this edition of NZS 4541 should note that sprinkler systems certified under previous editions of NZS 4541 will not need to be upgraded as a result of the publication of NZS 4541 :2007 and the proposed amendment to the Regulations. This is due to the 'grandfathering' clause in Appendix F, which specifically provides that such systems are deemed to comply with NZS 4541 :2007 for the purposes of the Fire Safety and Evacuation of Buildings Regulations.

The basis of this Standard is protection of complete "firecells" or complete buildings or groups of buildings. The Standard has no integrity if applied to partial protection of areas that are not physically fire separated from others.

Users of this Standard need to see it as an integrated set of rules. The validity and effectiveness of anyone rule is likely to depend on adherence to other rules. It is not possible to ignore or vary sections of this Standard, except where this is provided for in the Standard. The importance of detail cannot be over-emphasised. Experience in New Zealand, and internationally, has shown repeatedly that sprinkler system failure is likely to be the result of inattention to small details. Users of the Standard are encouraged to apply all parts of the document.

This revised Standard includes some significant changes from previous editions of the Standard, especially water supplies and high piled storage design criteria. Many other changes have been made throughout the Standard.

The revision of NZS 4541 :2003 is based on the ability of many territorial authorities to supply at least one reliable public water supply.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Public water supplies have, in the past, been approved (or not approved) by the authority having jurisdiction, depending upon whether they met the reliability requirements set out in earlier editions of NZS 4541.

The authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) was replaced by a regime of sprinkler system certifiers (SSCs) from 2003. As a result, there is now no organisation responsible for ongoing monitoring of trends in the suitability of public water supplies to meet sprinkler system requirements.

The Fire Sprinkler Standards Committee is aware that some water supplies approved in the past, may not now comply with the requirements for an "approved" water supply under NZS 4541. There are a number of reasons why this deteriorating situation is occurring, such as:

(a) Water conservation measures which may include the installation of pressure reduction valves in public water mains, or shut down of water pumps during periods of the low draw-off, for example, during the early hours of the morning;

(b) Increased demand/draw-off from public water supplies;

(c) Ageing reticulations;

(d) Deteriorating reliability.

Added to these concerns is the vulnerability of public water supplies post earthquake and the vulnerability of reticulation pipework to earthquake damage.

It is important that water conservation measures are in place to conserve potable water supplies after an earthquake. Examples of such measures are automatic, seismic shock valves, or excess flow valves.

Fire following earthquake is a likely scenario, especially in areas where there is a reticulated gas system.1

It is recommended that those responsible for the design and specification of sprinkler systems advise building owners of the Committee's concerns at the declining suitability of many public water supplies for automatic sprinkler use, especially where the sprinkler system is reliant upon a public water supply.

Circ*mstances where reliance on public water supplies for automatic sprinkler use may require particular attention are:

(e) Where the proposed sprinkler system will have only a single town's main water supply, and the passive fire protection and fire egress requirements have been reduced, as permitted under the New Zealand Building Code, Compliance Document C/AS1, because sprinkler protection is provided. Indeed evacuation plans can be based on evacuation to a place of safety within the building. The Fire Safety and Evacuation of Building Regulations (made under the Fire Service Act) where there is an Approved Evacuation Scheme allow for staged evacuation to a place of safety within the building;

(f) Places of public entertainmenUassembly, accommodation and so on, where multiple lives may be at risk in the event of sprinkler non-performance;

(g) Extra-high hazard sprinkler systems.

1 A report by the New Zealand Lifelines Study Tour following the 17 January 1995 Great Hanshin Earthquake, highlighted the vulnerability of cast iron pipework in earthquake prone regions and cast iron pipework is quite common in New Zealand public water reticulations. The same report refers to 138 fires resulting from the

earthquake, 77 of these fires involved more than one building, with approximately 240 deaths due 10 fire following the earthquake.

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NZS 4541 :2007

The requirement for the authority having jurisdiction to determine whether a water supply is seismically vulnerable was introduced in 1996 during the first revision of the Standard, after the enactment of the Building Act 1991. With the introduction of competitive sprinkler system certifiers, the ability to have one central body to review water supplies has disappeared. The Committee has asked the Government to address this in the Building Code, or following analysis, in the next revision of this Standard.

Changes to Part 9 of the Standard now reflect that the majority of developments in the protection of high piled storage are based on research and full scale testing in the USA This has resulted in the Committee adopting a USA-based design approach for such hazards, as against the UK-based approach used in previous editions of the Standard. The change is significant, and includes fundamental changes such as the types of sprinklers to be used. The cooperation of Standards Australia in allowing the use of its work in adopting a USA-based approach in this Standard is gratefully acknowledged.

The role of the sprinkler system certifier (SSC) was re-examined to ensure that the advent of multiple Certifiers would not disadvantage building owners and other stakeholders involved in the life cycle of a sprinkler system. The Standard effectively places the basic design documentation and completion document in the public domain, subject to any confidentiality issues specified by the building owner.

In line with this review, the qualification of contractors was examined. Contractors will now be able to be partially listed within areas of expertise and experience. This is not intended to exclude contractors from competing in parts of the industry, but it is intended that if they venture into new fields, they will obtain provisional listing until competence is demonstrated. The key issue is that contractor listing is intended to indicate the ability and commitment of a contractor to fulfil their contractual obligations, so that building owners can expect that the end product will perform as expected. The Standard requires the SSC to work with a contractor to remedy any deficiencies in their operation before resorting to delisting them.

The levels of reliability required by this Standard are intended to maintain the existing record of satisfactory performance of sprinkler systems in New Zealand. Since the first systems were installed in the late 1880s, approved sprinklers have achieved their fire control function in beUer than 99.5 % of the fires in which they have operated. By contrast, most western countries achieve at best only 95 % successful performance.

In reviewing public comments made, the Committee has recommended to Standards New Zealand that a number of issues be reviewed during the next revision of the Standard. Additional recommendations and submissions on how the Standard can be improved are welcomed and can be directed to the Chief Executive, Standards New Zealand, Private Bag 2439, Wellington 6140.

AMENDMENTS

No. Date of issue Description Entered by, ____ -+ _____________ -+ _______________________________________ ~.anddaro

July 2009

xx

Amendment No. 1 is a correction amendment, which has Incorporated in been developed to fix a small number of editorial errors this edition, in the Standard. July 2009

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NZS 4541 :2007

Part 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

101 SCOPE This Standard is an integrated set of rules for the design, performance, installation and maintenance of automatic fire sprinkler systems in buildings or structures or in firecells which form part of a building.

102 INTERPRETATION For the purposes of this Standard, the word 'shall' identifies a mandatory requirement for compliance with this Standard. The word 'should' refers to practices which are advised or recommended.

This Standard contains both 'Normative' and 'Informative' Appendices. A 'Normative' Appendix is an integral part of the Standard, so compliance with 'shall' statements is therefore part of conformance with the Standard. An 'Informative' Appendix provides advice and supporting information to assist with understanding and conformance with the Standard, but does not form part of its mandatory requirements. Thus the term 'should' refers to practices which are advised or recommended.

Clauses prefixed by 'C' and printed in italic type on a grey screen are intended as comments on the corresponding clauses. They are not to be taken as the only or complete interpretation of the corresponding clause. Commentary clauses should be used as guidance when considering the mandatory requirements of compliance with this Standard.

The foreword, commentary, notes, figures and informative appendices are included to assist interpretation of the substantive clauses of this Standard.

Notes to tables form part of the mandatory requirements of this Standard whereas notes elsewhere are for information and guidance only.

In this Standard values for various parameters have been expressed as conversions of values originally expressed in foot-pound-second units. In some cases a hard conversion (rounded to the nearest whole number) has been used; in others a soft conversion has been applied. For example, the value 305 mm derives from a hard conversion of 12 inches, whereas 300 mm is the value obtained by a soft conversion. As the original values have inevitably been rounded to rational numbers, engineering judgement must be applied in interpreting this Standard and allowing appropriate tolerances on values of particular parameters where approved by a SSC.

The full titles of documents cited in this Standard are given in the Referenced Documents immediately preceding the Foreword.

103 DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this Standard, unless inconsistent with the context the following definitions apply:

NOTE Part 9 has specific definitions. For details of these, see 902,

AEROSOL. A product in pressurised containers of up to 1 litre capacity designed to be released as a spray with the potential to 'rocket' when exposed to fire.

AISLE. See 902.1 for definition.

APPROVED. Subject to reported examination and acceptance by a SSC as meeting the normative criteria of the Standard including, where applicable, reliable field performance.

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NZS 4541 :2007

ASSUMED AREA OF OPERATION (OR ASSUMED MAXIMUM AREA OF OPERATION). The maximum expected area of sprinkler operation in a controlled fire.

BANDED PAPER. See 902.2 for definition.

BIN BOX STORAGE. See 902.3 for definition.

BUNDLED CABLES. Any group of data, signal or power cables in bundles, trays or cable marshalling areas with a total cross-sectional area of more than 750 mm2 (which equates to a single 31 mm diameter cable, three 18 mm diameter cables, or ten 10 mm cables).

BUNDLED TYRES. See 902.4 for definition.

CARPET STORAGE. See 902.5 for definition.

CERTIFICATION. A statement of compliance of a sprinkler installation with this Standard.

CLOSED ARRAY (roll paper storage). See 902.6 for definition.

COMBINED MAIN. A pipe manifold normally located within a valve enclosure (404.1.2), supplied directly by more than one approved water supply, via check valves.

COMMODITY. The combination of product, packaging material, container and material handling aids (e.g. pallet) upon which commodity classification is based. (See 902.7.)

CONTRACTOR. An organisation or person that carries out one or more of the following:

(a) Project management;

(b) Design;

(c) Supply;

(d) Erection;

(e) Fabrication;

(f) Maintenance and testing of sprinkler systems (see 113); or

(g) Routine inspection.

CUT-OFF SPRINKLER. One or more sprinklers arranged to discharge over the face of a door or end wall of a passageway.

DESIGN DENSITY (DENSITY OF DISCHARGE). The depth of water discharged in a given period of time expressed as mm/min (which is equivalent to L1min.m2

).

DESIGN FLOW. The minimum flow rate required to supply the assumed area of operation with the specified density of discharge or the minimum flow rate required to operate the design number of sprinklers at the specified minimum operating pressure.

DESIGN POINT/S. The hydraulically remote assumed area/s of operation in a sprinkler system.

NOTE - Pipework downstream of the design pOint is pre-calculated and given in tables in the Standard. Design points are deSignated by letter on layout drawings and are classified as 4 or 18 sprinkler point and so on, according to the class of hazard. There will normally be more than one design point in any single installation.

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NZS 4541 :2007

DESIGN PRESSURE. The minimum pressure required immediately downstream of the alarm valve to induce the design flow for each area of the protected building.

DISTRIBUTION PIPES. Pipes directly feeding range pipes. (See figure 1.1.)

Distlibutlon p'pa

Distribution

Dropper (range pipe)

J_

Hea(ls direct off range or max. 300 rnm droppers

Figure 1.1 - Definition of range and distribution pipes

DOUBLE ROW RACK (DRR). See 902.8 for definition.

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NZS 4541 :2007

DRAFT CURTAIN. See 902.9 for definition.

DRIVE-THROUGH RACKS. A racking system incorporating sufficient space for only one drive­through aisleway, the position of which is selected by moving individual racks sideways or a rack system of more than one pallet deep in which a forklift can drive into each pallet row to place or remove pallets.

DUNNAGE. See 902.10 for definition.

ENCAPSULATION. A method of packaging consisting of a plastic sheet completely enclosing the sides and top of a pallet load containing a combustible commodity or a group of combustible commodities or combustible packages. Totally noncombustible commodities on wood pallets, enclosed only by a plastic sheet as described above, are not considered to be encapsulated.

Encapsulation only affects protection requirements for pervious Category 1, 2, 3 and 4 commodities that are stored in racks and protected by the type of sprinklers nominated in 904.1.1. Protection requirements for solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin box storage are not affected by the presence of encapsulation.

END-CENTRE ARRANGEMENT. An arrangement with range pipes on both sides of the distribution pipes. (See figure 1.2.)

Three end-centre with centred feed

A

'"

,... -""'

'""

"'" -'"

-

.... -

.....

'"' -

'" '"' ~ ""'

,....

- 'Y'

0 1"1',10 end-centre

with end feed

Figure 1.2 - Typical end-centre arrangement

A

.....

'"'

..0

r-.. ~

""'

'"

END-SIDE ARRANGEMENT. An arrangement with range pipes on one side only of the distribution pipes. (See figure 1.3.)

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'"

~

A

,.,

~

(a) Two end-side with centml feed

~

~ - ~

..1"\ '"' po.

~ '" '" ~

Three end-side with end feed

Figure 1.3 - Typical end-side arrangement

FACE SPRINKLER. See 902.12 for definition.

NZS 4541 :2007

FAST RESPONSE SPRINKLER. A sprinkler with a thermal element with a Response Time Index (RTI) of less than 50 (m.s)1/2.

FIRECELL. Any space, including a group of contiguous spaces on the same or different levels within a building, which is enclosed by any combination of fire separations, external walls, roofs and floors.

FIRE DOOR. A doorset, single or multiple leaf, having a specific fire resistance rating and in certain situations a smoke control capability and forming part of a fire separation and arranged so that, in the event of a fire, if the door is not already closed it will close, and be held closed, automatically. Refer to AS/NZS 1905.1.

FIRE RESISTANCE RATING (FRR). The term used to classify fire resistance of primary and secondary elements as determined in the standard test for fire resistance, or in accordance with a specific calculation method verified by experimental data from standard fire resistance tests. It comprises three numbers giving the time in minutes for which each of the criteria, stability, integrity and insulation are satisfied, and is presented always in that order, the values specified being minima.

FIRE SEPARATION. Any building element which separates firecells or firecells and safepaths, and provides a specific fire resistance rating.

FLUE SPACES. See 902.13 for definition.

FULLY LOADED (tyre storage). See 902.14 for definition.

GREEN TYRES. See 902.15 for definition.

GRIDDED PIPE-CONFIGURATION. Installation pipework wherein there are multiple waterways to each sprinkler.

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NZS 4541 :2007

HEAVYWEIGHT PAPER (roll paper storage). See 902.16 for definition.

HORIZONTAL BARRIERS (within and above racks). See 902.17 for definition.

HORIZONTAL FLUE SPACE. See 902.18 for definition.

IN-PROCESS NON-RACK STORAGE (aerosols). See 902.19 for definition.

IN-RACK SPRINKLERS (IRS) See 902.20 for definition.

LIGHTWEIGHT PAPER (roll paper storage). See 902.22 for definition.

LISTED, LISTING. In reference to specific makes and models of equipment, materials, procedures, organisations and facilities required or permitted by this Standard, means that such has been determined by a Sprinkler System Certifier to meet relevant standards, and to be adequate for application where permitted or required by this Standard subject to any conditions or limitations specified in the listing.

LOCATIONS OTHER THAN WAREHOUSES (tyre storage). See 902.21 for definition.

LOOPED PIPE-CONFIGURATION. Installation pipework wherein there are multiple waterways to each range but only one way flow in the range.

LOOPED TERMINAL PIPE-CONFIGURATION. Installation pipework wherein there are multiple waterways, in the distribution pipework only, up to the design point.

MAIN DISTRIBUTION PIPES. Main pipes feeding distribution pipework.

MEDIUM WEIGHT PAPER (roll paper storage). See 902.23 for definition.

MOVABLE RACK. See 902.24 for definition.

MULTIPLE ROW RACK (MRR). See 902.25 for definition.

NETWORK UTILITY OPERATOR. The operator of the water supply system, irrespective of whether this is a local government agency or a private enterprise.

ON-FLOOR STORAGE (tyre storage). See 902.26 for definiton.

ON-SIDE STORAGE (tyre storage). See 902.27 for definition.

ON-TREAD STORAGE (tyre storage). See 902.28 for definition.

OPEN ARRAY (roll paper storage). See 902.29 for definition.

OPEN-TOP COIVIBUSTIBLE CONTAINERS. See 902.30 for definition.

PALLETISED STORAGE. See 902.31 for definition.

PARTIALLY LOADED (tyre storage). See 902.32 for definition.

PORTABLE RACK. See 902.33 for definition.

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NZS 4541 :2007

QUICK RESPONSE SPRINKLER. A sprinkler with a high thermal sensitivity and listed as a Quick Response Sprinkler.

RACK DEPTH. The width of the rack measured from aisle face to aisle face including any protruding storage. See figure 9.2(a).

RACK STORAGE. See 902.34 for definition.

RANGE PIPES. Any pipes on which sprinklers are attached either directly or through short arm pipes which except in the case of drops to individual sprinklers on extra light and ordinary hazard installations, do not exceed 300 mm in length. (See figure 1.1.)

ROOF/CEILING SPRINKLERS. See 902.35 for definition.

SHELF STORAGE. See 902.36 for definition.

SINGLE ROW RACK. See 902.37 for definition.

SOLID-PILE STORAGE. See 902.38 for definition.

SHELVING, SOLID OR SLATTED. See 902.39 for definition.

STANDARD ARRAY (roll paper storage). See 902.40 for definition.

SPECIAL RESPONSE SPRINKLER. A sprinkler listed as having a thermal element with an RTI of more than 50 (m.s)1/2, and less than 80 (m.s)1I2.

SPRINKLER INSTALLATION. That part of the system downstream from, and including, the main stop valve.

SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A system including:

(a) The water supply pipes from the boundary of the protected premises to the sprinkler valves;

(b) Any static water supply on the protected premises;

(c) Any pump providing water supply and its driving engine, motor and control equipment;

(d) The control valves and all appurtenances thereto;

(e) The main stop valve anti-interference device;

(f) Any fire alarm signalling device;

(g) Compressors, air receivers and related equipment forming part of a dry pipe system;

(h) All pipework, sprinklers and appurtenances downstream of the control valves;

(i) Storage restriction signs;

U) First aid firefighting appliances to the extent required by this Standard;

NOTE This is not a requirement for a sprinkler system to comply with the Compliance Documents of the New Zealand Building Code.

(k) Any fire rated wall, door or partition required by this Standard;

NOTE This may not be a requirement for a sprinkler system to comply with the Compliance Documents of the New Zealand Building Code.

(I) Backflow prevention devices between the boundary and the main stop valve.

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SPRINKLER SYSTEM CERTIFIER (SSC). An organisation accredited by an internationally recognised accreditation body to AS/NZS ISOIIEC 17020 as a Type A inspection body as competent to fulfil the roles as defined in this Standard.

STANDARD RESPONSE SPRINKLER. A sprinkler listed as having a thermal element with an RTI of more than 80 (m.s)112.

STORAGE HEIGHT. See 902.41 for definition.

TERMINAL PIPE-CONFIGURATION (OR "CHRISTMAS TREE CONFIGURATION"). Installation pipework on which there is only one waterway to each sprinkler.

TYRE RACK (tyre storage). See 902.42 for definition.

VERTICAL BARRIERS. See 902.43 for definition.

WATER SUPPLY. The sources of water and includes the waterway and anCillary equipment up to but not including the sprinkler installation main stop valve.

104 INSPECTION, TESTING AND MAINTENAI'JCE To ensure that sprinkler systems operate reliably, they shall be tested, inspected and maintained in accordance with the requirements of Part 12 of this Standard, and that any defects that are identified shall be rectified in a timely manner.

105 SEISMIC RESISTANCE

105.1 General All components of the sprinkler system shall be designed and installed so as to remain operational at the earthquake loadings specified in NZS 1170.5 having regard to the seismic design of the building elements which support, or are connected to, the system. Systems conforming with 403.12.1 (b) shall satisfy this requirement with respect to pipework.

NOTE In new buildings, the seismic design of the system should be developed in conjunction with that of the building.

105.2 Equipment All installed sprinkler components and equipment shall be provided with horizontal and vertical restraint e.g. pumps, tanks, valves, engines and batteries, and all connections to the plant made secure, in accordance with NZS 1170.5.

106 WORKMANSHIP

106.1 Workmanship on all parts of a sprinkler system shall be consistent with best trade practice and no workmanship shall be permitted which will prevent the system from fulfilling its design function.

106.2 Materials and components shall be appropriate for the ambient environmental conditions, the service conditions which apply, and the intended service life.

107 TYPICAL ARRANGEMENTS Typical layouts for sprinkler systems, water supplies and pipe arrays are provided in figure 1.1 to figure 1.4 inclusive. For detailed requirements see: Part 4 - System components Part 6 - Water supply.

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Ordinary hazard design point

Supply pipes

NZS 4541 :2007

~ /Ordinary hazard '< 18 head array

~ ~

> .----------- Riser (distribution pipe)

Distribution pipe

distribution pipe

Fi(e sBivice ink;t

40 mm branch -iow-dRC1and uses

Figure 1.4 - Typical fire sprinkler system

108 WELDING

108.1 Compliance All welding on carbon steel pipes shall comply with the requirements of BS 2971 for Class 2 operating conditions except the qualification of welders for which 108.2 applies. The provision in BS 2971 to allow alternative joint preparation is permitted by this Standard whether or not there is a specific agreement between the contracting parties, provided that for butt welded pipes there is adequate weld penetration.

108.2 Qualification of welders All welds shall be completed by welders holding current certification in terms of NZS 4711 for the type of welding employed.

109 HYDROSTATIC TESTS

109.1 Prior to completion, all sprinkler systems shall by hydrostatically tested at a minimum of 1,400 kPa for a period of two hours.

NOTE - To minimise the possibility of water damage from open pipe ends and the like, it may be advisable to carry out a low pressure air test before the introduction of water into the system.

109.2 Where portions of a sprinkler system are subjected to working pressures of greater than 1,050 kPa, they shall be tested at a pressure of 350 kPa in excess of system working pressure.

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NZS 4541 :2007

109.3 Extensions and alterations not exceeding 20 heads do not require hydrostatic testing.

109.4 The test pressure shall be read from a gauge located at the low elevation point of the system, or portion being tested.

109.5 When deluge systems are being tested, the nozzles shall be replaced with plugs, or alternatively, the operating elements of open sprinklers shall be removed after the test is completed.

109.6 A successful test will result in no measurable pressure drop using the gauges specified in 406.

109.7 The fire service inlet shall be hydrostatically tested to a working pressure of 1,600 kPa and a copy of the test certificate for this device shall be provided to a SSC with completion documentation provided in accordance with 112.2.

NOTE - This test is specified at a higher pressure than other sprinkler components following the field failure of a large square fabricated fire service inlet.

109.8 In addition to the standard hydrostatic test, dry pipe and pre-action systems shall be subjected to an air pressure leakage test at 300 kPa for 24 hours. Any leakage greater than 10 kPa (when adjusted for any temperature differential) shall be corrected.

110 ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF sse A SSC shall be responsible for certification of the sprinkler system. That role shall include, but not be limited to:

(a) Auditing design;

(b) Auditing installation;

(c) Auditing commissioning;

(d) Listing of contractors;

(e) Listing of equipment;

(f) Approving equivalent variations in the design and/or components;

(g) Maintaining records;

(h) Certification that the system complies with this Standard.

A SSC shall employ an appropriately qualified chartered professional engineer for the purpose of such certification.

Where the Standard refers to a SSC it shall be the SSC responsible for the certification of the particular automatic fire sprinkler system under consideration.

NOTE-(1) It is desirable that the chartered professional engineer be a professional member of IPENZ in the fire practice

college. (2) Chartered professional engineers are as defined in the Chartered Professional Engineers of New Zealand Act.

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111 FORMAL INTERPRETATIONS

111.1 Requests for interpretations, rulings or clarifications received by Standards New Zealand directly shall be reviewed by a subcommittee of the Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems Committee (P 4541) which prepared this Standard for the Standards Council established under the Standards Act.

C111.1 Tl1eFixedFire Protection ~ormalln!erfjretation Sgmmittee w~ich was constituiecJ to deal with querie~ and interpretationsJJf a ntfmb§trofflrepro{~ctiS(r1Standardsn~sjurisdictiDnto interpret the wording of the .current pub/ishededition (60th NZS/4541:2Q03 and NZS:c4541:20??untii NZS 4541:200:3;s withdrawn) of the reJe"(ant$t~n~ardon/~. Mattf!~ not mentioned in the Standard are outside the scope of .this committee and shoulC;/ be dealt with~ccordingto normal business practicec

Requests for forma/iQterpretatio?ss,Houldbese'ltto the General Manager, Standards Development, Standards. New Zealand, Rrivate Bag 2439, Wellington 614:Q;An administration fee will be collected by$tahdardsNew Zealand lor the processing ofarequest.

111.2 Formal interpretations shall be made when:

(a) An interpretation on a clause within this Standard is required;

(b) There is ambiguity in this Standard and clarification is required;

(c) Clarification of wording in this Standard is required because it does not achieve the intent agreed to by the committee;

(d) Fire testing or sprinkler system failures have been demonstrated and therefore the provisions of this Standard are inadequate, and a recommendation on amending the Standard is required and is submitted back to Standards New Zealand for consideration; or

(e) A recommendation is required because the wording within this Standard does not achieve the intent of the committee.

112 SPRINKLER SYSTEM CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE METHODOLOGY

112.1 To enable a Sprinkler System Certifier (SSG) to evaluate for approval the following basic design decisions:

(a) Separation from unsprinklered fire loads;

(b) Density and assumed area of operation;

(c) Water supplies; and

(d) Method of alarm

the contractor shall, before installation is commenced, provide all necessary drawings, calculations and other descriptive information. Generally this shall include at least the following:

(e) Name by which protected premises will be known, and full address;

(f) Name of owner;

(g) Whether there are unprotected fire loads within 10m of the protected premises;

(h) The nature of any concealed spaces within the protected premises;

(i) The means by which separation from unprotected areas or fire loads will be achieved;

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U) Relevant constructional details of ceilings, roofs, floors, exterior walls and walls separating sprinkle red and non-sprinklered areas;

(k) The uses (occupancies) to which each part of the protected buildings will be put;

(I) Evidence of the owner's intentions with regard to the storage of combustibles;

(m) The hazard classifications, densities and area of operation proposed;

(n) For mixed hazard category storage, full details of the storage arrangements, proposed categories, proposed densities, and proposed areas of operation;

(o) The height of the highest sprinkler in each hazard classification area;

(p) If external sprinklers are used, the size of heads and the number designed to operate;

(q) The class of system proposed;

(r) The type of system proposed;

(s) A description of the nature and performance of the water supplies accompanied by a hydraulic graph of each, on which the design flows and pressures shall be marked together with the method and time of test:

(i) Town's main supplies including the name of the street and the diameter of the mains

(ii) Pumped supplies including the make, model, impeller size and rotational speed of the pump and the power rating and method of drive of the motor

(iii) The capacity, location and filling method of tanks;

(t) The type and location of the fire brigade receiving equipment or other alarm to which the system will be connected;

(u) The number, size and location of alarm valves and the area to be protected by each installation;

(v) The number and type of hand operated fire-fighting appliances which will be provided;

(w) A plan showing the following information:

(i) Scale

(ii) North point

(iii) Fire separations and doors

(iv) External sprinklers

(v) Hazard classifications, densities and assumed maximum areas of operation

(vi) Height of highest sprinkler of each hazard classification area

(vii) Area protected by each installation

(viii) Location of fire sprinkler inlet and control valves

(ix) Location of subsidiary stop valves

(x) Location of drain valves

(xi) Water supplies showing all valves between the source and alarm valve and, if a B2 system, the mains, interconnections and valves

(xii) The power supply route for electric motor driven pumps including all switchgear. (If it is impracticable to supply this information at the design stage, it shall be provided as soon as possible thereafter)

(xiii) The position of any fire alarm panel;

(x) A typical cross section showing the highest head(s), the height of the alarm valves and, where used, pump house, pump, tank and suction inlet;

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(y) Details and location of alarm devices including pressure switches, isolation switches and any flow switches;

(z) In the case of an extension to an existing system, where the floor area of the extension exceeds that protected by 18 sprinkler heads, all the above information with:

(i) Details of the water supplies for the system before and after extension

(ii) A plan showing the total protected areas before and after extension;

(aa) A statement as to whether the installation is to be fully hydraulically calculated;

(bb) The valve opening pressure differential of the alarm valve to be used; and

(cc) For special systems such as Suppression mode sprinklers, dry pipe systems and antifreeze systems, any further information that a sse may require.

112.2 Before final inspection, the contractor shall provide to a sse: (a) A notice of completion;

(b) As-built sprinkler and pipe layout plans with seismic resistance provisions, including whether the design is to 403.12.1 (a) or (b);

(c) Hydraulic calculations;

(d) For fully hydraulically calculated installations, the information specified in 1006.2;

(e) A copy of the current data sheet for each type of residential head used;

NOTE A contractor may agree an administrative procedure with a sse whereby a data sheet reference may be used when the authority has the data sheet on file;

(f) Any other relevant information such as fire reports, building consent requirements, etc;

(g) Identification of any changes between the proposed design and the installed system including revised design proposal forms and block diagrams; and

(h) A copy of the pressure test certificate for the fire service inlet assembly (see 109,7).

112.3 If so required by a sse, the contractor shall attend the final inspection and operate any pumps or other equipment.

112.4 A sse shall provide the following approvals:

(a) A written acceptance or rejection of the basic design decisions, descriptively specifying the basis of the approvals given; and

(b) After final inspection, and if the system is found to comply with the Standard, a written certificate of compliance, (as specified in Appendix U), which shall have currency for not more than 28 months, unless compliance no longer remains due to changes or deterioration of the sprinkler system, building or its contents. See figure U1.

112.5 A copy of the certificate of compliance shall be displayed in a permanent holder at the control valves of each sprinkler system.

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112.6 For systems installed to this Standard, a sse shall make available to listed contractors the information contained in 112.1, 112.2 and 112.4, subject to receipt of consent from the building owner, where practical.

113 LISTING OF CONTRACTORS

113.1 All work on sprinkler systems shall be undertaken under the supervision of listed contractors.

113.2 Only those contractors which a SSC has determined satisfy the criteria set out in Appendix R shall be listed.

113.3 The form of listing shall be by means of a certificate in the form determined by a SSC. An example certificate is shown in Appendix S.

The certificate shall include at least the following information:

(a) The legal name and physical address of the contractor;

(b) The names of key personnel with their scope and grade of listing. This information may be included in a schedule to the certificate;

(c) The scope of listing, giving the work for which the contractor is listed, in accordance with Appendix R, table R 1 ;

(d) Whether the listing is provisional or full;

(e) The date from which the listing takes effect;

(f) The date of listing expiry, or period of validity of the certificate;

(g) The name and authorising signature of a SSC senior manager or principal, plus date of signing.

(h) A unique certificate number;

(i) The SSC's legal name.

113.4 The listing shall have currency from date of issue for a period of 12 months for provisional listing or 24 months for full listing.

113.5 Contractors involved in routine inspections shall be accredited by an internationally recognised accreditation body to AS/NZS ISOIlEe 17020 as a Type A inspection body to inspect fire sprinkler systems for compliance with NZS 4541.

113.6 Other than for routine inspection contractors, provisional listing shall be awarded upon compliance to all requirements of the criteria and standards of competence with the exception of AS/NZS ISO 9000 certification and the completion of a fire sprinkler system.

NOTE - Provisional listing is the process by which a contractor with limited experience may become fully listed. The listing sse may require additional inspections of various aspects of the contractor's work to ensure that installed systems are fully compliant with the Standard.

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113.7 Full listing shall be awarded upon compliance to all requirements of the criteria and standards of competence, including a current AS/NZS ISO 9000 certification and satisfactory performance of design and construction as assessed by the listing SSG.

113.8 The contractor's quality management system shall be certified to AS/NZS ISO 9000 by a certification body independently accredited to ISO Guide 62 by an internationally recognised accreditation body (e.g. JAS-ANZ).

The scope of the AS/NZS ISO 9000 certification shall cover the activities and systems applicable to the contractor's listing.

114 LISTING OF EQUIPMENT

114.1 Only equipment which a SSG considers satisfy the criteria, as set out in Appendix T, shall be listed.

114.2 The form of listing shall be by means of a duly completed certificate in the form set out in Appendix T.

114.3 In listing equipment, materials, procedures, organisations or facilities, a SSG shall determine that any specific requirements of this Standard have been met and that there is sound evidence to indicate reliability of performance.

114.4 Items of equipment having Underwriters' Laboratories (UL), Factory Mutual Approvals (FM Global) or Loss Prevention Gouncil (LPG) approval or listing for equivalent service, shall on presentation of evidence of such approval or listing to a SSG, be listed pursuant to this Standard unless a SSG considers that the approved or listed item is not suitable or is insufficiently reliable. Reasons for any decision not to list shall be provided by a SSG.

114.5 Listings shall be limited to the tenor and qualifications of a SSG listing document and shall cease to have effect from the date of any signed notice of withdrawal of listing issued by a SSG.

115 WITHDRAWAL OF LISTING A SSG shall withdraw any listing of a contractor or equipment if it is found on examination of the work or the equipment to be defective, or to have performed inadequately or in an unreliable manner. Any withdrawal of contractors or equipment shall take place in accordance with Appendix R5(a) or Appendix T2(b), and only if there is no evidence of corrective action being undertaken to remedy the deficiency.

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116 EXISTING INSTALLATIONS This Standard does not require that systems approved to previous editions of NZS 4541 be upgraded. For the purposes of complying with legislation, such as the New Zealand Building Code and the Fire Safety and Evacuation of Buildings regulations, existing sprinkler systems that are certified as complying with previous editions of NZS 4541 may, for the purposes of that legislation, be deemed to meet the requirements of NZS 4541 :2007.

Existing sprinkler protected buildings subject to alterations, additions or a change of use may require the sprinkler system to be upgraded as described in Appendix F.

NOTE-(1) If an existing building is being altered (including additions), the provisions of Section 112 of the Building Act apply. (2) If a building undergoes a change of use, the provisions of Section 115 of the Building Act apply. (3) For information on change of use, reference should be made to the Building (specified systems, change the use,

and earthquake-prone buildings) Regulations. A change of use would potentially include a change in the types of goods being stored in the building, or the manner (particularly the height) in which they are stored, which would increase or change the design basis required for the system.

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Part 2 BASIC RULES OF DESIGN

201 INSTALLER TO BE LISTED All work on sprinkler systems shall be undertaken under the supervision of listed contractors.

202 MINIMUM REQUIRED DISCHARGE AND DESIGN FLOW

202.1 Every sprinkler system shall be designed to deliver a minimum flow (the "design flow") to each area of the protected building.

202.2 Water supplies shall be sized to permit the design flow to be maintained for a period specified by this Standard.

202.3 To establish the minimum required discharge, the fire hazard, (or intended fire hazard), of each area of the protected building shall be determined in accordance with this Standard and shall be specifically approved. Thereafter, the minimum required discharge and the assumed area of operation shall be determined by reference to Parts 7,8 or 9 as appropriate.

NOTE - The expression "fire hazard" in this context is not intended to have the same meaning given to this expression in the New Zealand Building Code.

203 DETERMINATION OF FIRE HAZARD

203.1 Classes of occupancy

203.1.1

Three broad classes of fire hazard are hereby established:

(a) Extra light hazard (ELH): Non-industrial occupancies where the amount and combustibility of the contents is low;

(b) Ordinary hazard (OH): Commercial and industrial occupancies involving the handling, processing and storage of mainly ordinary combustible materials unlikely to develop intensely burning fires in the initial stages. This occupancy class is further divided, for the purposes of determining assumed area of operation, into four sub-groups - viz:

(i) Group 1 (OH 1 )

(ii) Group 2(OH2)

(iii) Group 3(OH3)

(iv) Group 3 Special (OH3S);

NOTE The term storage includes the warehousing or the temporary depositing of goods or materials while undergoing process.

(c) Extra high hazard (EHH): Commercial and industrial occupancies having high fire loads:

(i) Where the materials handled or processed are mainly of an extra hazardous nature likely to develop rapid and intensely burning fire (extra high hazard process risk)

(ii) Involving high piling of goods beyond the limits specified in 203.3.4.

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203.1.2

Every area of the protected building shall be assigned to one of the above classes and/or respective subgroups according to the following three factors of fire hazard:

(a) The fire load;

(b) The rate offire spread and development;

(c) The extent of potential fire spread.

203.2 Classification schedules of occupancies

203.2.1

Table 2.1 is a representative schedule of occupancies to which is assigned a particular hazard classification. For ease of reference, the schedule is divided into 8 generic groups.

NOTE The table is not an authoritative guide to the occupancy classification to which a building should be protected. For example, while schools would generally be protected to extra light hazard classification, areas such as technology blocks, auditoriums and laboratories should be assessed on a case by case basis as a higher classification may be warranted.

203.2.2

Where, with respect to the three factors of fire hazard referred to in 203.1.2, the fire hazard of a particular area of the protected building is typically that of one of the occupancies in the schedule, then the hazard classification of that area shall be that specified in table 2.1 .

203.2.3

In other cases, the classification shall be that of an occupancy in the schedule which, having regard to each of the three factors of fire hazard, most closely approximates the fire hazard of the area being classified.

203.2.4

Classification of an area as ordinary hazard occupancy is subject to storage of combustible materials not exceeding the height limitations specified in 203.3.4, otherwise the classification shall be extra high hazard requiring the density appropriate to the storage pattern. See also 903.6 for Incidental EHH Storage of less than 20 m2

.

203.2.5

Apart from storage present in small storage areas and drying rooms, protected in the manner set down in 704, any occupancy which would otherwise be extra light hazard shall, if used for storage of combustibles, be ordinary hazard Group 3 (subject to 203.2.4).

203.2.6

Rooms of ordinary hazard group 1, 2 and 3 occupancies in buildings or fire cells of predominantly extra light hazard occupancies may be protected using a room design basis as follows:

(a) The room shall be separated from the extra light hazard area by a lintel of at least 200 mm depth;

(b) The total number of sprinklers calculated to operate in the ordinary hazard room shall be the total number of heads in the room, noting that the maximum number of heads operating shall not exceed the limits specified in Part 8.

NOTE Examples of occupancies where this approach may be applied include OH3 retail stores in ELH hotel lobbies or OH2 metalworking shops in schools.

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Table 2.1 - Representative schedule of occupancies

(a) Educational Dairy produce: Art galleries ELH - casein, milk powder, butter and cheese OH3 Libraries (excluding stack rooms) ELH - other dairy products OH2 Schools ELH Distilleries EHH Process Universities ELH Electrical/electronic manufacturing and Teaching laboratories assembly (predominantly plastic

(using flammable liquids) OH3 components) EHH Process Fish:

(b) Residentia/ cutting and packing OH2 Boarding houses ELH - other processing and products OH3 Hospitals ELH Firelighter manufacturers EHH Process Hotels (residential portion) ELH Fireworks and explosives EHH Process Motels (residential portion) ELH Flammable liquids: Prisons ELH laboratories OH3 Residential clubs ELH processing OH3S Youth hostels ELH storage EHH

- spraying EHH Process (c) Public assembly Floor cloth and linoleum manufacturers EHH Process

Airport public areas (excluding kiosks) ELH Inert materials and compounds OH1 Amusem*nt arcades OH3 Leather, skins and furs OH3 Bars, cafeterias, dining rooms, meeting Metal working and engineering workshops OH2

rooms and restaurants OH1 Paper and paper products OH3 Churches OHi Plastic goods: Cinemas/auditoriums/theatres OH3 manufacturing and process works Clubs (non-residential) OH3 (where plastic is one of the basic Exhibition halls OH3S materials in the operation) EHH Process Exhibition halls (ceilings greater than 18 m) EHH Process Resin and turpentine manufacturers EHH Process Grandstands OH3 Rubber: Gymnasiums (excluding equipment foamed EHH Process

storage) OHi other than foamed OH3 Museums (unless otherwise approved) OH3 Tar distillers EHH Process Night clubs OH3 Textile fibres and products OH3 Recreation ground and Wood and wood products OH3

racecourse pavilions OH1 (g) Miscellaneous

(d) Energy supply Ai rcraft ha nge rs EHH Process Briquette and smokeless fuels OH3 Boathouses OH3 Coal fired plants EHH Process Bus and tram barns OH3 ElectriCity generation and distribution Refer NFPA Car parking OH2 L.P.G. storage EHH Process Cinematographic and T.V.

production studios OH3 (e) Commercial and mercantile Combustible piers and bridges OH3

Commercial laundries OH3 Heavy vehicle repair workshops EHH Process Retail shops and malls OH3 Motor vehicle repair garages OH3 Offices, staff amenity and cafeteria areas ELH Plant rooms (building services)

in commercial buildings only OHi (f) Processing and production Plant rooms (industrial) OH2

Aircraft engine testing EHH Process Agricultural produce: (h) Shipping and storage - high moisture content Aerosol containers with more than

(e.g. fruit and vegetables) OHi 25% flammable product EHH S C' - low moisture content Baled fibres and waste paper storage EHH S C'

(e.g. grain, straw and tobacco) OH3 Carpet storage EHH S C' Animal and animal products: Container stuffing and unstuffing sheds

cutting, boning and packing OH2 (storage, as defined in 203.3.4) OH3S - other processing OH3 Distilled spirits storage EHH S C' Beverages - non-alcoholic: General warehousing and storage

processing OH2 (storage, as defined in 203.3.4) OH3 - storage OH3 Hanging garments storage EHH S C' Breweries: Idle pallet storage EHH S C' - processing OH2 Library stack rooms OH3 - storage OH3 Theatrical scenery store EHH Process Boat building sheds OH3S Transit sheds (storage, as defined in Celluloid manufacturers & celluloid 203.3.4) OH3

goods' manufacturers EHH Process Roll paper storage EHH S C' Combustible compounds and chemicals Rubber tyre storage EHH S C*

(excluding manufacture or extensive use of flammable liquids) OH3

* EHH Special Commodity - see 203.3.3 and 907.

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203.3 High-piled storage risks

203.3.1 Sprinkler protection

The sprinkler protection of high-piled storage risks depends on the method of storage, the hazardous nature of the materials being stored and the height of the storage. The categorisation of materials and products listed in Appendix B should be considered as indicative examples only. Considered judgement must be exercised in order to fully protect the storage area effectively. Classifying products based solely on the following categories can be misleading because of the variances in the materials or configurations from one model or manufacturer to another.

The relative hazard of a commodity is a function of both the material and its packaging and storage configuration. For example, metal parts in cardboard cartons would be considered as Category 1, however, when the parts are handled and stored within plastic boxes, the arrangement should be protected as a plastic (Category 5 or 6) commodity. This is due to the plastic boxes increasing the overall total fire load beyond the level for which a Category 1 based sprinkler system is designed.

Alternatively, plastic products in cardboard cartons are protected to Category 5 or 6 depending on the type of plastic, but should those same items be stored in open topped metal boxes, then the classification can be taken to be Category 3. In this example, the metal containers limit the amount of air available for burning and reduce the number of continuous vertical and horizontal plastic surfaces.

203.3.2 Mixed category goods

In many warehouse environments a variety of goods is being stored. It is not suitable to 'average out' the categories of the commodities being stored. The fire protection shall be based upon the highest hazard commodity present. An alternative is to segregate the higher class materials and protect them accordingly.

However, maintaining separation of higher hazard goods can prove very difficult in normal warehouse operations. Therefore, unless the quantity and location of higher hazard goods can be strictly controlled, the overall classification of the storage area shall be based upon the highest class of goods present.

203.3.2.1 Use of plastic pallets for storage of commodities Unless listed pallets are used to support stored commodities, the classification of the commodity shall be increased by one level. The additional weight of the plastic pallet shall not be factored into the plastic weight of the commodity itself. The classification shall be increased as follows:

Category 1, Category 2, Category 3 and Category 4, shall be increased to Category 2, Category 3, Category 4 and Category 5, respectively. A change in class classification shall not be needed when the commodity itself is considered a plastic.

203.3.2.2 Free flowing materials Solid piled storage of plastic or paper bags and sacks of greater than 0.025 m3 capacity containing free flowing inert commodities such as minerals, seeds, powdered detergents, and salt in powdered, granular, flake, pellet or similar forms, on wooden pallets can be classified as noncombustible commodities. A fire will burn through the bags causing the material to flow or spill out, filling up the flue spaces and reducing the fire intensity. This same effect does not occur in racks. Protect inert goods in this form stored in racks as Class 1 commodities. This does not apply to plastics.

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203.3.2.3 Expanded plastic commodities Foamed or cellular (expanded) plastics are those in which the density is reduced by the presence of numerous small cells throughout their mass. The fire risk associated with these materials is considered significantly higher than 'unexpanded' goods of the same materials.

203.3.2.4 High hazard - Storage occupancies Category 1 Category 1 commodities are equivalent to noncombustible products stored on wood pallets, within ordinary corrugated cardboard cartons.

203.3.2.5 High hazard - Storage occupancies - Category 2 Category 2 commodities are equivalent to Category 1 products stored in wooden crates and boxes, within multiple thickness cardboard cartons or similarly combustible packaging materials on wood pallets.

203.3.2.6 High hazard Storage occupancies Category 3 Category 3 commodities are equivalent to ordinary combustible products, such as packaged or unpackaged wood, paper or natural fibre cloth, or products made from these materials on wood pallets. Class 3 commodities also generally include Category 1 and Category 2 goods or paper goods containing no more than 5 % plastics, either by weight or volume.

NOTE - Category 3 commodities would also include those plastic products classified as 'Group C Plastics' in ANSIINFPA 13 and Factory Mutual Global's Loss Prevention Data Sheets 8-1 Examples include rigid or lightly plasticised PVC products (e.g. pipe and pipe fittings), melamine, flu oro plastics and urea formaldehyde.

203.3.2.7 High hazard Storage occupancies - Category 4 Category 4 goods are equivalent to Category 1, 2 and 3 goods containing in them, or in their packaging, no more than 25 % by volume of expanded (foamed) plastic or 15 % by weight of unexpanded plastics in cardboard cartons.

203.3.2.8 High hazard - Storage occupancies Category 5 Category 5 products are equivalent to uncartoned or cartoned unexpanded plastiCS or cartoned expanded plastics.

NOTE Some plastics have a heat of combustion and a burning rate similar to those of ordinary combustibles, and can be treated and protected as a Class 3 commodity. Generally, these materials would be classified as 'Group C'.

203.3.2.9 High hazard - Storage occupancies - Category 6 Category 6 plastic commodities are equivalent to expanded and exposed plastics.

NOTE - Further gUidance may be available in Factory Mutual Global's Loss Prevention Data 8-1 and in ANSI/NFPA 13.

203.3.2.10 Encapsulation of pervious goods Encapsulation (see 902.11) only effects the protection requirements of pervious Category 1, 2, 3 and 4 goods that are stored in racks and protected by the types of sprinklers nominated in 904.1.1. The design density is adjusted as directed by the respective table entry notations.

203.3.2.11 Where the provisions of 203.3.2.1 and 203.3.2.10 both need to be considered, the most onerous of the single provisions of these clauses shall apply.

203.3.3 Special commodities

The special commodity categories detailed represent materials, products and/or methods of storage that require specific sprinkler protection considerations. See 907.

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203.3.4 Ordinary hazard storage limits

Where combustible materials are stacked or stored beyond the heights specified in table 2.2, the occupancy class of that area shall change from ordinary hazard to extra high hazard. These heights depend on the fire hazard category of the goods or materials being stored (including, the fire hazard category of any packaging materials associated with such goods) and the manner of stacking. See also 203.2.4 and 903.6.

Height of storage shall be measured from the floor to the top of the stored materials (including packaging) under consideration.

Table 2.2 - Ordinary hazard storage limits

Fire hazard category All mercantile storage I (m)

1 3.5 2 3.0 3 2.4 4 2.2 5 2.0 6 1.2

For design purposes the owner of the building or a consulting professional engineer or architect acting with the authority of the owner, shall make a signed declaration as to the owner's storage intentions regarding maximum height above the floor using the form provided for in Appendix A.

NOTE - The intention of this clause is to provide maximum storage heights to normal ordinary hazard occupancies. For example, these limitations would apply to retail type occupancies such as supermarkets using gondola type display shelving. If the storage exceeds the limitations in the table and/or the limitations of 903.6, then the requirements of Part 9 shall apply. Where an occupancy is primarily a storage occupancy, a higher level of reliability and flexibility may be provided by adopting a design approach using Part 9, even if the heights of goods stored are below that stated in the table above.

203.3.5

Appendix B is a representative schedule of materials which have been assigned to a fire hazard category. The same material can appear in more than one category depending upon its physical form, the wrapping or packaging and the method of storage.

203.3.6

Where, with respect to the three factors referred to in 203.1.2, the fire hazard of a particular material is typically that of one of the materials included in Appendix B, the fire hazard category of the material under consideration shall be the same as that material.

203.3.7

In other cases, the material shall be assigned to the category which, having regard to the three factors of fire hazard, includes materials with a fire hazard that most closely approximates the material in question.

203.3.8

The fire hazard category of a particular material is subject to approval.

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203.3.9

Some aerosols contain a proportion of flammable products other than the propellant. If exposed to fire, aerosols with more than 25 % flammable product can cause intense burning and may rocket with a flaming trail of contents. The combustibility of the propellant has little impact on fire behaviour.

Storage of aerosols containing more than 25 % flammable products, as defined in 907.7, is deemed to be a special commodity and shall be protected in the manner described in 907.7.

Storage of aerosols containing 25 % or less flammable liquid, (Le. Level 1 aerosols) are subject to the rules for ordinary hazard and extra high hazard.

203.4 Process risks

203.4.1

Those occupancies or storage situations which, notwithstanding the amount and arrangement of stored combustibles, will produce rapid and intense burning fires requiring higher densities than those for ordinary hazard, shall be protected as extra high hazard "process" risks.

203.4.2

The density and assumed maximum area of operation shall be as specified in 905.11. For occupancies or processes not included in table 9.7 but which present a process risk, the density and area of operation shall be approved by a SSC having regard to the three factors of fire hazard specified in 203.1.2 and relating these to the occupancies or processes included in table 9.7.

203.5 Other flammable liquid hazards

203.5.1

A SSC may require special provisions for the protection of Class 3.1 A, Band C Hazard Classification flammable liquids.

Special protection required may include:

(a) For Class 3.1A and B flammable liquids in plastic containers: deluge protection and storage in a fire separated, bunded and/or drained area of limited size, in order to limit fire spread;

(b) For Class 3.1A, Band C flammable liquids in pressure-relieving metal containers, and Class 3.1C flammable liquids in plastic containers: Closed-head wet pipe sprinklers in system designed to apply aqueous film forming foam with a discharge duration of at least 15 minutes at the design discharge density. Where the actual discharge density exceeds the design discharge density a proportionate reduction in foam discharge duration is permitted down to a minimum of 10 minutes.

NOTE - There are differences between flammable liquid classification definitions in the Hazardous Substances (Classification) Regulations and ANSI/NFPA 30. ANSI/NFPA 30 protection criteria shall be based upon NFPA flammable liquid classifications. See table 2,3 for guidance.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 2.3 - Comparison of classification of flammable liquids designations as specified in ANSI/NFPA 30 and Hazardous Substances (Classification) Regulations (Informative)

ANSI/NFPA 30 desi nation HSNO classification Liquid Flash point Boiling point Liquid

classification °C °C classification IA <22.8 <37,8 3.1A <23 IB <22.8 ~37.8 3.1B <23 IC NA 3.1C 23:s;FP::;60 II NA 3.1C 23:s;FP:s;60 NA IliA NA 3.10 60<FP:s;93 NA IIIB NA NA NA NA

For deluge systems and foam systems the density, area of operation and placement of sprinklers shall be based upon an appropriate ANSIINFPA Code. Water spray systems shall be based on ANSI/NFPA 15 and 30. Foam systems design shall be based on ANSI/NFPA 16. Drainage systems shall terminate in a safe place and have due regard to environmental considerations.

203.5.2

Equipment within or adjacent to the protected building and which contains flammable liquids, including transformers, lubricating oil and hydraulic systems, and heat-transfer fluid systems may require the use of water spray systems where the quantity of flammable liquid which could become involved in the fire would present a greater fire load than the remainder of the occupancy. Such systems shall form part of the sprinkler systems and be designed to provide densities specified in ANSIINFPA 15.

203.5.3 Flammable liquids in retail areas

203.5.3.1 Flammable liquids in retail glass, plastic, and metal containers may be stored and displayed in ordinary hazard Group 3 retail areas protected by a minimum of an ordinary hazard Group 3 sprinkler system, subject to the following limitations:

(a) The maximum allowable storage height is 2.4 m;

(b) Class 3.1A and B flammable liquids in containers of greater than 1 litre capacity shall not be A 1 I stored in retail areas designed to ordinary hazard group 3;

(c) Class 3.1 C and D flammable liquids in containers of greater than 10 litres capacity shall not be stored in retail areas designed to ordinary hazard group 3;

(d) Adjacent storage areas (see 203.5.3.2) of flammable liquids in retail areas shall be separated by a horizontal distance of at least 15 metres, or be in an adjacent fire cell.

For the purposes of this clause, a fire cell is defined as providing a FRR of at least -/60/60.

203.5.3.2 The maximum volumes of flammable liquids allowed to be stored in ordinary hazard group 3 retail occupancies protected to a minimum of ordinary hazard group 3 occupancy are as follows:

(a) The maximum volume of Class 3.1A and B flammable liquids in anyone storage area is 100litres;

(b) The maximum aggregate volume of other classes of flammable liquids in anyone storage area is 1,000 litres,

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Storage or display of Class 3.1A, B or C flammable liquids is not permitted in basem*nts.

If the required storage criteria exceed the limits specified in these clauses, alternative design criteria may be found in Part 9, or ANSIINFPA 30.

203.5.4

Fixed Liquid Petroleum Gas storage vessels, or quantities of more than 100 kg in portable cylinders, may require water spray systems where the risk of BLEVE (Boiling liquid, expanding vapour explosion) would expose the protected building and occupants (see table 9.7).

NOTE Typically one or two LPG cylinders will only require standard sprinklers for coverage or exposure protection.

203.6 Materials with a high spread of flame or exposed, extruded or expanded plastic materials on walls, ceilings and undersides of roofs

203.6.1

Where the surface of walls, or the underside of any roof, ceiling or mezzanine floor is of expanded plastic, the surfaces shall be protected from ignition by complying with the requirements of the Approved Document for the New Zealand Building Code C/AS1.

203.6.2

Surface treatments that use exposed combustible thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics on walls, ceilings and under roof surfaces that have not been tested and certified as having lower ignitability/combustibility properties by FM/LPCB or other accredited laboratories that have conducted full scale fire testing, and do not meet the requirements of the compliance documents published as a means of complying with the New Zealand Building Code, cannot be protected by automatic sprinkler systems. Due to the nature of these products and their application there is no suitable sprinkler protection currently available and advice should be sought from a suitably qualified fire engineer for an engineered solution for the protection of these buildings.

Any other material having similar burning characteristics regarding heat evolution and spread of flame shall be subject to the same requirements.

NOTE (1) The results of small-scale fire testing such as defined in AS/NZS 1530.3 cannot be used in isolation as evidence of

compliance with this clause. (2) Materials which have passed the Factory Mutual corner test and listed as Class 1 for the particular purpose are

deemed to be acceptable for listing purposes.

204 EXTENT OF SPRINKLER PROTECTION

204.1 Any building which is required to be sprinkler protected in accordance with this Standard shall be sprinklered throughout except where the omission of sprinklers is specifically permitted by the Standard. Otherwise the sprinkler system shall be deemed not to comply with this Standard.

204.2 Any firecell of any building which is required to be sprinkler protected in accordance with this Standard shall be sprinklered throughout except where the omission of sprinklers is specifically permitted by this Standard. Otherwise the sprinkler system shall be deemed not to comply with this Standard.

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205 FIRE LOADS ADJOINING, LINKED, OR ADJACENT TO THE SPRINKLER PROTECTED BUILDING OR SPRINKLER PROTECTED FIRECELL

205.1 General

205.1.1

In order to prevent the spread of fire and the operation of sprinklers inside a sprinkler protected building or sprinkler protected firecell as a result of a fire in some other building, firecell, structure or accumulation of combustibles, the sprinkler protected building or sprinkler protected firecell shall be effectively separated in the manner required by this Standard.

205.1.2

Separation requirements shall not apply in the case of any building under the same ownership or control as the sprinkler protected building if that other building is a sprinkler protected building. If the protected building sprinkler system does not comply with this Standard, separation requirements shall be subject to the approval of a SSC.

205.1.3

Separation may in general be achieved:

(a) In a sprinkler protected firecell, by means of fire separations, external walls, roofs and floors whereby fires in an unsprinklered firecell cannot be transmitted into the sprinkler protected firecell irrespective of the presence of sprinklers;

(b) In a sprinkler protected building, by means of one, or a combination of, separation distance, external walls having a fire resistance rating or other external walls of the sprinkler protected building to which are fitted external sprinklers.

NOTE See 205.2, 205.3 and 205.4 for fire rating requirements.

205.2 Adjoining buildings

205.2.1

For the purpose of this clause, "adjoining" means to touch, or be within 1 m of, the sprinkler protected building; except that a designated historic dwelling building shall not be deemed to adjoin provided that it does not touch and the gap between the buildings is totally open to the sky.

205.2.2

The sprinkler protected building shall be separated from every adjoining building by a wall having a FRR of 120/120/120 and which extends through the roof covering for a distance of at least 450 mm and in which any openings are protected by a fire door, having a FRR of -/120/60. In the case of a building requiring a Class A water supply such fire separations shall be of concrete or masonry construction.

NOTE-(1) Insurance interests may require a higher level of separation than nominated in this Standard. (2) Where possible all fire doors should be fitted with draught seals.

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NZS 4541 :2007

205.3 Linked buildings

205.3.1

For the purpose of this clause, "linked" means physically connected over a distance greater than 1 m, by a passageway enclosed by two side walls and a roof, or by a conveyor (excluding a screw conveyor).

205.3.2

Either (a) (c) or (d) shall apply:

(a) A link shall not be used for storage;

(b) A link shall not contain unprotected concealed spaces that communicate with the sprinkler protected building; and

(c) The roof of an enclosed link shall be at least 600 mm below the eaves of the adjacent unprotected building or the most remote sprinkler in the link shall be at the notional edge of the unprotected building (see figures 2.1 (a) and (b»; or

(d) A specific engineering design as approved by a SSC shall be applied.

NOTE - The intention of this clause is to prevent propagation of combustible or hot gases through the link into the protected building.

205.3.3

Either (a) (c) or (d) shall apply:

(a) The link shall be sprinkler protected for a minimum of 10 m from the notional edge of the sprinkler protected building, or the entire length, whichever is the lesser, with a discharge density commensurate with the commodity being transported through the link and the means of conveyance (e.g. forklift, conveyor) (see figures 2.1 (a) and (b»;

(b) Conveyors shall be interlocked to shut down on activation of the sprinkler system; and

(c) Openings from the link into the sprinkler protected building may be required, at the discretion of a SSC, to be assessed for the potential of fire spread into the protected building; or

(d) Openings from the link to the protected building shall be fitted with fire doors having a FRR not less than -/60/30 and complying with 410.

NOTE The provisions of (c) are to cater for unprotectable openings such as may be required for conveyors and the like. The dimensions of such openings should be minimised, as reasonably practicable.

205.3.4

If the construction of the exposed wall of the sprinkler protected building is at least FRR (60)/60/60 (from the exposed side) extending at least 10m from the link then external sprinkler protection is not required.

The pressure and flow requirements of the sprinkler system shall meet the concurrent demand of the link and the sprinkler demand immediately adjacent to the link.

205.3.5

If the exterior surface of the exposed wall of the sprinkler protected building is a noncombustible cladding extending at least 10 m from the link then the criteria of 205.3.3 shall be met and external sprinklers shall be installed on the exterior of the sprinkler protected building above, and extending 5 m beyond, the link in accordance with 517.

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The pressure and flow requirements of the sprinkler system shall meet the link demand and the most onerous of either the external drencher demand or the internal sprinkler demand immediately adjacent to the link.

Roof of link more than 600 mm from eave of unprotected building

External sprinklers required if FRR of wall is less than (60)/60/60

-----~

Either -/60/30 fire doors -­fitted, or, the link is protected for a minimum of 10m

Sprinkler protected building

Figure 2.1 (a) - link to unprotected building with eave height 600 mm or greater

Roof of link less than 600 mm from eave of unprotected building

External sprinklers required if FRR of wall is less than (60)/60/60

-----~

~ Either -/60/30 fire doors fitted, or, the ---_-I ~ link is sprinkler protected with the most

remote sprinkler located at the notional edge of the unprotected building

Sprinkler protected building

Figure 2.1(b) -link to unprotected building with eave height less than 600 mm

205.3.6

If the exterior surface of the exposed wall of the sprinkler protected building is a combustible cladding within 10 m of the link then that portion of the link within 1 m of the exposed wall of the sprinkler protected building shall be considered as an adjoining building, and that section of the link between 1 m and 10m of the exposed wall of the sprinkler protected building shall be considered as an adjacent building.

The pressure and flow requirements of the sprinkler system shall meet the link demand and the most onerous of either the external drencher demand or the internal sprinkler demand immediately adjacent to the link.

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205.4 Adjacent buildings

205.4.1

For the purpose of this clause, "adjacent" means within 10m of the sprinkler protected building but not adjoining (see 205.2) or linked to it (see 205.3).

205.4.2

The sprinkler protected building shall be separated from adjacent bUildings by external sprinklers unless one of the following criteria is satisfied:

(a) The adjacent building is deemed by a sse, in accordance with 205.4.4, not to present an exposure hazard;

(b) The external walls of the sprinkler protected building, within the range of the following described arcs, are noncombustible and have a minimum FRR of -/30/30:

(i) Horizontal arcs of 10m radius from the extremities of the plan area of the adjacent building

(ii) Vertical arcs of 15 m radius from the highest openings or from the point on the roof of the adjacent building if the roof is not of a construction having a FRR of 30/30/-

(iii) Horizontal arcs of 10 m radius from the top of any wall on the face of the adjacent building.

Any glazing within these arcs shall be either protected by external sprinklers or have FRR of -/30/30 (see figure 2.2); or

(c) The adjacent building is a domestic residence, domestic garage or outbuilding and is more than 3 m distant.

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205.4.3

Sprinkler protected building

w

10 m

Hood if required (see 5173)

Building deemed to be an exposure

W = Approved maximum horizontal spacing at related orifice pressure (see table 5.6 or head listing)

Plan view (individual windows)

o W

,cGlazing

~ [t== : f I '- ..J .. Plan view (continuous windows)

Figure 2.2 - Typical external sprinklers

External sprinklers shall be arranged to wet those doors, windows and non-masonry portions (with a FRR of less than -/30/30) of the external walls of the sprinkler protected building within the above arcs and shall comply with 206 and 517.

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205.4.4

A SSC may deem an adjacent building not to present an exposure hazard in any of the following circ*mstances:

(a) The adjacent building is less than 150 m3 and the face of the sprinkler protected building within 10m is clad in noncombustible materials and has no openings through which fire could enter;

(b) Both the sprinkler protected building and the adjacent building have been constructed in accordance with either the New Zealand Building Code or NZS 1900 Part 5;

NOTE-(1) Buildings on the same title may present an exposure hazard even though they comply with NZS 1900 Part 5. (2) "Constructed in accordance with NZS 1900 Part 5" should not be interpreted to automatically include any

building for which a dispensation from the detailed requirements of that Standard has been granted by the territorial authority (TA).

(c) The adjacent building is itself protected by an approved sprinkler system. A SSC, before granting relief under this subclause may require proof of approval of the system in the adjacent building and may, in the event that such approval lapses, withdraw approval of the protected building until such time as external protection is provided.

NOTE - It is recommended that the attention of the owner of the protected building be drawn to this provision.

205.5 Accumulation of combustibles adjacent to protected building prohibited Where isolated combustible fire loads require the provision of external sprinklers, protection may be provided by a sprinkler, or number of sprinklers, installed so to control the expected fire.

NOTE This clause is expected to apply to fire loads so as rubbish skips and the like, installed adjacent to a building.

206 WATER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERNAL SPRINKLERS AND INTERNAL DRENCHERS

206.1 Design number

206.1.1

The design number of external sprinklers is that number of sprinklers which a SSC deems may operate simultaneously.

NOTE Risk management review may necessitate additional protection.

206.1.2

In determining the design number, the following procedures shall generally be applied:

(a) For each exposure (I.e. adjacent building or accumulation of combustibles) identify the probable maximum area of fire spread. For example, if the exposure is an uncompartmented warehouse, the maximum area would be the entire area of the warehouse;

(b) Describe arcs in the manner described in 20S.4.2(b) and (c);

(c) The sum of the sprinklers within those arcs is the design number.

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NZS 4541 :2007

206.2 Water supply

206.2.1

The water supply requirement for the external sprinklers shall be the flow and pressure required at the control valves to adequately supply the hydraulically worst placed design number of external sprinklers operating simultaneously.

206.2.2

The requisite water application rate is specified in 517.

206.3 Internal drenchers Where internal drenchers are installed as part of a fire engineering design, their design flow shall be determined by simultaneously operating the number of drenchers and sprinkler heads bounded by the sprinkler system area of operation as if it were positioned adjacent to the wall(s) with internal drenchers.

NOTE - This Standard is not intended to provide guidance on the installation and design of internal drencher systems. This clause has been included in the Standard to ensure that sprinkler system operation is not compromised by the addition of internal drenchers, typically used to enhance the fire rating performance of elements of building construction, which exceed the requirement of the sprinkler Standard.

207 PERMITTED EXCEPTIONS FROM SPRINKlERING The following are permitted exceptions to the requirements of 204 that a sprinkler protected building or sprinkler protected firecell be sprinklered throughout (see also figure 2.3 and see 212 for plastic panel construction):

(a) Concealed spaces between ceilings and roofs (including those at the apexes and sides of buildings) where the following criteria are met:

(i) The space is subdivided by fire separations having a FRR of -/30/30 at not more than 225 m2

and no dimension exceeding 20 m, AND

(ii) The distance from the underside of the roof sheathing to the top of the ceiling lining does not exceed 0.8 m;

NOTE - Spaces containing bundled cables should be sprinker protected.

(b) Concealed spaces between ceilings and floors above where the following criteria are met:

(i) The space is subdivided by fire separations having a FRR of -/30/30 at not more than 225 m2

and no dimension exceeding 20 m, AND EITHER

(ii) The distance from the underside of the floor to the top of the ceiling lining does not exceed 0.8 m, OR

(iii) The space has all its bounding surfaces wholly formed of noncombustible materials and contains no combustibles other than individual electric cables;

NOTE - Spaces containing bundled cables should be sprinker protected.

(c) Concealed spaces between the ground and the floor immediately above where either of the following criteria is met:

(i) The floor is of concrete and any openings are protected by fire separations having a FRR of -/30/30 and the space is not used for storage, OR

(ii) The floor is other than concrete and of tight construction and the space is not accessible for storage purposes or entrance of unauthorised persons, contains no equipment which could be a source of ignition and is protected from the accumulation of debris. In such cases, flammable liquids are not permitted to be stored on the floor above;

NOTE - Spaces containing bundled cables should be sprinker protected.

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NZS 4541 :2007

(d) Concealed spaces between structural floors and functional floors raised above them when all the following criteria are met:

(i) The space does not contain any sources of ignition or combustion (excluding non-bundled electrical power or lighting wiring)

(ii) The floor is of tight construction and the space is not accessible for storage purposes or entrance of unauthorised persons

(iii) The space is subdivided by fire separations having a FRR of -/30/30 at not more than 225 m2

and no dimension exceeding 20 m

(iv) The distance from the underside of the functional floor to the top of the structural floor does not exceed 0.8 m

(v) The space is not used as an air-conditioning or ventilation plenum, AND

(vi) The space is not constructed of, nor contains exposed foamed plastics.

NOTE (1) While some minor quantities of combustible material such as power, lighting or data or communication

cable may be present in such a concealed floor space, it should not be construed as requiring sprinkler protection. There is no defined limit to the quantities of such wiring that may be present before sprinkler protection is required. If bundles of non-fire-resistant cables are present, the space should be treated as having a combustible content and should be protected accordingly.

(2) Spaces containing bundled cables should be sprinker protected.

(vii) Not withstanding (i) to (vi) above it shall not be necessary to install sprinklers in the void between the structural floor and functional floor provided the height of the void does not exceed 150 mm, if the void is filled with sand or a preventative measure as approved by a SSC;

(e) With respect to special cases where localised combustibles exist in a concealed space as defined in 207(b) to (d), which would otherwise not require the space to be protected, such combustibles may be protected with localised sprinklers;

NOTE This clause is intended to allow localised protection of areas with small fire loads, such as electric motors contained within air handling plant and the like.

(f) Staircases forming a vertical safe path enclosed by fire separations having a FRR of -/60/60 in which:

(i) The stair is either bare concrete or steel and there is no carpet, vinyl, rubber tread (with the exception of nosing strips on the edge of each step), or other floor coverings, AND

(ii) There is no lining or fitting within the stair enclosure which will ignite, other than light fittings, doors or bannister rail, AND

(iii) No material is stored either permanently or temporarily, AND

(iv) There is a sprinkler at the head of the stair, over every floor landing, and beneath any flight which intersects with a floor and forms a semi-enclosed space in which material could be stored without blocking the stair;

(g) Inside noncombustible silos or bins for the storage of grain which are within buildings forming a part of a corn mill, distillery, maltings or oil mill premises;

(h) Those ovens, hovels and kilns which are in potteries or in earthenware, brick, tile and glass works;

(i) Over salt baths and metal melt pans where the application of water would endanger persons. Pipework and sprinklers may be located over such places if a suitable canopy is fitted;

U) The undersides of screens or shields erected over the wet end of paper-making machines.

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NZS 4541:2007

208 PROVISION OF HAND OPERATED FIRE FIGHTING APPLIANCES

208.1 Throughout the occupiable area of a sprinkler protected building or sprinkler protected firecell, hand operated firefighting equipment shall be provided to the requirements of NZS 4503.

NOTE-(1) This clause is not a requirement for a sprinkler system to comply with the Compliance Documents of the New

Zealand Building Code. (2) Hand operated firefighting appliances are a necessary adjunct to sprinkler protection. Their main use is in the

extinguishment of fires in the incipient stages before the sprinklers are brought into operation and also for final extinguishment of the small remnants of combustion which may not have been completely extinguished following the operation of the sprinklers.

208.2 Extra high hazard storage risks shall be provided with a minimum of 25 mm hose instead of other options allowed by NZS 4503.

NOTE-(1) Although conventional hose reels are unlikely to be effective in the circ*mstances described in 208.2, the

Department of Building and Housing considers that the requirements of 208.2 impose a requirement higher than that set out in the Compliance Documents of the New Zealand Building Code at the time of publication of this Standard.

(2) This clause is not a requirement for a sprinkler system to comply with the Compliance Documents of the New Zealand Building Code.

208.3 Hose assemblies and associated pipework shall conform to the following: (a) Hose assemblies installed to comply with 208.2 shall meet the requirements of AS/NZS 1221. A

valved gauge connection shall be provided adjacent to the two most hydraulically remote hose reels;

(b) Pipework supplying 25 mm hose reels shall be designed to allow a minimum of 100 Llmin to simultaneously discharge from each of the two hydraulically most remote hose reels, with a pressure of at least 450 kPa available at the hose reel valve;

(c) All other installation criteria shall comply with NZS 4503.

NOTE This clause is not a requirement for a sprinkler system to comply with the Compliance Documents of the New Zealand Building Code.

209 PROVISION OF BLOCK PLAN A block plan of the buildings, including the adjacent buildings, protected by the sprinkler system shall be located in a position immediately adjacent to the control valves. This plan shall be oriented according to the viewing position and shall provide the following information:

(a) Location of the control valves and fire service inlets;

(b) A diagram of the water reticulation network with connections to the street main or site fire main;

(c) A north point;

(d) Any external sprinklers;

(e) The highest design pressure and flow;

(f) The hazard classification of each protected area and, in the case of extra high hazard, the design density and assumed area of operation;

(g) The location of any area specially protected in accordance with 907.7 for storage of aerosols. The level of aerosol (2 or 3) permitted shall be shown;

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NZS 4541 :2007

(h) Fire separations, fire doors and self-closing doors required by this Standard;

(i) The area protected by each installation;

U) Location of any drain valves;

(k) Scale;

(I) Location of tail-end valve sets and other subsidiary stop valves;

(m) Location of any industrial, domestic or other approved take offs and their associated isolation valves;

(n) The block plan shall generally identify the types of sprinklers used in the installation, to allow the correct types of sprinklers to be used for service work or for installations. The form of this information is shown in table 2.4.

Table 2.4 - Block plan sprinkler information

location Head i Model . SIN K Factor Maximum Minimum manufacturer number area per orifice

head(*) pressure(*)

* These columns relate to the specific installation and are not to be the generic capabilities of the Sprinkler Head in question.

(0) The block plan shall be updated as necessary following any extensions or alterations to the system;

(p) When the valve controlling the sprinkler system water supplies is buried, in a toby box or valve pit, the diagram of the water supplies in (b) shall include sufficient dimensions to allow the street valve to be located if the valve is obscured during road resealing or similar events.

210 PROVISION OF WATER SUPPLY REFERENCE INFORMATION

210.1 To facilitate routine checking "water supply reference information" for each water supply shall be displayed in an indelible form at the control valves, generally in the manner shown in figure 2.4.

210.2 In the case of a new system, the reference pressures shall be established at the time of final inspection of the sprinkler system and agreed with a SSC. In the case of an existing system, they shall be established in the course of a routine inspection (see 1203) and shall be agreed with a SSC.

210.3 The reference pressures shall be as follows:

(a) The design pressure for each area of the protected building;

(b) The pressure shown on the installation gauge when each water supply is discharging separately through the fully open installation drain valve;

(c) The pressure shown on the installation gauge when the design flow is passed through the alarm valves from each water supply;

(d) The pump pressure with the pump bypass fully open;

(e) Pressure control valve set pressures (such as relief or reducing valves);

(f) Pressure switch set pressure.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Reference pressures shall be tabulated for all gauges, listing the range of expected gauge pressures, and what action is required if the measured pressure falls outside acceptable levels.

This information shall be provided in the form of gauge schedules, which shall be located as follows:

(a) Valve room all sprinkler control valve gauge information;

(b) Pump room all pump room gauge information;

(c) Tail-end valve sets - all tail-end valve set gauge information.

Where such locations are co-located, the gauge schedules may be combined in a single document.

An indicative reference pressure schedule is shown in table 2.5.

210.4 A water supply reference graph on Q1.85 abscissa graph paper shall be mounted adjacent to the block plan with the following information plotted on it:

(a) Each agreed design pressure at design flow;

(b) Each water supply characteristic curve as measured at the time of final inspection of the system by a SSG;

(c) The installation drain friction loss curve;

(d) If system is a boosted town's main the unboosted town's main curve shall also be plotted.

See example in figure 2.4.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 2.5 - Typical reference pressure schedule

Agreed hydraulic requirements

For the most demanding Design flow (LIm in) I Design pressure (kPa) ELH area of operation J]S t?S

OH 3 area of operation 1120 I !f10 EHH area of operation 20S0 I QS

Reference pressures

Item Normal pressure Comments Standing pressure 1150 1200 kPa

Defect pressure 1000 kPa

Fire pressure 850 kPa

Electric pump start 750 kPa

Town's main static pressure 550 - 600 kPa Report if less than 460 kPa

Electric test by pass pressure i 400 kPa Report if less than 300 kPa

Town's main 50 mm drain test 550 kPa Report if less than 430 kPa

Pump test return pressure 560 kPa Report if less than 430 kPa

Tail-end pre-action system 1150 - 1200 kPa

diaphraqm pressure

Tail-end pre-action system 300kPa -350 kPa

I Pilot line air pressure

Tail-end pre-action system 175 kPa i

Pilot line low air pressure alarm

Tail-end pre-action system • 50 kPa 85 kPa

Supervisory pressure

Tail-end pre-action system 30 kPa 40 kPa

Supervisory pressure alarm

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...., N W

" to" e ~ I\)

~ I c iii" -0 iii '< 2-::e I» iii ..... III e -0 -0 -< ~ it ~ :::J o It)

:::J

a-..... 3 I» .... 0" :::J

System ..

Supply

Primary

Secondary

Approval

AND ACCEPTED

ON APPROVAL DATE

Flow Installation Supply Suction or (Umin) gauge gauge other gauge

pressure pressure pressure (kPa) (kPa) (kPa)

0 600 610 -1000 560 570

1350 520 540

1500 500 510

Drain fully open 550 560

0 510 510 70

1000 565 565 60

1350 430 430 60 ----------------

1500 250 250 60 --------- -------

Drain fully open 560 560 50

'" 'i< '" 1i (/l

'" ~ a..

?;\",,,,~,,\,,/,, /1____ I

~"",,,,/ -' .

OH3

10 12 14

Q; UMin MultJpied by (100)

X Primary Water Supply Test Points at Time of At".cnptanee ... Agreed Desis.'l pressures

• Sec..onds.ry Water Supply Te~1 Points at Time of Acceptance - - - Lowest Accep1abie Primary Water Supply Allowing for Deterioration· allows 10% margin

€I 50rnm Drain test Results at Tune of Acceptance ~ Lowest Acceptable 50 mm Drain Test pressure allowing for Deterioration

Note- To Establish the Drain Valve Test Curve

(a) Mark the point of intersection on the graphed water supply curve of the installation pressure when the water supply is discharging thrOUQh the fullv open drain valve

(b) Draw a line from zero through the point of intersection. THIS IS THE DRAIN TEST CURVE

(C) If there is a second supply repeat the procedure of (al with the second supply discharging. The intersect point should be on or close to the test curve of (b)

1>

Z N (J)

,J:I. (11 ,J:I. ... I\) Q Q ......

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NZS 4541 :2007

211 MULTI-STOREYED BUILDINGS

211.1 Multi-storeyed buildings having more than six floors shall have subsidiary stop valves provided at each floor to permit isolation of individual floors, or sections thereof, for service work. Multi-storeyed buildings of fewer floors may also have such valves. Levels below ground are to be included in the floor number.

211.2 All such valves shall be supervised against interference and shall comply with the requirements of 404.2.4 and 404.2.5.

211.3 Multi-storey buildings may be fitted with an enhanced safety valve set complying with 405.

211.4 In buildings of such height that the requirements of 401.2 and 407.2.1 mean that the fire brigade alarm and control valves cannot, as a consequence of static head, be located at street level, alarm valves may, with approval be located in an approved position at upper levels of the building.

211.5 Multi-storey buildings, having more than six floors, shall be fitted with flow switches to indicate the floor on which the sprinkler system has operated. The indication shall be provided on a fire indication panel complying with NZS 4512 in a location approved by the New Zealand Fire Service. Multi­storeyed buildings of fewer floors may also have flow switches.

NOTE The number of floors includes the ground floor and any basem*nts or levels below ground.

212 BUILDINGS CONSTRUCTED WITH EXPANDED PLASTIC CORED INSULATED PANELS

212.1 The requirements in table 2.6 apply to foamed plastic cored insulated panels that have not been tested and approved by an accredited laboratory in accordance with ISO 9705, FM Approval Standard 4880 or LPCB LPS 1181 Part 1, Part 2 or LPCB LPS 1208.

The ELH and OH1, 2 and 3 values in table 2.6 are at variance from the fully highly protected risk requirements in FM Global Data Sheet 1-57. These revisions have been made with due regard to the lower requirements and fire loading found in New Zealand. If there are higher fire loads adjacent to the panels then higher discharge densities shall be used.

Further information (normative) on design requirements for buildings constructed with Foam Plastic Cored Insulated Panels is contained in Appendix J.

When tested in accordance with ISO 9705, an assembly which has achieved all of the following criteria shall not be required to comply with table 2.6:

(a) Not support a self-propagating fire which extends to the outer extremities of the test area within the 20 minute test as evidenced by flaming or material damage when the lining is removed (including melting or charring of core materials);

(b) Not reach flashover (total heat release of 1000 kW) when exposed to 100 kW for 600 seconds followed by exposure to 300 kW for 600 seconds;

(c) Have a smoke growth rate index (SMOGRARc) not more than 100; and

(d) Sustain the applied load, if any, for the duration of the test period.

NOTE - See Appendix J for a definition of SMOGRARC.

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NZS 4541 : 2007

Table 2.6 - Design data for protection of expanded plastic cored panels

Occupancy fire hazard Panel Discharge Area of Additional category/area thickness density operation sprinkler

requirements ELH Any 5 mm/min 162 m~ 68°C OR sprinklers OH1 & OH2 Any 8 mm/min 186 mL -OH3 with no storage exceeding Any 8 mm/min I 186 mL

20 m2

OH3 with storage exceeding Any 8 mm/min 186 m;! Provide perimeter 20 m2 and all other occupancies minimum up to sprinklers (see

12 mm/min as 212.2 and 212.3 for Either (a), or required by specific

storage height requirements) (b) <75mm 12 mm/min 186 mL -

75 mm to 15 mm/min 186 mL -

100 mm >100 mm 18 mm/min 186 mL

Concealed spaces with Any 5 mm/min 54 mL 68°C OR sprinklers expanded plastic cored panels (minimum of used for floors only, with walls 6 sprinklers) and ceilings of noncombustible construction and no combustible contents including cabling, duclWork or plant All other concealed spaces Any 8 mm/min 186 mL -

NOTE (1) Limited to panel heights of 9 m. (2) Additional requirement for dry pipe systems - see 212.3. (3) It is not practical to separate out life safety and property protection issues surrounding panel protection. The

criteria presented represent a practical assessment of the levels of protection considered to be effective for most situations where insulated panel is installed.

(4) Concealed spaces in this clause shall be considered areas of buildings between the uppermost ceiling space and underside of the roof, which have controlled access and can not be used for either storage or locations for plant.

(5) Any spaces between the ceilings and underside of roof which is used for the storage of combustible materials, or is used as a machinery space for hydraulically powered plant, electrically powered plant, or any high voltage cabling that will substantially increase the fire loading shall be treated as an occupied space and protected to the occupancy fire hazard category risk.

(6) Table 2.6 does not preclude the use of alternative solutions with the approval of a SSC.

212.2 Wet pipe systems Where perimeter sprinklers are required for wet pipe systems they shall be installed to the following

details:

(a) The water demand for these heads shall be added to the ceiling sprinkler demand;

(b) There shall be a row of sprinklers 600 mm (+ or - 50 mm) from any panel wall. Starting with the

first head of each row 600 mm from each corner:

(c) Maximum spacing along the wall of 3,0 m;

(d) The minimum flow from the sprinkler adjacent to the wall shall be 115 Llmin;

(e) The sprinkler shall be quick response, 68°C (or 30 °C above the highest ambient temperature):

(f) Minimum of 10 wall heads discharging in addition to roof level demands;

(g) Ceiling sprinklers shall be positioned so that they are at staggered intervals to the perimeter

sprinklers and shall be positioned to provide the normal minimum clearance spacing - see Part 5.

NOTE - Where these perimeter sprinklers are being retrofitted to existing installations due regards should be had to existing ceiling sprinkler spacing. Existing sprinkler heads may need to be moved or perimeter heads shielded to prevent wetting of adjacent sprinklers.

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NZS 4541 :2007

212.3 Dry pipe systems Where perimeter sprinklers are required for extra high hazard dry pipe systems they shall be installed to the following details:

(a) The water demand for these heads shall be added to the ceiling sprinkler demand;

(b) There shall be a row of sprinklers 600 mm (+ or - 50 mm) from any panel wall, starting with the first head of each row 600 mm from each corner;

(c) Maximum spacing along the wall of 3.0 m;

(d) The minimum flow from any sprinkler adjacent to the wall shall be 115 Llmin;

(e) The sprinkler shall be quick response, 68 °e (or 30 °e above the highest ambient temperature);

(f) Minimum of 14 perimeter wall heads operating at 115 Umin each;

(g) eeiling sprinklers shall be positioned so that they are at staggered intervals to the perimeter sprinklers and shall be positioned to provide the normal minimum clearance spacing see Part 5.

(h) Water shall be available at the most remote head within 30 seconds.

NOTE - Where these perimeter sprinklers are being retrofitted to existing installations due regard should be had to existing ceiling sprinkler spacing. Existing sprinkler heads or the perimeter heads may need to be moved to prevent shadowing.

212.4 Ceiling heights exceeding 9.0 m If ceiling heights exceed 9.0 m any proposals for sprinkler protection shall be subject to consultation with a sse for a specific system design and approval.

212.5 Alternative panel materials and suitable methods of sprinkler protection

212.5.1

Where other foamed plastic materials or alternative core materials are used in insulated panels the proposed methods of protection shall be submitted to a sse for determination.

212.5.2

In considering if the combustibility or fire ratings of other foamed plastic materials used in insulated panel construction requires additional sprinkler protection measures, a sse will consider any full scale test results from a reputable accredited fire test laboratory that can provide listed ratings and similar fire performance certificates.

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NZS 4541:2007

Part 3 TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS

301 GENERAL The types of installation covered by this Standard are:

(a) Conventional sprinkler installations designed on:

(i) Wet pipe installation (302.1)

(ii) Dry pipe installation (302.2)

(iii) Tail-end dry pipe installation (302.3)

(iv) Pre-action installation (302.4)

(v) Antifreeze installation (302.5)

(vi) Tail-end antifreeze (302.6);

NOTE In relatively small areas involving flammable liquid hazards conventional sprinkler installations may incorporate subsidiary special protection in the form of medium or high velocity sprayers.

(b) Deluge installations (using open sprinklers and medium or high velocity sprayers (303».

302 CONVENTIONAL SPRINKLER INSTALLA"nONS

302.1 Wet pipe installation

302.1.1

A wet pipe installation is a sprinkler installation permanently charged with water both above and below the installation alarm (wet pipe) valve.

302.1.2

Wet pipe installations shall be used whenever ambient temperatures remain at 4 °C or above unless otherwise permitted or required by the Standard. Wet pipe installations shall not be used if continuous ambient temperatures are below this limit. The use of wet pipe installations in areas subject to intermittent ambient temperatures, at or below this limit, shall be permitted only if the consequences of exposure to these temperatures have been considered and adequate protection measures taken (see Appendix G). Such protection measures shall be agreed with a Sprinkler System Certifier (SSC), taking into account the probability and consequences of freezing balanced with reduced reliability of other than wet pipe systems.

NOTE - Within a coolstore, with average ambient temperature of 4 °C or above, there may be both excessively low or very high temperatures as a result of cold air from cooling coils or radiant or convective heat from defrost devices (either in normal mode or testing mode), In areas of such stores where such low temperatures could occur, one of the technologies allowed for in this Standard for dealing with below 4 °C situations (e.g. dry drop or antifreeze tail-end or a tail-end dry pipe installation) should be used. Sprinklers likely to be subject to short term high temperatures should be of a sufficient temperature rating having regard to the temperature distribution and the location of sprinklers.

302.1.3

Sprinklers in wet pipe installations may be installed in either the upright or pendent position.

302.1.4

Except as allowed by 302.1.5, wet pipe installations shall be so designed that the total floor area protected, excluding concealed spaces, controlled by one set of valves does not exceed 11,000 m2

---------.~-------~--~----------------.---

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NZS 4541 :2007

302.1.5

If the building is a multi-storeyed building, fitted with subsidiary stop valves to permit isolation of individual floors or sections (see 211), and an enhanced safety valve set, in compliance with 405 and figure 4.5, then the floor area protected by any wet pipe installation is unlimited, subject to the following additional requirements:

(a) The floor area served by any subsidiary stop valve does not exceed 11,000 m2;

(b) Flow switches are installed with a test drain to simulate the discharge of one sprinkler head. This test drain may be a bypass around the drain referred to in (c) below. The flow switch shall not generate a fire call. Subsidiary stop valves with supervisory devices shall be installed in accordance with 404.2.4 and 404.2.5. The flow switches shall indicate, at the Fire Service attendance point, the floor on which any sprinkler has operated;

(c) A drain valve of at least one-third the distribution pipe diameter, but in no case less than 25 mm Nominal Bore shall be installed downstream of each subsidiary stop valve and connected to a permanently piped drain (which is drained to the appropriate public utility installation);

(d) The subsidiary stop valves shall be located in stair wells, clearly labelled and accessible from floor level by the Fire Service and service personnel, as noted in 404.2.4.

302.2 Dry pipe installation

302.2.1

A dry pipe installation is a standard sprinkler installation in which the installation pipework is permanently charged with gas under pressure above the alarm (dry pipe) valve and with water under pressure below the valve. When a sprinkler head opens, the gas pressure drops thus allowing the dry pipe valve to open and admit water to the installation. To speed up the opening of the valve an accelerator or exhauster may be included in the installation.

302.2.2

Dry pipe installations are normally allowed only in buildings where the temperature conditions are demonstrated to be below freezing such as climatic conditions, or as in cold or cool stores, fur vaults and the like or where the temperature is maintained above 70°C as in drying ovens and the like. Special approval is required for dry pipe installations in other circ*mstances.

302.2.3

Unless the proviSions of 302.2.4 are met, dry pipe installations shall be so designed so that the volume of pipework controlled by one set of valves, including tail-end extensions does not exceed 1,900 litres, or 2,800 litres if the installation is fitted with a listed Quick Opening Device, such as an accelerator or an exhauster (see 404.5.1).

NOTE The volumes above may be increased by 50 % provided an automatic fire alarm system complying with NZS 4512 (and having declared functional requirements in accordance with items (a), (b) and (e) of 105 of that Standard) is installed in the same area as the sprinklers and arranged to open the dry pipe alarm valve prior to the activation of a sprinkler head. Failure of the detector system should not inhibit the normal activation of the installation.

302.2.4

The volume of pipework controlled by any dry installation may be unlimited, if it can be demonstrated that, with the installation in its dry mode, water is available at the most remote head within 60 seconds of sprinkler activation by one of the methods specified in 305.

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NZS 4541 :2007

302.2.5

Sprinklers shall be installed in the upright position above the line of pipes in dry pipe installations. An exception to this rule is allowed if listed dry pendent or dry sidewall pattern sprinklers are installed and no residual water can pond in any section of a drop.

302.2.6

Pipework shall be arranged with adequate slope for drainage as described in 403.11.

302.2.7

Where dry pipe installations are expected to be subject to continuous freezing conditions, the pressurising gas shall have a dew point at its appropriate pressure below the expected temperature.

302.2.8

Dry pipe installations shall not use gridded pipework arrays.

302.2.9

Dry pipe alarm valves shall comply with the requirements of 404.4.2.

302.2.10

The area served by a dry pipe installation valve set shall not exceed 11,000 m2.

302.2.11

There are restrictions and special requirements on the use of dry pipe installations in extra high hazard storage situations (see 903).

302.2.12

The design of dry pipe installations in freezers or cold stores shall provide the ability to dismantle the system for removal of ice plugs, and to be able to inspect all main runs by provision of inspection tees or short easily removable sections of pipe. Extension of the main runs to outside the low temperature room, with straight line of sight, allows for visual inspection and lancing of ice plugs.

302.3 Tail-end dry pipe installations

302.3.1

These installations are essentially similar to dry pipe installations except that they are of comparatively small extent and form extensions to standard sprinkler installations.

302.3.2

They are permitted:

(a) As extensions to a wet pipe installation in comparatively small areas where there is the possibility of frost damage in an otherwise adequately heated building;

(b) As extensions to a wet pipe installation in cold stores and high temperature ovens or stoves, when the tail-end installations would be on the dry pipe principle.

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NZS 4541 :2007

302.3.3

Sprinklers in tail-end dry pipe installations shall be installed in the upright position above the line of pipes and pipework shall be arranged with adequate slope for drainage. An exception to this rule is allowed if listed dry pendent or dry sidewall pattern sprinklers are installed.

302.3.4

The total volume of the pipework controlled by anyone tail-end valve set shall not exceed 1,900 litres.

302.3.5

To assist in the maintenance and testing of a tail-end dry pipe valve set supervised subsidiary stop valves in accordance with 404.2.4 and 404.2.5 shall be fitted immediately upstream and downstream of the tail-end dry pipe valves. Drain and test valves, drain pipes and pressure gauges shall be fitted both upstream and downstream, between the tail-end dry pipe valve and the respective subsidiary stop valves. The drain pipes shall discharge to a location where it will not cause damage, hygiene or safety hazards.

302.3.6

There are restrictions and special requirements on the use of dry pipe installations in extra high hazard storage situations (see 903).

302.3.7

The design of tail-end dry pipe installations in freezers or cold stores shall provide the ability to dismantle the system for removal of ice plugs, and to be able to inspect all main runs by provision of inspection tees or short easily removable sections of pipe. Extension of the main runs to outside the low temperature room, with straight line of sight, allows for visual inspection and lancing of ice plugs.

302.4 Pre-action installation

302.4.1

A pre-action installation is a form of dry pipe installation incorporating water discharge pipework fitted with closed sprinkler heads, but charged with low pressure gas for supervision purposes. Water entry to this piping installation is controlled by a further installation of small diameter piping with closed heads charged with gas for control purposes, or an approved electronic detection system (see 302.4.8). Before water may be discharged it is necessary that the sprinkler heads on both the discharge pipework and the detection devices (sprinklers or electronic detectors) both operate.

Pre-action installations are commonly available as single interlock and double interlock designs.

Single interlock installations admit water into the pipework on operation of the detection devices. These are the installations that are most commonly installed to protect computer suites and the like.

Double interlock installations will only admit water into the pipework upon operation of both the detection device and automatic sprinklers. Double interlock installations shall only be used for freezer fire protection, and shall not be used for protection of computer suites and the like.

NOTE Non-interlock installations are also available and admit water into the pipework when either the detection or discharge sprinkler operates. They are not commonly installed.

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NZS 4541 :2007

302.4.2

Detection sprinkler devices shall be in the same area/zone as the discharge sprinklers and spaced at not more than 21 m2 for ELH and OH systems, with 12 m2 for EHH systems. Some EHH risks have specific requirements with spacing of detection devices to equal the discharge sprinkler spacing. Notwithstanding 402.4.2, the detector sprinklers may have a temperature rating of no less than 15 °e above the highest expected ambient temperature.

302.4.3

Unless the provisions of 302.2.4 are met, pre-action installations shall be so designed so that the volume of pipework controlled by one set of valves, including tail-end extensions does not exceed 1,900 litres, or 2,800 litres if the installation is fitted with a listed quick opening device. A listed quick opening device includes an accelerator or air exhauster, or a smoke detection system or heat detection system installed in compliance with NZS 4512, and having the declared functional requirements in accordance with items (a), (b) and (e) of 105 of that Standard. This detection system shall be installed in the same area as the sprinklers and arranged to open the pre-action alarm valve prior to the activation of a sprinkler head. Failure of the detection system shall not inhibit the normal activation of the installation.

302.4.4

Sprinklers shall be installed in the upright position above the line of pipes in pre-action pipe installations. An exception to this rule is allowed if listed dry pendent or dry sidewall pattern sprinklers are installed. Pipework shall be arranged with adequate slope for drainage as described in 403.11. Both the sprinkler head and any return bend assembly shall be in an area normally at +4 °e.

302.4.5

Pre-action installations shall not utilise gridded pipework arrays.

302.4.6

Where pre-action pipe installations are expected to be subject to continuous freezing conditions, the pressurising gas shall have a dew point at its appropriate pressure below the expected temperature.

302.4.7

To assist in the maintenance and testing of pre-action installations a supervised subsidiary stop valve shall be fitted immediately downstream of the pre-action valve. A drain and test valve shall be located between the pre-action valve and the downstream subsidiary stop valve to permit trip testing without flooding the installation. If a fire sprinkler inlet is attached to the installation it shall be connected to the installation upstream of the subsidiary stop valve to permit flow testing from the FSI without flooding the installation. For tail-end pre-action installations a supervised subsidiary stop valve shall also be provided immediately upstream of the pre-action valve.

Where the drain and test valve can be inadvertently left open, and thereby compromise the installation's performance, this valve shall be fitted with a listed supervisory device.

302.4.8

Full details of proposals for the installation of pre-action installations shall be submitted to a sse before any erection work is commenced. When considering such proposals, a sse shall normally approve installations which use pilot operated sprinklers as the primary means of detection, unless such detection is not practicable. Approved electronic based detection systems may be used in parallel with pilot sprinkler operated detection systems to speed up the release of water into the

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NZS 4541 :2007

sprinkler pipework. Failure of the electronic detection system shall not inhibit the activation of the installation.

Pre-action installations in freezers, cold stores, chillers, etc may be of the Double Interlock type using approved electronic based detection systems only. These detection systems shall be installed in the same area as the sprinklers with detection devices spaced as stated in 302.4.2.

NOTE - This clause allows a SSC to approve pre-action systems that do not use pilot operated sprinkler detection systems in certain circ*mstances. Given that electronic detection systems are inherently less reliable than sprinkler based detection systems, such alternative systems should only be used as the primary release mechanism if pilot operated sprinklers are not a practical option. An example of such a situation is where pre-action systems are used to prevent in-rack sprinklers freezing. In such an example, a listed lineal type thermal detection system would normally be deemed as being acceptable by a SSC. Where detection systems are installed to release pre-action systems in areas such as computer suites and the like, they should only be used in parallel to pilot sprinkler operated detection release systems.

302.4.9

The design of pre-action installations in freezers or cold stores should provide the ability to dismantle the system for removal of ice plugs, and to be able to inspect all main runs by provision of inspection tees or short easily removable sections of pipe. Extension of the main runs to outside the low temperature room, with straight line of Sight, allows for visual inspection and lancing of ice plugs.

302.5 Antifreeze installation

302.5.1

An antifreeze installation is defined as a conventional automatic sprinkler installation in which an entire installation is charged with an antifreeze solution and connected to one or more approved water supplies. The antifreeze solution, followed by water, discharges immediately upon actuation of the sprinkler heads. Unless specifically listed for that purpose, they shall not be used in storage occupancies.

NOTE - Most commonly used antifreeze solutions are flammable in the concentrations used for freeze protection. At the time of drafting this Standard, the committee was aware of one listed antifreeze installation, which is restricted to the protection of Class 1 and Class 2 commodities.

302.5.2

Acceptable antifreeze solutions are given in table 3.1. Where the installation is supplied by a public water connection antifreeze solutions other than aqueous solutions of pure glycerine or pure propylene glycol shall not be used. On installations incorporating CPVC pipe, only glycerine solutions shall be used.

302.5.3

An antifreeze solution shall have a freezing point at least 10°C below the minimum expected temperature including the temperature of the incoming cold air.

302.5.4

The density shall be determined by a hydrometer of suitable scale. The density of the solution shall take into account the temperature of the fluid to ascertain the freezing point of the solution. A suitable hydrometer and thermometer shall be provided at the installation control valves.

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302.5.5

Antifreeze installations shall be divided into areas with pipework subdivisions not exceeding approximately 100 heads.

NOTE This clause is intended to limit the volume of antifreeze solution that discharges onto a fire, before water is applied to the fire.

302.5.6

This subdivision in 302.5.5 may be achieved by the use of tail-end control valves or, alternatively, check valves may be installed provided that supplementary drains are provided from the tail-end of each subdivision and the total area covered by one set of control valves does not exceed the limitations specified for wet pipe systems. Subsidiary stop valves are to be installed immediately upstream of the check valves to allow servicing and testing. See also 302.6.3.

302.5.7

An antifreeze collection reservoir constructed of material compatible with the antifreeze solution shall be provided. This reservoir shall have a capacity of not less than 1.25 times the total capacity of the pipework in the largest subdivision of the installation, plus the capacity of any antifreeze filled feed main serving that subdivision.

302.5.8

Where check valves are used to subdivide the installation, supplementary drains of at least 25 mm nominal diameter shall be provided and arranged to discharge to the antifreeze reservoir. These drains shall be individually carried to the location of the antifreeze reservoir at which location they shall be fitted with controlling stop valves and pressure gauges. Downstream of the supplementary drain valve, the drains may be manifolded to discharge into the reservoir. Provision shall also be made to divert the drain flow to waste. Where such drains are provided on an installation which is protecting refrigerated areas, traps to prevent thermo-siphoning shall be provided where the drain emerges from the refrigerated area.

302.5.9

Unless otherwise listed or approved, sprinkler heads shall be installed in the upright position and pipework shall be arranged with adequate slope for drainage (see 403.11). An exception to this rule is allowed if listed dry pendent or dry sidewall pattern sprinklers are installed. Both the sprinkler head and any return bend assembly shall be in an area normally at +4 cC.

302.5.10

An expansion chamber shall be provided downstream of any check valve forming part of the antifreeze installation, to ensure that the installation, or part thereof, is not over-pressurised by the thermal expansion of the antifreeze solution.

NOTE - A sse may approve an alternative method of achieving this performance requirement, as part of an installation listing.

302.5.11

Clear maintenance and testing procedures shall be prepared and placed in a conspicuous position adjacent to the alarm valves and control valves.

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302.5.12

The design of antifreeze installations in freezers or cold stores shall provide the ability to dismantle the system for removal of ice plugs, and to be able to inspect all main runs by provision of inspection tees or short easily removable sections of pipe. Extension of the main runs to outside the low temperature room, with straight line of sight, allows for visual inspection and lancing of ice plugs.

302.5.13

Full details of proposals for the installation of antifreeze installations shall be submitted to a sse before any erection work is commenced.

302.6 Tail-end antifreeze installation

302.6.1

These are portions of an installation which are arranged to protect a low temperature area by means of an antifreeze solution but as an extension of the conventional wet pipe installation.

302.6.2

Antifreeze solutions shall be as given in table 3.1.

Table 3.1 - Antifreeze solutions

Material Solution Density Freezing Scale concentration at 15.6°C point

(0C)

Glycerine (1) 50 % water (v/v) 1.133 -26.1 Hydrometer scale 40 % water (v/v) 1.151 -30.0 1.000 to 1.200 30 % water (v/v) 1.165 -40.0

Propylene glycol 70 % water (v/v) 1.027 -12.8 Hydrometer scale 60 % water (v/v) 1.034 -21.1 1.000 to 1.120 50 % water (v/v) 1.041 -32.2 (Subdivisions 0.002) 40 % water (v/v) 1.045 -51.1

Diethylene glycol 50 % water (v/v) 1.078 -25.0 Hydrometer scale 45 % water (vlv) 1.081 -32.8 1.000 to 1 .120 40 % water (v/v) 1.086 -41.1 ! (Subdivisions 0.002)

Ethylene glycol 61 % water (vlv) 1.056

I

-23.3 Hydrometer scale 56 % water (v/v) 1.063 -28.9 1.000 to 1.120 51 % water (v/v) 1.069 -34.4 (Subdivisions 0.002) 47 % water (v/v) 1.073 -40.0

NOTE-(1) Glycerine to be not less than 96.5 % purity. (2) Previous editions of this Standard allowed the use of calcium chloride based antifreeze solutions. Installations

installed to such superseded Standards shall be maintained with solution concentrations as specified by those Standards.

302.6.3

Antifreeze tail-ends shall be separated by a check valve with a pressure gauge and a subsidiary stop valve on either side of it. A device to permit draining, testing and repressurising of the antifreeze shall be provided on the downstream side of the check valve as shown in figure 3.1. This control equipment shall be in a readily accessible pOSition outside the low temperature area. An indelible set of instructions for testing and refilling the tail-end shall be permanently affixed.

NOTE The check valve required by this clause may be in the form of a listed backflow prevention device.

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Water

From sprinkler installation

Subsidiary stop valve

I~ Anti-interference device

Installation pressure

gauge "'"

I.t-----I~ ~ " \

Blank flange or R.G. coupling for non-return valve inspection

Drain r ) ;

Non-return valve

Anti-freeze

Anti-freeze pressure

gauge

t To

cold area

x

Drain & pressure filling point

Typical arrangement 65 NB and larger

From sprinkler Installation

----IJiIO_ Water

Installation pressure gauge

Subsidiary stop valve

/0 1

Anti-interference device

To cold area Plugged inspection point ------- t----'-........;

Non-return valve/

~~~----~------------------~ Anti-freeze

I --- Fill point

Drain valve

Typical arrangement up to 50 NB valves

NOTE RG, means roll groove,

Figure 3.1 - Typical tail-end antifreeze installation valves

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302.6.4

Antifreeze systems shall be maintained at a pressure approximately 100 kPa above the installation water supply pressure, to ensure that dilution of the antifreeze solution does not allow ice plugs to form in the installation.

This requirement may be met by the installation of an automatically controlled jacking pump, drawing antifreeze solution from a reservoir. It is recommended that such an installation is carefully engineered, and includes precautions, such as a relief valve discharging into the reservoir, to ensure that the system is not over-pressurised due to thermal expansion.

302.6.5

Unless otherwise listed, sprinkler heads shall be installed in the upright position and pipework shall be arranged with adequate slope for drainage (see 403.11). An exception to this rule is allowed if listed dry pendent or dry sidewall pattern sprinklers are installed. A plugged drain valve at the lowest point of the installation and located within the low temperature area is acceptable with tail-end installations of no more than 20 heads.

302.6.6

The total number of sprinklers controlled by any section of anyone tail-end set of valves shall not exceed approximately 100.

302.6.7

An expansion chamber shall be provided downstream of any check valve forming part of the antifreeze installation, to ensure that the installation, or part thereof, is not over-pressurised by the thermal expansion of the antifreeze solution.

A sse may approve an alternative method of achieving this performance requirement, as part of an installation listing.

302.6.8

Full details of proposals for the installation of tail-end antifreeze installations shall be submitted to a sse before any erection work is commenced.

302.6.9

The design of tail-end antifreeze installations in freezers or cold stores shall provide the ability to dismantle the system for removal of ice plugs, and to be able to inspect all main runs by provision of inspection tees or short easily removable sections of pipe. Extension of the main runs to outside the low temperature room, with straight line of sight, allows for usual inspection and lancing of ice plugs.

302.7 Antifreeze drops Antifreeze drops shall not be used to provide freeze protection to sprinklers in small freezers or other small spaces.

NOTE This does not imply that antifreeze drops installed prior to the publication of the 2003 edition of this Standard are to be replaced.

303 DELUGE INSTALLATIONS

303.1 Deluge installations are installations of open sprinklers controlled by a quick opening valve (deluge valve) which is operated by an approved installation of heat detectors, smoke detectors or sprinklers installed in the same areas as the open sprinklers.

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303.2 These installations are designed primarily for extra high hazard process risks where intensive fires with a very fast rate of fire propagation are expected and it is desirable to apply water simultaneously over a complete zone in which a fire may originate by admitting water to open sprinklers or to medium or high velocity sprayers.

NOTE - ANSI/NFPA codes may provide design criteria for some risks normally protected by deluge systems.

303.3 Water spray installations use purpose designed open nozzles which may be controlled automatically or manually by quick opening valves. Water spray installations are designed for protection of special risks by extinguishment or by cooling to permit controlled burning or cooling to prevent heat damage.

303.4 The pipework for the open sprinklers or sprayers shall be fully hydraulically calculated to prove that the appropriate density of discharge will be available when all the sprinklers or sprayers in the installation are discharging.

303.5 If the deluge installation cannot operate without causing water damage, a supervised subsidiary stop valve shall be fitted immediately downstream of the deluge valve to assist in the maintenance and testing of the installation. A drain and test valve, fitted with a listed supervisory device, shall be located between the deluge valve and the downstream subsidiary stop valve to permit trip testing without flooding the installation. If a fire sprinkler inlet is attached to the installation it shall be connected to the installation upstream of the subsidiary stop valve to permit flow testing from the FSI. without flooding the installation. For tail-end deluge installations a supervised subsidiary stop valve shall also be provided immediately upstream of the deluge valve.

303.6 Full details of proposals for installation of deluge installations shall be approved before any erection work is commenced.

304 WATER MIST INSTALLATIONS

NOTE Material regarding water mist installations is included in Appendix N of this Standard.

304.1 Water mist installations use specially designed nozzles to suppress, control, or extinguish a fire. The nozzles can be closed nozzles individually controlled via a fusible element (such as a standard sprinkler bulb), or can be open nozzles controlled by a deluge valve arrangement.

304.2 Water mist installations may only be used if listed by a SSG. The listing criteria may take precedence over other requirements of this Standard.

304.3 Water mist installations may be used as an equivalent to standard sprinkler installations, or to protect specialised risks, such as compartmentalised flammable liquid storage areas and machinery spaces, if they have been shown by full scale testing to be suitable for the application.

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304.4 Water mist installations may take the form of wet pipe, dry pipe, pre-action or deluge installations. Water mist installations may be stand alone, or tail-end as an extension to a standard sprinkler installation.

305 METHODS TO DETERMINE WATER DELIVERY FOR GAS FILLED SPRINKLER INSTALLATIONS

305.1 Dry, tail-end dry and pre-action installations have prescriptive volume limitations, where it is not demonstrated that water can be delivered to the most remote sprinkler head within 60 seconds of head operation. This section provides two altemative methods to demonstrate that water can be delivered to the most remote sprinkler within the permitted 60 seconds.

305.2 It is permitted to exceed the volume restrictions provided in 302.2.3, 302.3.4 and 302.4.3 if it can be demonstrated via on-site testing that water can be delivered to an inspector's test connection, fitted to the remote part of the installation, and fitted with an orifice equivalent to the smallest sprinkler orifice in the installation, in not more than 60 seconds, starting at the normal installation standing air pressure.

305.3 An acceptable altemative approach to the physical test method allowed under this clause is to demonstrate that water will be available at the remote sprinkler heads within the time given in table 3.2 by calculation in accordance with the requirements specified in 305.4.

305.4 Calculations for water delivery time in gas filled sprinkler installations shall be based on the occupancy hazard shown in table 3.2.

Table 3.2 - Gas filled water delivery calculation design requirements

Occupancy hazard Design number of remote Maximum time of water sprinklers initially open delivery (seconds)

ELH (Residential Sprinklers) 1 15

ELH (Spray Sprinklers) 1 60 Ordinary Hazard 2 50

EHH (Process Risks) 4 45

EHH (High Piled StoraQe Risks) 4 40

The calculation program and calculation method shall be approved by a sse.

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Part 4 SYSTEM CONIPONENTS

401 GENERAL

401.1 Acceptable equipment Components that form part of a sprinkler system shall comply with the requirements of the Standard and must be listed where specified in this Standard. However, notwithstanding the specific requirements of this Standard, a Sprinkler System Certifier (SSC) may deem new technology to comply with the Standard. A SSC must be satisfied that the technology will detect and control fires with at least the same adequacy and reliability as existing technology permitted by the Standard.

401.2 No component of a sprinkler system shall be subjected, either during normal conditions or during operation, to pressures in excess of that for which the component is rated. Such rating may arise from the particular technical standard with which the component complies or as a condition of any listing of that component.

NOTE - This requirement will be particularly relevant in the case of high buildings or where there is a high standing pressure in the town's main. See also 407.2.1 and 211.4.

401.3 If the normal standing pressure exceeds 1,200 kPa, downstream of the alarm valve, a sign shall be installed in a normally visible place in the sprinkler control valve enclosure. The sign shall have 12 mm high lettering and read:

i THE NORMAL STANDING PRESSURE OF THIS INSTALLATION EXCEEDS 1200 kPA. USE OF i

SYSTEM COMPONENTS WITH A WORKING PRESSURE OF (Installation Contractor to insert max. installation working pressure) kPa IS REQUIRED IF ANY ALTERATIONS ARE CARRIED OUT TO THIS SYSTEM.

402 SPRINKLERS

402.1 General Sprinklers (including the make and type) shall be listed. They shall not be altered in any respect nor have any type of ornamentation or coatings applied after leaving the production factory except to provide corrosion resistance.

402.2 Types of sprinklers, sprayers and multiple controls

402.2.1

The following types of sprinklers are accepted for general use:

(a) Conventional pattern. These sprinklers are designed to produce a spherical type of discharge with a proportion of water being thrown upwards to the ceiling. They are usually designed with a universal type of deflector enabling the sprinkler to be erected in either the upright or pendent position. Some conventional pattern sprinklers are made in two types, one suitable for erection in the upright position and the other in the pendent position. The conventional pattern sprinkler is only suitable for installation on exposed pipes without the use of escutcheon plates;

NOTE This edition of the Standard precludes the use of conventional sprinklers in extra light hazard and extra high hazard occupancies. This is a fundamental change from previous editions of the Standard, which mandated

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conventional sprinklers in such occupancies where the construction was of exposed structural steel. For existing extra high hazard systems, conventional sprinklers may be used in routine service activities.

(b) Spray pattern. These sprinklers are designed to produce a hemispherical discharge below the plane of the deflector with little or no water being discharged upwards to wet the ceiling. They are made in two types, one suitable for erection in the upright position and the other in the pendent position. They are available in various orifice sizes, with K factors ranging from 2.0 to 36. There are restrictions on orifice sizes in relation to design densities of discharge for spray sprinklers detailed in Part 9 of this Standard.

402.2.2

The following sprinklers are also accepted for general use subject to the qualifications mentioned:

Retracted deflector/Concealed sprinklers Sprinklers of this type have spray pattern deflectors which remain concealed until the sprinkler operates. They shall not be used in atmospheres which are corrosive or have a high dust content, nor in any area where spray sprinklers are not permitted nor where the ceiling space above has a positive pressure.

402.2.3

The following special purpose sprinklers are accepted for use in the particular circ*mstances described:

(a) Sidewall pattern. These sprinklers are designed for installation along the walls of a room close to the ceiling. The design of the sprinkler is usually similar to the conventional pattern sprinkler except for a special deflector which causes most of the water to be discharged to one side in a pattern somewhat resembling one quarter of a sphere with a small proportion discharging on the wall behind the sprinkler. Sidewall sprinklers are available with standard and extended coverage patterns, and additionally, in residential models. They can be used with advantage in the case of drying tunnels and hoods over paper-making machines where condensate dripping from sprinklers and pipework at the ceiling might be troublesome. Also in certain other locations such as sale-shop windows and under platforms having low headroom, where standard sprinklers would be subject to damage, or under machinery where the use of other types of sprinklers is not practicable.

(b) Dry pendent pattern. These sprinklers are for use in portions of premises protected by a dry pipe system where it is not practical to install sprinklers in the upright position or on a wet pipe system where the sprinklers may be subject to freezing. They may also be used on pre-action and antifreeze systems where it is not practical to install sprinklers in an upright position. Apart from the valve arrangement, the sprinklers are of standard design having either conventional, pendent spray type or sidewall deflectors. They are manufactured integral with drop pipes of varying lengths, the valve being so placed that there is no pocket or depression within which water can be trapped.

(c) Dry upright pattern. These sprinklers are essentially the same as the dry pendent types except that if they are of the spray pattern an upright type deflector is incorporated. They are used for the protection of unheated concealed roof spaces in connection with installations on the wet pipe system.

(d) Dry sidewall. These sprinklers are essentially the same as dry pendent sprinklers but are fitted with sidewall pattern deflectors. They are used to protect areas which may be subject to freezing. They are available in both horizontal and vertical patterns and additionally, with extended coverage deflectors.

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(e) Control mode specific application (CMSA). These are a closed head upright sprinkler, permitted for use in certain specified storage situations. Notably different rules concerning location, spacing and operating pressures apply. These sprinklers were known as Large Droplet sprinklers in previous editions of this Standard.

(f) Residential. These sprinklers are for use in those portions of premises that are classified as extra light hazard and as specified in Part 7 of this Standard. They feature a very low response time index, a higher than usual discharge trajectory and are available in pendent or sidewall configurations. Installation shall be in strict accordance with the listing concerning spacing, required pressure and distance below the ceiling.

(g) Suppression mode (SMS). These are a special large orifice, closed head sprinkler incorporating a fast acting heat responsive element and are designed to deliver a water discharge intended to suppress fires. These sprinklers were known as Early Suppression Fast Response sprinklers in previous editions of this Standard.

(h) Extended Coverage Ordinary Hazard (ECOH). This is a spray pattern sprinkler designed to protect areas larger than 12 m2/sprinkler within ordinary hazard occupancies. Installation shall be in strict accordance with the listing. Large scale fire tests have demonstrated that ECOH sprinklers installed in accordance with their listing provide equivalent fire control to standard sprinklers at 12 m2 spacing. The use of ECOH sprinklers is limited to ordinary hazard occupancies other than:

(i) Warehouses, stock rooms and other similar storage occupancies

(ii) Spray application of flammable liquids

(iii) Hydraulic equipment using flammable hydraulic fluids

(iv) Vehicle assembly or repair areas where fuel is in fuel tanks

(v) Any other occupancy involving flammable or combustible liquids.

NOTE - To achieve comparable detection, ECOH sprinklers are fitted with a more responsive heat activated element but are not necessarily listed as quick response sprinklers,

(I) Extra Large Orifice (ELO). These are a spray type sprinkler with a K factor greater than 11.5 which may be used in extra high hazard occupancies.

0) Extended Coverage Area Density (ECAD). These are a spray sprinkler with an unusually large K factor used in extra high hazard occupancies. They may be used at normal spray sprinkler spacings, or at greater spacings in accordance with their listing criteria,

(k) Extended Coverage Light Hazard (ECLH). This is a spray pattern sprinkler designed to protect areas larger than 21 m2/sprinkler within extra light hazard occupancies. Installation shall be in strict accordance with the listing, Their design criteria will reflect USA based light hazard design criteria, namely, a design density discharge of 4,1 mm/min, which may lead to a need to evaluate the cost benefits of a larger water supply, as against cost savings in greater coverage areas per sprinkler.

(I) Specific application sprinklers. These are special purpose sprinklers listed for the protection of special and unique hazards. Such sprinklers are to be used in accordance with their listing criteria,

NOTE - At the time of preparation of this Standard, specific application heads included, but were not limited to, window sprinklers, attic sprinklers, sealed mist sprinklers, water spray nozzles and combustible concealed space sprinklers.

402.2.4 Medium velocity and high velocity sprayers

These are special purpose sprayers for use in water spray systems (which mayor may not form part of normal sprinkler systems) intended for the extinguishing or control of fires involving flammable liquids and for the cooling of storage tanks, process plant and exposed structural steelwork against

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heat from an exposure to fire. These sprayers have directional discharge characteristics with cone angles ranging from 40° to 180" and with orifice sizes varying from 5 mm to 13 mm. Features of the two types are as follows:

(a) Medium velocity sprayers are produced either as sealed sprayers with glass bulbs or soldered links and levers as for normal sprinklers or as open sprayers. They are designed essentially for cooling purposes when dealing with fires involving low flash point liquid hazards (below 66°C) as for example, liquefied petroleum gases. In such risks, the aim is not for automatic extinguishing but to control the burning within safe limits until the source of gas supply has been shut off, thus avoiding the danger following a fire incident of these heavier-than-air gases continuing to escape and collecting in low lying areas producing an explosion hazard;

(b) High velocity sprayers are of the "open" type and are designed for the extinguishing of fires involving high flash point liquids (above 66 "C).

402.2.5 MultipJe jet controls (MJCs)

These are heat-sensitive sealed valve controlled outlets, using either glass bulbs or soldered links and levers as the heat-sensitive device. They are for use in systems using sprinklers and medium velOCity or high velocity sprayers of the "open" type in circ*mstances where it is required to operate small groups of sprayers simultaneously. The controls are made in various sizes relevant to the diameter of the valve and the number of sprayers that are to be fed from this valve. The sizes range from 20 mm to 80 mm.

402.3 Classification of sprinklers

402.3.1

Acceptable uses for each type of sprinkler head are indicated in table 4.1.

402.3.2

The K factors for each type of sprinkler shall be in accordance with those indicated in table 4.1 and 1005.5 unless noted otherwise in the listing.

K factor is the constant in the formula Q K.JP where:

Q Flow in Llmin P = Pressure in kPa.

402.3.3

Sprinkler head pipe thread form shall be compatible with the pipework connection.

402.3.4

Sprinkler head nominal orifice sizes shall be identifiable by one of the following means:

(a) Sprinkler heads shall be marked with a Sprinkler Identification Number (SIN Number) which will allow the sprinkler head characteristics to be identified from the manufacturer's published data; or

(b) 15 mm (K = 8.0) - unmarked. Where other orifices are used a pintle is fitted on the deflector;

(i) The orifice size marked on the frame

(ii) The K factor marked on the deflector

(iii) 10 mm (K = 5.7) The letters "ELH" marked on the frame

(iv) 20 mm (K = 11.5) conventional or spray pattern - The letters "EHH" marked on the frame

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(v) 15 mm Residential - "Residential" or "Res" marked on the deflector or heat collector, along

with the K factor.

NOTE - All USA manufactured sprinklers have a unique Sprinkler Identification Number.

402.3.5

The types of sprinkler which are acceptable for each hazard class are set out in table 4.1.

Table 4.1 - Acceptable types of sprinklers

Hazard class I Type of sprinkler I Orifice (Kfacto~

Extra light Spray (10 mm)* 5.7

Spray (15 mm) 8.0

Sidewall (10 mm)* 5.7

Sidewall (15 mm) 8.0

Sidewall (20 mm) 11.5

Residential (see listing)

i ECLH j (see listing)

Ordinary I Conventional I

8.0

I Spray 8.0

Sidewall 8.0

Fast response 8.0 ECOH (see listing)

Extra high Spray 8.0

Spray 11.5

ELO 16 or 24

ECAD 36

Suppression 20, 24, 32 or 36 i GMSA 16 or 24 i IRS 8.0 or 11.5

External I Spray, sidewall or 8.0

j listed drencher - ..

*3/8 BSP is permitted only on existing systems when replacing

10 mm standard response sprinklers in sleepingareas.

402.4 Temperature ratings

402.4.1

Sprinklers are available in nominal temperature ratings ranging from 57 °G to 260 cG.

402.4.2

The temperature rating chosen for ELH and OH shall be as close as possible to, but not less than

30 °G above the highest anticipated temperature conditions, unless otherwise specified in this

Standard.

NOTE (1) For normal conditions, in temperate climates, ratings between 68°C and 79 DC for commercial and industrial

premises and between 57 °C and 68°C for residential occupancies will be generally suitable. (2) Under glazing and in unventilated roof spaces and in unventilated shop windows it may be necessary to install

sprinklers with a temperature rating between 79°C and 100°C. (3) See 302.4.2 for temperature ratings in pre-action systems. (4) The following colour codes are used to distinguish sprinklers of different nominal temperature ratings, as noted

below:

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Fusible link sprinklers Glass bulb types

Temperature rating (OC) Colour of yoke arms Temperature rating (0C) Colour of bulbs

55/77 ......................................... .. Natural (uncoloured) 57................................................. .. .. " ........ Orange

80/107 .................................................................. White 68 " ..... , .................... " ........ ,,, ............ , ............ , ........ " ... Red

121/141 .................................................................. Blue 79 .................. " ............... " ....................... , .......... " ... Yellow

163/191 ........... ........................................................ Red 93 ............................................. ", ........................ , ... Green

204/246 .. ............................................................. Green 141 ............................................................................. Blue

260/302 .............................. " ........ ,", ....... " .. ", ... Orange 182 ............................. " ........................................ ,. Mauve

320/343, ...... , ........... , ............................................ Black 227/260 ............................. , ................... , .................. Black

NOTE - American manufactured fusible link sprinklers are not required to be colour coded from 1994 onward.

402.5 Sprinkler guards

402.5.1

In situations where sprinklers are liable to accidental or mechanical damage sprinklers can be protected by listed or approved guards.

402.6 Protective treatment of sprinklers

402.6.1

Sprinklers used where corrosive va pours are prevalent shall be protected against corrosion. This may be either by a listed corrosion resistant sprinkler suitable for the ambient temperature, or with a factory applied wax coating, Wax coatings shall be made good after installation.

402.6.2

Sprinkler heads located in areas of fouling may be protected from build up by the installation of a lightweight paper or plastic bag fitted over the sprinkler head.

402.6.3

Sprinkler heads used in areas subject to freezing shall be kept free from ice deposits. Ice on sprinkler heads shall not be removed by mechanical means.

NOTE Ice formations on sprinkler heads can prevent early fire detection and may interfere with the discharge spray pattern. Mechanical removal of ice formations is likely to result in damage to the sprinkler head.

402.7 Replacement sprinklers

402.7.1

Unless otherwise allowed by 402.7.5 the contractor shall provide at the control valves, or at the fire pump enclosure, a cabinet or bracket to contain spare sprinklers. Such sprinklers shall be kept in a place where the ambient temperature does not exceed 38 °c.

402.7.2

The contractor shall provide six spare sprinklers of the type and temperature ratings used widely in the installation.

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402.7.3

Where small quantities of sprinkler heads are used in the installation, at least one spare sprinkler shall be provided.

NOTE - This clause is to ensure that a sprinkler system can be readily recommissioned following sprinkler activation. Examples of spares that are required to be provided for compliance under this clause would include a spare dry barrel sprinkler of each length, deflector type and temperature rating used in the installation, and a spare high temperature head of each temperature rating used to protect a kitchen hood. If large quantities of these specialised heads are used in an installation, the number of spare sprinklers maintained on the site should be increased accordingly.

402.7.4

The contractor shall also provide a spanner suitable for each type of sprinkler installed.

402.7.5

Where the installation is within 100 km of the service provider, the requirement to provide standard spare sprinklers as defined in the table below is waived, on the undertaking that the service provider will undertake to carry standard spares in their after hours call-out vehicle.

S d d tan ar . kl spnn ers are elne eow: d f db I

Sprinkler orifice size Type of sprinkler Temperature rating 10 mm SSP or SSU 68°C or 93 °C

15 mm SSP, SSU or C/UP 68°C or 93 °C

20mm SSP, SSU or C/UP 68°C or 141°C

402.7.6

Sprinklers requiring replacement shall be replaced by a sprinkler of equivalent type or, in the case of residential sprinklers, of the same design criteria.

402.8 Escutcheon plates, including decoration, shall be of metal or thermosetting plastic and designed and fixed not to adversely affect the water distribution or detection functions of the sprinkler. They shall not be used to support ceiling or other structures. One piece escutcheon plates meeting these criteria do not require listing.

Two piece or recessed escutcheon plates shall be listed, either as individual units, or in conjunction with the listing of sprinklers. Two piece escutcheon plates shall only be listed for use in accordance with the relevant sprinkler data sheet specifications.

Two piece escutcheon plates shall not be used with conventional (C/UP) sprinklers, unless included in the specific sprinkler listing.

403 PIPEWORK

403.1 Compliance with Standards

403.1.1

Pipes upstream of alarm valves shall comply with the Standards and jointing methods in table 4.2. All steel pipes shall be galvanised or concrete lined internally, and where installed underground provided with an exterior protective coating, to satisfy any TA requirements.

NOTE - It is the intention of this clause that steel pipework upstream of any backflow prevention device and the alarm valve be protected from intemal corrosion.

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Table 4.2 - Pipes to be used upstream of control valves

Pipe Jointing options PVC-U to AS/NZS 1477 Solvent cement or elastomeric seal jointing in PVC-M to AS/NZS 4765 accordance with AS/NZS 2032 PVC-O to AS 4441 (Int)

Mild steel to AS 1074 Heavy and medium weight Flanged, screwed, or mechanical coupling BS 1387 Heavy and medium weight (medium weight - roll grooved only)

ASTM Schedule 20, 200 mm dia. and above Schedules 30 & 40, 150 mm dia. and below

NZS 4442 Slip on mechanical coupling, or flanged. (Roll groove type couplings precluded.)

Polyethylene pipes - to AS/NZS 4130 Butt fUSion, flange joints, electrofusion couplings or (buried pipe only) mechanical couplinQs

Copper to Brazed or flanged joint, or mechanical coupling

NZS 3501

Any other pipe investigated for suitability in In accordance with listing

automatic sprinkler systems, and listed as such

bya SSC. NOTE (1) Asbestos cement pipes with proprietary Joints installed below ground prior to 1991 are also permitted. (2) Attention is drawn to the need to consider dissimilar metal corrosion such as may occur between copper and

galvanised steel pipework.

403.1.2

Pipes downstream of the alarm valves shall comply with the Standards and jointing methods in table 4.3.

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Table 4.3 - Pipes to be used downstream of alarm valves

Pipe ting options

Mild steel to Flanged, mechanical coupling (roll grooved only)

AS 1074 Lightweight

ASTM Schedule 10,150 mm dia. and below

BS 1387 Lightweight AS 4041 Lightweight

AS 1074 Medium weight Screwed, flanged, mechanical coupling (rOil

BS 1387 Medium weight grooved only)

AS 4041 Medium weight

r---- --

API 5L Grade B, ASTM A53 or ASTM A 135 Screwed, flanged, mechanical coupling

Schedules 30 & 40, all sizes

Schedule 20, or 4.8 mm wall thickness, 200 mm dia.

and above

AS 1074 Heavyweight BS 1387 Heavyweight

API 5L Grade B, ASTM A53 or ASTM A 135 Proprietary systems as listed by FM or lIL Schedule 5, 20 mm to 50 mm dia.

Copper to: Brazed joint or capillary soldered fitting

NZS 3501

---Chlorinated PVC to: Solvent cement with CPVC fittings to:

ASTM F442 with SDR of 13.5 ASTM F439

Subject to the limitation of 403.1.3

Stainless steel to: Welded joints or fittings to ASTM A403, mechanical

ASTM A312 coupling (roll grooved or cut grooved, subject to wall

Schedules 10, 40 and 80; all sizes thickness)

Subject to limitations of 403.1.4

Polyethylene pipes - to AS/NZS 4130 Butt fusion, or electrofusion couplings

(buried pipe only)

Any other pipe, investigated for suitability in In accordance with listing automatic sprinkler systems, and listed as such

by a SSC NOTE - Attention is drawn to the need to consider dissimilar metal corrosion such as may occur between copper and galvanised steel pipework.

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NZS 4541 :2007

403.1.3

Chlorinated PVC is permitted only:

(a) When the pipe, fittings and solvent cement are of manufacture listed by FM or UL and for which the manufacturers' recommended cure times prior to pressurisation of the system do not exceed 6 hours at 15.5 DC;

(b) When installed and supported in accordance with the associated instructions and any limitations of the manufacturer:

(i) In extra light hazard and ordinary hazard group 1 occupancies

(ii) Any pipe supplying room sprinklers shall have quick response sprinklers or be protected behind a continuous barrier of not less than 1.6 kg/m 2 density

(iii) Pipe may only be used in ceiling spaces which are free from combustibles or are sprinkler protected using quick response sprinklers.

Sprinkler heads shall not be fitted to CPVC pipework before the jointing cement has cured so as to avoid rundown of cement into the sprinkler.

403.1.4

Stainless steel pipe is permitted provided that:

(a) Pipe and fittings are of grades 304, 304L, 312, 312L, 316 and 316L only;

(b) Threaded joints are used only for schedule 40 and 80 pipes of up to 50 mm diameter;

(c) Welded joints and joints made with welded fittings are post heat treated as required by ASTM A312 for the grade of steel concerned.

403.2 Underground pipework

403.2.1

Underground pipes shall be protected against corrosion where necessary. Where pipes are carried under vehicle traffic areas, the pipe covering shall be such as to maintain the load on the pipe within safe tolerances. PVC pipe shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of AS/NZS 2032. Polyethylene pipes shall be installed in accordance with AS/NZS 2566 and NZS/AS 2033.

Where petrolatum tape systems are used the complete system shall be used. Petrolatum cloth tape is only part of the system.

403.2.2 Testing of underground fire mains and pump start lines

The installing contractor shall be responsible for performing all required acceptance tests, and completing and signing the contractor's material and test certificate.

All underground pipework is to be flushed at a velocity of not less than 3 mls until the discharge remains clear prior to connection to the automatic sprinkler installation.

NOTE A water supply producing velocities of 3 mls may not be available under all circ*mstances. If such a velocity is not available, then the system's maximum anticipated demand should be simulated to clear any foreign matter that may obstruct the pipework.

All piping and fittings subjected to system working pressure shall be hydrostatically tested at 1400 kPa, or 350 kPa in excess of the system working pressure, whichever is greater, and shall maintain that pressure without loss for 2 hours.

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Prior to carrying out the hydrostatic testing the pipe shall be flushed of debris and purged of any trapped air to ensure that an accurate test is achieved.

A test certificate suitable for recording results of testing is provided in Appendix M.

403.3 Hot work jointing

403.3.1

Any pipe joints may be joined using hot work subject to the following restrictions:

(a) All welding of steel pipes shall be carried out to the requirements specified in 108;

(b) Except in exceptional circ*mstances, in the case of sprinklers being installed during the construction of the protected building only pipes of 50 mm NB or greater may be joined by hot work in situ, hot work in smaller pipes shall be fabricated in the contractor's workshop;

(c) Where sprinklers are being installed in an existing building, in situ hot work shall not be permitted except in exceptional circ*mstances and then only in accordance with 1104;

(d) For service or alteration work on existing sprinkler systems 'cut-in' hot work operations are only permitted to the extent specified in 1104.

403.4 Concealment of pipework

403.4.1

Sprinkler pipework should not be embedded in concrete except where short sections are required to negotiate structural members and sleeving is not practical. Bends are preferred to joints in this section but otherwise the pipe shall be welded, pressure tested, and wrapped before immersion in concrete. The wrapping shall extend beyond the edge of the concrete.

NOTE - Embedding of pipework is restricted to avoid problems of corrosion and difficulties in making subsequent alterations to the system.

403.5 Feed pipes in high temperature areas

403.5.1

Sprinklers in ambient temperatures above 100°C shall be on a dry pipe installation or the feed pipes thereto shall rise up to the sprinklers (or group of sprinklers) so as to restrict the thermal circulation of the heated water in the pipes.

403.6 Restriction regarding pipework in unsprinklered firecells

403.6.1

Sprinkler pipework shall not pass through, or be supported on an unsprinklered firecell unless there is no practical alternative, in which case 403.6.2 shall apply.

403.6.2

The sprinkler pipework shall be accessible for inspection and contained within a protected shaft or surrounded with fire resistant materials and be supported by elements having a FRR no less than the S value derived from the te in table 5.1 of Compliance Document C/AS1 Part 5 of the New Zealand Building Code Fire Safety Clauses for fire hazard categories 1, 2 and 3, subject to a maximum of 120/120/120. Protection in fire hazard category 4 situations shall be to a specific fire engineered design or a FRR of (180)/180/180.

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NOTE-(1) The above conditions are intended to prevent damage or collapse of the pipework in the event of a major fire in the

unprotected building. (2) For pipework, valves and fittings in buildings or sections of premises in which particularly hazardous processes are

carried on, or an explosion hazard exists, special precautions apply (see 404.11).

403.7 Protection of pipework against corrosion

403.7.1

Unpainted or otherwise unprotected mild steel pipe is permitted for interior use if there are no corrosive environmental conditions present and the pipe has not been subjected to corrosive conditions prior to installation.

NOTE Attention is drawn to differences in corrosive conditions that can occur in particular areas of a building (e.g. toilets) or in different areas of a city (e.g. areas close to the sea), or in different parts of New Zealand (e.g. Rotorua) and to the requirements of some owners (e.g. hospitals and industrial plants) to colour code various piping systems.

403.7.2

Where corrosive conditions exist, pipework should be thoroughly cleaned and protected by suitable means, for example by a corrosion-resistant protective system.

NOTE-(1) In some corrosive environments galvanising may be adequate provided that the threaded ends of the pipes are

adequately sealed with a suitable protective coating; and/or (2) The pipes may be wrapped in a suitable protective tape system in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

403.7.3 Earthing

The use of any sprinkler installation pipe as an earthing continuity conductor is prohibited. A thimble stud shall be welded upstream of any device or fitting connected to each metal underground water supply pipe to permit earth bonding.

NOTE (1) Attention is drawn to the necessity to comply with the requirements of the ElectriCity Act and Regulations. (2) If an electrical hazard is suspected then an earth strap should be fitted across any installed pipes before they are

cut

403.8 Protection of system against mechanical damage

403.8.1

Sprinkler pipework should not be erected in locations where it is prone to damage by forklift trucks and other mobile equipment. In particular, it should not cross gangways where such equipment is used unless the headroom is in excess of the height of the equipment concerned. Where it is impracticable to avoid areas subject to such traffic, the pipework should be protected by adequate guards. Where installation valves or risers are situated in such areas, in addition to guard rails, safety guide lines should be marked out.

403.9

403.9.1

Pipe supports

Fixings shall be heat and corrosion resistant in the location chosen and installed so that they are designed to support five times the weight of the water-filled pipe plus 100 kg. Additionally hangers shall not yield when loaded to five times the weight of water-filled pipe plus 100 kg. Supports shall allow for thermal movement.

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403.9.2

Electrical wiring or other services, fittings or fixtures shall not be attached to, or supported by, sprinkler pipework.

Sprinkler pipework should not be supported from other services unless the supports have been engineered to the requirements of AS/NZS 1170 series.

403.9.3

Pipes shall be supported at such intervals that the bending stresses will not exceed 50 % of the yield figure when the pipes are full of water. The IIr value should not exceed 300, where I!r is the ratio of the length between supports and the radius of gyration of the pipe section.

Support systems outside the scope of the table below shall be by specific design.

Suitable supports for horizontal simply supported steel pipes are noted in table 4.4.

Pipe size I---__ (mm)

20 25 32 40 50 65 80

100 150 200

Over 200

Table 4.4 - Suitable supports

Max. spacing I Min. hanger rod diameter

--\-- ___ (m.~I,--)~ __ -+-___ ...L (i1111'l'l~ _--\ 2.4 10 3.3 10 4.25 10 4.8 10 6.0 10 6.5 10 6.5 10 6.5 10 6.5 12 6.5 16 6.5 L 24 I

The unsupported length between the end sprinkler and the last hanger on a range of two sprinklers or more shall not be more than 900 mm for 25 mm pipe and 1200 mm for 32 mm pipe and larger.

Hangers are not required on range pipes not exceeding 600 mm fed directly from distribution pipes with rigid connectors. Where the distance between supports for distribution pipes exceeds the maximum permissible span, the intermediate distribution pipe hanger may be omitted provided the range pipes are supported from each purlin adjacent to the distribution pipe.

CPVC pipes shall be supported according to the listing instructions of the manufacturer (see 403.1.3(b)).

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NZS 4541 :2007

403.9.4 Special provision for factory formed insulated panels

Special precautions are required for fixing to factory formed insulated panels. The design for fixings shall be approved by a SSC and may require certification by a Chartered Professional Engineer. Alternatively, the design for fixings shall include the following:

(a) When attaching sprinkler range pipework to the underside of factory formed insulated panels the fixings shall penetrate both skins of the panel. Suitable load spreading plates shall be provided with the fixings on both side of the panel.

(b) Where factory formed insulation panels are deSigned for a temperature controlled atmosphere or for weather protection any fixings penetrating the panels shall be thermally insulated to reduce heat transfer and all external fixings shall be sealed against the ingress of water.

(c) Fixing range supports to one side of the panel using pop rivets, or self-tapping screws is not permitted.

(d) Distribution pipework shall not be affixed to factory formed insulated panels unless a specific engineered solution has been provided by a Chartered Engineer and approved by a SSC.

(e) The use of plastic fasteners, such as nylon through bolts is not permitted.

NOTE-(1) The requirement to preclude plastic fasteners is based on a review of a number of failures, where the fasteners

have catastrophically failed, with the system falling from the building ceilings. A review of literature has indicated that nylon will embrittle when in contact with moisture, zinc and the chemicals used to provide fire retarding to expanded polystyrene. These materials are usually all present with sprinkler system supports.

(2) The requirement which precludes pop rivets and the like is based on a review of range pipe support failures following two significant fires in 2005.

403.10 Pipe size

403.10.1 System pipework

For all new sprinkler systems the sizing of the system pipework shall be by full hydraulic calculation in accordance with Part 10 of this Standard.

In the case of extensions to existing systems installed to superseded editions of this Standard, the tabular method of pipe sizing may be used as permitted by Part 7 for extra light hazard, or Part 8 for ordinary hazard classifications. Detailed requirements for extra light and ordinary hazard classifications are set out under their respective sections.

Existing sprinkler systems of extra high hazard classification, installed to superseded editions of this Standard may be extended to a maximum of 18 sprinkler heads, based upon the superseded edition of this Standard to which the existing system was installed.

403.10.2 Water supply pipe work

Pipe sizes for pump suctions from tanks are specified in 606.3.8. Other pipework is sized by the designer by hydraulic calculation according to the nature and parameters of the supply.

403.10.3 Reduction in sizes

Except for fully hydraulically calculated systems, pipes may diminish in diameter only in the direction of flow of water to any sprinkler.

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NZS 4541 :2007

403.10.4 Orifice plates

Where it is considered necessary to fit orifice plates in order to assist in balancing a system hydraulically or to meet pump characteristic curves, the diameter of the orifice shall not be less than 50 % of the diameter of the pipe into which the plate is to be fitted. Such orifice plates are allowed only in pipes of 50 mm diameter or larger. They shall be of brass or stainless steel with plain central holes without burrs and not less than the following thickness:

Pipe size (NB) (mm) Min. plate thickness (mm)

50 3

65 3

80 3

100 6

150 6

200 9

They shall be situated not less than five pipe diameters upstream and downstream from any elbow or bend measured in the direction of flow. Orifice plates shall have a projecting identification tag which is readily visible on which is stamped the nominal pipe diameter and the K factor for the orifice. The relationship between the size of the orifice, the flow and the pressure loss may be calculated on the basis of the information given in Appendix E.

403.11 Slope of pipes and provision for drainage

403.11.1

The distribution and range pipes of all gas filled systems shall be sloped to suitably placed installation drain points. The slope on pipes of 50 mm and over shall be at least 1 in 500 and on smaller pipes at least 1 in 250.

403.11.2

The drain point shall be fitted with a normally closed and plugged or locked drain valve at least one third the diameter of the supply pipe to the part of the installation being drained. Where practicable these drain valves should be positioned to discharge into a disposal sump or drain so as not to cause flooding within the building.

403.11.3

For wet pipe systems normally closed and plugged or locked drain valves shall be provided to allow all distribution pipes to be substantially (although not necessarily completely) drained.

403.12 Seismic resistance of pipework - Design

403.12.1

The sprinkler system pipework shall be supported to resist seismic loads by either: (a) A complete piping support system based on a dynamic seismic analysis such that the pipework

system performance shall be at least equal to that of the building structure under the earthquake loadings of NZS 1170.5; or

(b) A piping support system which shall comply with the requirements of 403.12.1 to 403.13.4 inclusive.

NOTE The design of the support system to resist seismic loads on pipework is based on the following principles: (1) Lateral supports are of sufficient stiffness to force piping to move with the immediate support structure; (2) Lateral supports are spaced to limit pipe deflections under resonating dynamic load such that pipe jOints and

intermediate vertical supports are not over-stressed; (3) Lateral supports are ductile and fixings are deSigned over-strength; (4) Stresses due to differential movements of building structures are minimised through the use of piping flexibility or

clearances.

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403.12.2

All pipework shall be designed to resist repeated forces due to seismic acceleration of 1.0 g acting on the mass of the pipework in any direction in addition to the gravity force.

NOTE - This load may be greater than the requirements of NZS 1170.5, and may increase the support size but it eliminates the need for a more detailed study.

403.12.3

All fixings in materials which fail in a brittle manner, such as concrete or timber, shall have a safety factor of not less than two.

NOTE - The pipework lateral supports are detailed for limited ductility and over-strength is required in fixings to prevent brittle failure at loadings greater than the design earthquake.

403.13 Seismic resistance of pipework - Installation All sprinkler pipework shall be suitably designed and installed to support and resist seismic loads. A piping support system shall be designed to comply with AS/NZS 1170: Part 0 and NZS 1170: Part 5.

All parts of structures, including permanent, non-structural components and their connections, and permanent services and equipment supported by structures shall be designed for the earthquake actions specified in NZS 1170: Part 5 section 8.

403.13.1 Flexibility

403.13.1.1 Pipework shall have sufficient flexibility to prevent over-stressing of pipes, hangers and braces in an earthquake. Flexibility shall be provided in the X, Y and Z axes at structural separations.

NOTE - A swing joint able to take movements of ±100 mm is shown in figure 4.1.

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-+r---++--+-t+-- ---+If--lt---++--zlr-<t-

200

2 elbows

Fire sprinkler coupling

Normal position

I

PLAN

ELEVATION

2 elbows & nipple

( Elbow

2 elbow lengths j Nipple

Elbow

All dimensions are in mm.

NZS 4541:2007 ----------------

Longitudinal movement

Lateral movement

HORIZONTAL VIEWS (PLAN)

Figure 4.1 - Seismic flexible joint

403.13.1.2 Sufficient flexibility shall be provided in risers and distribution pipes to allow for ±80 mm horizontal movement per 4 m of height of the building. Where piping crosses structural separations, an allowance for relative horizontal movement is required of either ±160 mm per 4 m of height of the structural separation or the building design movement where known. Where risers pass through more than one floor and are more than 1 m from a column or structural shear wall, either the form of the fixing or the pipework flexibility shall allow for differential movement between floors.

403.13.1.3 Range pipes shall not pass through structural separations.

403.13.1.4 Flexibility shall be achieved through piping flexibility or by the use of flexible couplings of the mechanically housed type providing axial and lateral pipe connection which is equivalent to the pipe strength.

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NZS 4541 :2007

403.13.1.5 Thin-walled metal expansion bellows type couplings may only be used where: (a) The ends of the piping being connected are fixed to the structure; and (b) The rating of the bellows allows for 150 % of the anticipated differential movement in all

directions.

Rubber type couplings are not acceptable.

NOTE A single length of braided hose will not provide three planes of movement.

403.13.1.6 Flexible couplings shall be provided within 600 mm to 900 mm of non-structural concrete or masonry walls to which pipework is rigidly fixed, or to alternatively ensure adequate piping flexibility. This shall also apply to sections of pipework attached to different parts of the building, including racking systems, that may respond differently in an earthquake, e.g. between a wall and a roof or between basem*nt walls and the ground, or between a rack and a wall.

403.13.2 Bracing

403.13.2.1 The requirements of this section are applicable to steel pipework only.

403.13.2.2 Bracing shall be provided to restrain pipework under seismic load. Hangers not longer than 150 mm measured from the top of the pipe to the point of hanger support can be used for lateral bracing and, if clamped tightly to the pipe, for longitudinal bracing also, provided that in both cases the hanger will not break or detach under the seismic load.

NOTE - Piping hangers that do not provide lateral restraint are not braces.

403.13.2.3 Bracing shall be positioned and aligned in conjunction with flexible couplings such that no bracing is subject to seismic load from pipework outside its immediate vicinity. Typical locations of pipework bracing within a building are shown in figure 4.2. Tributary lengths of pipe for various bracing locations are shown in figure 4.3. These can be used with the data in table 4.5 to calculate the weight of pipework to be restrained.

Table 4.5 - Weight calculations

Pipe size I Weight including water Material (nominal diameter) (Wp)

(mm) (kg/m) 25 3.05 ......

32 4.19 40 5.03 50 7.37 BS 1387 medium screwed and 65 10.3 socketted tube 80 13.7 100 21.1 150 38.8

! ~ 200 62.6 BS 3600 tube NOTE - For a seismic acceleration of 1.0 g the required restraining force Fp is given by: (1 ) Fp = Wp x 0.00981 x Lp (kN) (2) where Lp = length of pipe under restraint.

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NZS 4541:2007 - .... --------

A

+ ...... ...... ,.. t " ,... ,... ~ p ..... B ..... -+B- ..... ...

B ---t

...... ...... ,..: "

,.... -- B- ..... +B- - -

..... ..... ,.. "

,... ..... .J ~ .J~ .J ~ ... B- ..... B- ... - ( )B OB ( )B .......=-...,. 0 () ()

'" t " "Ct D 0 () C

() .... r-

.... ...... ,... !...(I--l t ..... B ..... -+B- - ... + --t

B1 () B1 () B1

()

_ t ,.. ... t " °B ( >B °B ....... ,...

() ( ) ()"' ""~B"" .... ! B'"" ""

.., ., B ---

.... t ...... ..... .... ..... " A - Four-way brace at ris -~B-

... B- ..., ... 1 B - Lateral brace 1 B

er

C - Longitudinal brace

o Couplings at wall penetration

Figure 4.2 - Location of pipework bracing

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NZS 4541:2001

/--..... /--..... /--, I \I \I \ ( I I I I I I I \

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,/r- - -t-- ) \ ---- - --, ( \

\,_~__ '\. ) 1. ~ __ :._/ .... , ......... ~ .,.,., .........

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5

7

2

------... ~'--~~<~ ... ,~~---~~ ( \ I I \ I

I I ! I \ I I I 1 1 I I I 1 I I I

I I I I I I I I I I I \ I \ I 1- -'-('r-{ ... " 1-.... " W-- I'-"r-~i --

, It

I I I

t

( - --1-- - -;..- - ----1-- I

~---- - --, ,---------\ I d

~II II I,

I' ----I-' I

I \ ---- - -- \

- I \ ,----- ----------------/

- No longitudinal brace 6

------..::;.------ --, , \

.... : ... /

'\ .. \

,)

,.~ ... .r /'''- - ---- - ,-- - ,

I \ \ f

~( \ ".

I \ I I '\ - --I--- - -- - -.... /'

-"" / '- 6~ -" ' .... ------- ---

8

Figure 4.3 - Examples of load distribution to pipework bracing

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NZS 4541 : 2007

403.13.2.4 Distribution piping shall be provided with bracing:

(a) Laterally at less than 1.2 m from unrestrained ends;

(b) Laterally at main building structural elements, with a maximum spacing of 12 m;

(c) Laterally within 600 mm of a flexible coupling (on at least one side);

(d) Laterally within 600 mm of both sides of a swing joint crossing a structural separation;

(e) Which includes at least one longitudinal brace.

A right angle change in direction of a pipe, or second pipe teed off it, can provide the required longitudinal restraint of the pipe provided the branch pipe is of equal or larger size and is laterally restrained within 600 mm of the connection.

403.13.2.5 Risers shall be provided with bracing to resist movement in both lateral directions:

(a) At less than 1.2 m from unrestrained ends;

(b) At a maximum spacing of 6 m.

403.13.2.6 Range pipes shall be provided with bracing:

(a) Laterally on the last hanger;

(b) Laterally at a maximum spacing of 12 m.

NOTE - The restraint at the end of the range pipe is intended to prevent the pipe from whipping and possibly detaching from the end hanger.

403.13.2.7 Tension/compression braces shall be at an angle to the vertical of not less than 30°. Acceptable types of bracing are shown in figure 4.4.

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NZS 4541 :2007

. , ..

Beam clamp

4 - 22

. "". ' .

..

1

i Jtt

. , " ..... -.

1 ~ _ ." ... ~ •• ' • *

Figure 4.4 - Pipework bracing details

..

..

Beam clamp

, i I

Proprietary pipe brake fittings

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NZS 4541 :2007

403.13.2.8 The slenderness ratio IIrof compression braces shall not exceed 200, where:

I :::: length of brace

r:::: radius of gyration of brace.

The maximum horizontal loads that can be resisted by compression braces at various brace angles

are shown in table 4.6.

Table 4.6 - Allowable horizonlalloads of typical pipework braces

Shape and size Allowable horizontal support load

Brace length 30" angle 45" angle 60" angle Horizontal for J/r= 200 from vertical from vertical from vertical

(mm) (m) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN)

Galvanised steel wire 3.2 dia. (tension only) 0.23 0.33 OAO 0.45

Mild steel rod 10 dia. 0.50 1.0 1A 1.7 1.9

12 dia. 0.60 1A 2.0 2A 2.8

16 dia. 0.80 2.5 3.5 4.3 5.0 20 dia. 1.00 3.9 5.5 6.8 7.8

BS 1387 medium tube 20 NB 1.7 2.5 3.5 4.3 5.0 25 NB 2.2 3.9 5.5 6.8 7.8 32 NB 2.8 5.0 7.1 8.7 10.1 40 NB 3.2 5.7 8.1 9.9 11.5 50 NB 4.0 8.1 11.5 14.0 16.2 65 NB 5.1 10.4 14.7 18.1 20.8

Mild steel flat 40x 6 0.35 3.0 4.2 5.2 6.0 50 x 8 OA6 5.0 7.0 8.6 10.0 50 x 10 0.58 6.2 8.8 10.8 12.5

Mild steel angle 25 x 25 x 3 0.96 1.7 2.5 3.0 3.5 30 x 30 x 5 1.1 3A 4.9 6.0 6.9 40 x40 x 5 1.5 4.7 6.7 8.2 9.4 50 x50 x 5 1.9 6.0 8.4 10.3 12.0 60 x 60 x 6 2.3 8.6 12.2 14.9 17.2 80 x 80 x 6 3.1 11.6 16.5 20.2 23.3

403.13.2.9 Bracing shall be tight and concentric. All parts and fittings of a brace should be in a straight line to avoid eccentric loading on fittings and fastenings.

403.13.2.10 The connection of a brace to piping shall be snug and tight. The connection to the piping shall be able to transfer load from the pipe to the brace and remain tight under vibration.

403.13.2.11 Lateral bracing shall be perpendicular to the piping.

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NZS 4541 :2007

403.13.2.12 Bracing for range pipes may be provided by wrap around U hooks with the legs bent out at least 10° from the vertical.

403.13.2.13 Bracing fixings to the piping and to the immediate support structure shall be designed to resist the earthquake loading specified in 403.12. The horizontal loads that can be resisted by typical fixings for various bracing configurations for horizontal piping are shown in table 4.7 subject to the following provisions:

(a) Masonry anchors shall be installed to the manufacturer's specifications;

(b) Bolts to steel members shall comply with the requirements (e.g. edge distances) of NZS 3404;

(c) Bolted and screwed connections to timber shall comply with the requirements of NZS 3603.

403.13.2.14 Bracing for piping of diameter 80 mm or larger shall not be restrained by timber members which are less than 100 mm in the direction(s) of the plane(s) of bending. The distance of the point of fastening from any edge of the timber shall be not less than 30 mm or 4 fastener diameters whichever is the greater.

403.13.2.15 Braces shall not be welded to cold rolled sections 3 mm or less in thickness.

403.13.2.16 Explosive driven fasteners shall only be used if listed.

403.13.2.17 Expansion fasteners in concrete which are secured by driving the fastener against a wedge at the bottom of the hole shall not be used.

NOTE This type of expansion fastener has performed poorly in earthquakes.

403.13.2.18 The building element to which the brace is fixed shall be capable of Withstanding the force which the brace imposes on it

403.13.3 Clearance

403.13.3.1 Clearance, as specified in 403.13.3.2, shall be provided around all piping extending through non­structural walls, floors, platforms and foundations as follows.

403.13.3.2 Minimum clearance on all sides from the building elements shall not be less than:

Piping up to 40 mm nominal diameter ..................... 25 mm All other pipes ......................................................... 50 mm

The gap may be sealed provided that a flexible or frangible material is used.

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NZS 4541 :2007

403.13.3.3

No clearance is required for piping passing through partitions or wails of frangible materials (such as gypsum board) unless the wall is required to have a fire resistance rating.

Table 4.7 - Horizontal load capacity of typical connections

Fastening type Horizontal load capacity

Vertical angle 30° Vertical angle 45° Vertical angle 60°

Type A Type B Type A Type B Type A Type B

(kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN) Masonry anchors

M6 1.7 1.3 2.4 2.0 2.9 2.6 M8 3.0 2.0 4.2 2.9 5.2 3.8 M10 4.4 2.9 6.2 4.3 7.6 5.5 M12 6.8 4.3 9.5 6.3 11.7 8.7 M16 12.0 5.7 17.0 8.7 20.9 12.3

Bolts to steel I M6 1.7 1.9 2.4 2.6 2.9 3.0

M8 3.0 3.5 4.2 4.6 5.2 5.4 M10 4.7 5.5 6.7 7.3 8.1 8.5 M12 6.8 7.9 9.5 10.5 11.7 12.3 M16 12.0 14.4 17.0 19.1 20.9 22.0

Bolts to BP 450 purlins M6 1.7 - 2.4 - 2.9 M8 2.9 - 4.1 - 5.0 -

M10 3.6 - 5.1 - 6.2 -

M12 4.3 6.1 7.4 -M16 5.7 - 8.1 9.9

Bolts to timber i

!

M12 2.1 - 3.3 - 4.4 -

M16 2.9 4.8 7.1 -M20 3.7 - 6.4 - 10.0 -

--;::--

I

I Coach screws to timber M8 - 0.75 - 0.95 - 1.1 M10 -

I

1.3 - 1.8

i

- 2.2 M12 - 1.8 - 2.6 3.4 M16 - 3.0 -

i

4.2 i

5.6 M20 - 4.3 - 6.2 - 8.4

~ ..

Fastening, in shear ~ I

Fastening in tension/shear ~I

f )- f I

/ : f I

/vectical aogl'

I

f/ ~erti,al aogle Horizontal Horizontal f load --- I -- •

I load "V I I

I

Type A TypeB NOTE (1) Bolted shear (type A) connections to timber assume a nominal timber thickness of 50 mm. (2) Tension/shear (type B) connections to timber assume coach screws penetrate timber 10 times the shank

diameter and have a minimum thread length 6 times the shank diameter. (3) The loads for timber connections are for dry timber. For green timber reduce the loads by 30 %.

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NZS 4541 :2007

403.13.3.4 No clearance is required if the piping is attached rigidly to the wall and there is adequate piping flexibility on both sides of the wall to prevent damage from movement of the pipework under seismic loads.

403.13.3.5 In walls required to be fire rated the gap shall be filled with a flexible material which will preserve the fire rating of the wall.

403.13.4 Hangers

403.13.4.1 Hangers shall be connected to the piping and to the immediate support structure by fixings that cannot detach in an earthquake.

404 VALVES

404.1 Installation control valves

404.1.1 General

Each installation shall be provided with a set of installation control valves comprising:

(a) A main stop valve;

(b) An alarm valve (wet pipe, dry pipe, composite or a deluge valve);

(c) A water motor alarm and gong;

(d) A drain valve.

Figures 4.6,4.7 and 4.8 show typical layouts including ancillary equipment.

404.1.2 Enclosure

The sprinkler installation control valves shall be protected and secured in a substantial sprinkler protected enclosure, exclusive to the sprinkler installation. This enclosure shall be of sufficient size to allow adequate access to all parts of the sprinkler control valves and associated equipment, together with due provision for artificial lighting, adequate ventilation and heating (the latter as necessary). It shall also permit servicing and testing in a weather protected environment.

NOTE (1) Where there is no danger of freezing a robust, locked, wire-mesh enclosure within a protected building will comply

with this requirement. (2) The need to comply with the Electricity Regulations should be noted. (3) AS/NlS 3000 Electrical installations (known as the Australian/New Zealand Wiring rules) is a suggested means of

compliance. As sprinkler control valve enclosures can be wet areas on occasions, the provisions of 2.9.2.5 (Restricted locations of switchboards) and 6.7 (Locations where general hosing down operations are carried out) should be considered. The use of Residual Current Devices (ReO) is also recommended for the protection of socket outlets (refer to 2.6).

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NZS 4541 :2007 ---------------------------------404.1.3 Location

Control valves need to be designed, arranged and provided in locations that allow for the carrying out of all the required testing, inspection and maintenance. In this regard adequate drainage is required for the flow of water for testing and inspection of water supplies.

NOTE The New Zealand Fire Service is preparing "A guide to Fire Service operations in buildings" which will provide a recommended specification for locks used in sprinkler systems.

404.2 Stop valves

404.2.1 General

All stop valves shall be suitable in all respects for the proposed application. Valves which exceed 50 mm diameter and are subject to a pressure exceeding 100 kPa shall be so constructed that the operating mechanism has a mechanical efficiency of less than 50 %.

Stop valves that are below ground (or floor level), are only accessible via toby boxes and are key operated shall be used only on the water supply. Such valves shall close in the anti-clockwise direction.

All other valves shall have a handwheel or a lever permanently affixed and handwheel operated valves shall close in the clockwise direction. Handwheel and lever operated valves shall have a permanently fixed indicator to show if the valve is open or closed and shall be clearly marked to show the direction of closing or opening.

404.2.2 Main stop valves

These shall comply with the following:

(a) Each installation shall be provided with a main stop valve, which when closed will shut off all supply of water to the installation. All water supplies shall be connected before passing through the main stop valve;

(b) Main stop valves shall be fitted with a supervisory device, and secured open by a padlocked chain or a padlocked strap;

(c) The location of the main stop valve shall be identified by a location plate fixed on the outside of an external wall and if necessary a further plate on any opaque door within the building which has to be opened in order to gain access to the main stop valve. Such plates shall bear the following words in raised letters or other approved type of leUers:

SPRINKLER STOP VALVE

INSIDE

The words "SPRINKLER STOP VALVE" should be in leUers of at least 35 mm and the word "INSIDE" of at least 25 mm in height. It is recommended that the words be painted white on a black background.

404.2.3 Stop valves controlling water supplies

Except as noted in 404.2.1, all stop valves controlling water supplies shall be secured open by a padlocked chain or a padlocked strap. In the case of elevated private reservoirs and gravity tanks the stop valve shall be fixed immediately adjacent to the reservoir or tank outlet and shall be upstream of any flexible couplings. All water supply stop valves within the pumproom shall be fitted with a listed supervisory device.

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NZS 4541 :2007

404.2.4 Subsidiary stop valves

Stop valves subsidiary to the main stop valve shall be fitted with a listed supervisory device. They shall be located in a prominent position, clearly labelled, and accessible from floor level or by a permanent access ladder/platform provided for New Zealand Fire Service and service personnel.

NOTE - In high rise buildings, the floor isolation valves should be normally located within a common stairwell likely to be used by New Zealand Fire Service personnel to access the fire floors.

Stop valves subsidiary to the main stop valve are permitted only under the following circ*mstances and subject to the following conditions:

(a) To isolate individual floors in multi-storeyed buildings as per 211;

(b) To isolate individual buildings or tenancies in malls when fed from a single installation;

(c) To isolate buildings or sections of premises, as per 404.11, where either hazardous processes are carried out or conditions exist which are liable to result in an explosion;

(d) To facilitate maintenance and testing of:

(i) Dry pipe installations (see 302.2)

(ii) Tail-end dry pipe installations (see 302.3)

(iii) Pre-action installations (see 302.4)

(iv) Antifreeze installations (see 302.5)

(v) Tail-end antifreeze installations (see 302.6)

(vi) Deluge installations (see 303)

(vii) Backflow prevention units (see 404.3.4);

(e) With specific approval, when frequent shut down of a section of a sprinkler installation is required to gain access to equipment or to clean sprinklers;

(f) To isolate a section of in-rack sprinklers (see 904.2.8);

(g) Where subsidiary stop valves are installed to allow sectional isolation of sprinkler installations, as outlined in (a), (b), (c) (e) and (f) above, then the following conditions apply:

(i) It is not permissible to have looped connections which require more than one valve to be operated to sectionally isolate part of the installation; AND

(ii) Multiple subsidiary stop valves shall not be installed in series.

404.2.5 Valves with supervisory devices

Supervisory devices shall be listed. They may be listed as part of a valve assembly or as an individual unit. For normally open or normally closed valves the supervisory device shall detect and activate when the spindle of the valve is rotated any more than two revolutions from the normal position, or, for quarter turn valves, the valve opening changes by more than 15° from the normal position.

The signalling function shall be either line powered by the fire brigade alarm transmission system, or alternatively, powered by a power supply complying with 407.2.5.

Activation of the supervisory device, due to either valve closure or interference with the device, shall cause transmission of a FIRE signal by the fire brigade alarm within 60 s. The signalling path and any supplementary source shall be supervised in such a way that open circuit or loss of power will also cause transmission of a FIRE signal.

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NZS 4541 :2007 --------------~----------------~--------------------------

Isolation devices on the alarm signalling function (to permit authorised valve closure of a subsidiary stop valve) shall be located in the fire brigade alarm unit and be appropriately labelled. Activation of the isolation device shall cause the fire brigade alarm to signal DEFECT.

Valves other than those required to be supervised by this Standard may be fitted with supervisory devices if required. An example being pump suction isolation valves. In such cases, operation of the supervisory device shall not preclude the ability of the fire brigade alarm to transmit a FIRE signal.

404.2.6

Taps, hose reels or other attachments for drawing water from an installation other than those specified in this Standard are strictly forbidden.

404.3 Protection of potable water supplies

404.3.1

Backflow prevention shall be installed to protect public and on-site potable water supplies. In-ground hydrants that are part of the building shall be backflow protected. The method of protection shall be as required by Compliance Documents of the New Zealand Building Code Clause G12.

NOTE (1) Backflow protection for the building is required in accordance with Approved Document for the New Zealand

Building Code Clause G12. (2) 'Buildings' are as defined in section 3 of the Building Act.

404.3.2

Devices to provide backflow prevention installed in the supply to a sprinkler system shall be listed and any strainers fitted shall be listed and comply with 404.10.

404.3.3

Backflow prevention devices shall be readily accessible for testing and maintenance. Backflow prevention devices located upstream of installation valve sets shall be located in a secure area. This secure area shall be either within the sprinkler valve house or sprinkler pump room, or where a TA requires a backflow prevention unit to be installed at the property boundary its location and security shall be subject to SSC approval. In the latter case the contractor shall provide a SSC with copies of documentation from the T A specifying their required location.

Backflow prevention devices require valves upstream and downstream for testing and maintenance purposes. If fit for purpose, the street valve and main stop valve may meet this need. Alternatively, additional stop valves with listed supervisory devices shall be installed.

Reduced pressure zone devices shall always be located above ground, and unless specifically recommended by the manufacturer, be located horizontally with the relief valve facing vertically downward and not less than 300 mm above the surrounding surface.

Double check valve assemblies may, if absolutely necessary, be installed below ground with specific approval of the TA and provided that:

(a) The double check valve assembly is located in a permanent (concrete) pit that is a suitable size to allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and replacement;

(b) The pit is suitably drained and covered to prevent water pooling or silting; and

(c) The location is clearly indicated on the block plan.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Backflow prevention devices located outside the sprinkler valve or pumproom shall be protected from freezing.

404.3.4

A drip tight valve and pipework are required to be installed downstream of any backflow prevention device to allow it to be tested. The main sprinkler stop valve, or valves, may provide this function. Valves are required upstream of backflow prevention devices for maintenance purposes. The main town's main isolation valve may provide this function.

NOTE In some cases, the main sprinkler stop valve will not be sufficient to allow the backflow prevention device to be tested. One possible scenario would be if the device is installed upstream of a fire pump with a packed gland. In normal circ*mstances, it would be expected that any backflow prevention device be installed downstream of a pump, to avoid hydraulic disturbances, which would impact on pump performance. Specific approval is required for such installations, which would detail the requirements for security and monitoring of any valving installed on the supply to the sprinkler system.

404.4 Alarm valves

404.4.1 Alarm (wet pipe) valves

Alarm (wet pipe) valves (often referred to as "ordinary" alarm valves) shall be of a listed type.

404.4.2 Alarm (dry pipe) valves

Alarm (dry pipe) valves (often referred to as "air valves" or "dry pipe valves") shall be of a listed type and shall comply with the following:

(a) They shall be fixed on the main supply pipe immediately above the main stop valve (and the alarm (wet pipe) valve in the case of installations not employing a composite alarm valve) and before any connection is taken off to supply any part of the installation;

(b) In the case of installations maintained permanently under gas pressure, the water motor alarm shall be connected to the atmospheric chamber or the alarm motor auxiliary valve of the alarm (dry pipe) valve;

(c) In order to facilitate the carrying out of flow tests when the installation is under gas pressure, an additional 40 mm drain valve in the case of extra light hazard installations or a 50 mm drain valve in the case of ordinary and extra high hazard installations may be fitted below the alarm (dry pipe) valve. Alternatively, a subsidiary stop valve of a listed type may be installed immediately above the alarm (dry pipe) valve.

404.4.3 Composite alarm valves

These valves which shall be of a listed type, are dual purpose valves suitable for either wet or dry installations. The conditions in 302.1, 302.2 and 404.4.2 as appropriate are equally applicable for this type of alarm valve.

404.4.4 Identification of alarm valves

NOTE - In buildings containing more than one installation each alarm valve shall have a number indicated thereon in bold figures.

404.5 Dry pipe and preaction installations in freezers Factory Mutual Global's Data Sheet 8-29 provides useful background information on the design of dry pipe installations for refrigerated storage applications.

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NZS 4541 :2007

404.5.1 Accelerators or exhausters for alarm (dry pipe) valves

When fitted, these devices which shall be of a listed type are designed to accelerate the operation of an alarm (dry pipe) valve. They shall be located as close as possible to the alarm (dry pipe) valve. Care shall be taken to ensure that the connection to the device from the system is so located that the restriction orifice and other operating parts are not likely to become flooded with priming water or back drainage under normal conditions (see also 302.2).

It is permissible to further enhance the speed of operation of a dry pipe installation to trip an accelerator or exhauster by means of a signal from a thermal or smoke detector system (see 302.2.3) which covers the area protected by the dry pipe system. Details of such arrangements shall be submitted for prior approval.

404.5.2 Air supply

Dry pipe installations shall be fitted with an air supply capable of restoring normal air pressure in 30 minutes.

Air pressure in the installation shall not exceed that recommended by the dry pipe valve manufacturer. A listed air pressure maintenance device shall control air pressure.

In cold storage applications, air shall be supplied through an adequately sized twin tower desiccant type regenerative air dryer, so its pressure dew point is 10°C below the nominal freezer temperature. The air dryer shall be installed upstream of the air pressure maintenance device. The air supply shall be connected to pipework inside the freezer, to ensure that the air is fully chilled and has deposited its frost before it enters the sprinkler water line.

NOTE (1) Air intake for compressed air should be taken from the freezer operating at the coldest temperature. (2) Consideration should be given to redundancy in air supplies. It is recommended that twin air supply lines are used

as shown in FM Data Sheet 8-29. (3) Attention is drawn to the critical nature of this plant. If the power supply fails, the dry pipe installation is at risk of

tripping, with consequential freezing. It is recommended that the compressor be supplied from any site emergency power supply if available.

404.5.3 Pipework

In addition to the provisions for drainage in 403.11, pipework shall be fabricated to allow easy inspection of pipework and to facilitate disassembly to remove ice plugs.

Rigid grooved couplings shall be used in freezer applications, except where flexible grooved couplings are required for seismic flexibility requirements. Gaskets used in freezer applications shall be recommended for such service by the coupling manufacturer.

NOTE - Gaskets used in freezers will have a special seal to close off the gap between the pipes, to minimise the possibility of moisture freezing inside the gasket surface, and disrupting the seal. Care should be taken in the selection of gasket lubricants, as standard lubricants may freeze. Suitable gasket lubricants can include petroleum-free silicon based lubricants.

404.6 Automatic pressure and flow regulating valves

404.6.1 General

Automatic pressure/flow regulating valves shall be of a type listed for the task involved.

The trim on pilot operated valves shall be approved and be connected to the water supply to be controlled, through a suitable strainer, and piped in hard copper, steel or stainless steel tubing. The

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NZS 4541 :2007

pilot valve strainer shall be in the automatic pressure or flow regulating valve's main water path, and be designed to be self-cleaning. Use of Y pattern strainers in the pilot operated valve trim tubing is not acceptable.

There shall be permanent facilities associated with all automatic pressure/flow regulating valves to enable the correct functioning of the valve to be verified on site.

When under test the delivery from the valve shall stabilise within 20 seconds of any change in the input without the output at anytime rising more than 100 kPa above the required controlled pressure.

404.6.2 Pressure reducing valves on water supplies

Listed pressure reducing valves controlling sprinkler water supplies shall be equipped with a listed pressure relief valve set to relieve to waste any downstream pressure that rises above the intended controlled pressure. The relief valve shall be sized to vent not more than 5 % of the design flow to waste.

404.6.3 Pressure sustaining valves

Where listed pressure sustaining valves are used to control domestic or industrial draw-off from the sprinkler system water supply:

(a) The pressure sustaining valve shall be of a type, and installed in such a way, that failure of the valve operating device shall cause the valve to close;

(b) The pressure sustaining valve shall be configured to preserve the water supply pressure available to the sprinkler system by either:

(i) Causing the pressure-sustaining valve to close on a drop in the installation pressure to the FIRE signal activation pressure, or

(ii) Causing the pressure-sustaining valve to close on a drop in supply pressure to below 80 % of the normal static supply pressure. This pressure setting is to be reviewed and agreed with aSSC;

(c) A clearly labelled device, interlocked with the fire brigade alarm, may be provided within a fire brigade alarm unit to permit the pilot operated devices on the pressure sustaining valve to be bypassed when the installation pressure has been lowered for servicing purposes. A notice in the fire brigade alarm signalling unit shall clearly alert the need to restore the bypass device.

A valved bypass up to 40 mm, around the pressure sustaining valve is permitted, and shall be provided if hose reels are supplied by the domestic or industrial supply.

404.6.4 Pressure relief valves

Listed pressure relief valves may be used to automatically relieve pressure surges, in pump cooling lines, or to bypass excess pressure. On pump relief lines a strapped (not locked), normally open, gear operated stop valve shall be provided upstream. The stop valve shall be labelled "PUMP RELIEF LINE VALVE" in letters of at least 12 mm and there shall be an associated sign with 25 mm lettering prominently displaying "TO INCREASE PUMP SUPPLY PRESSURE IN EMERGENCY, SHUT THE PUMP RELIEF LINE VALVE".

Where a pump draws water from a tank, it is preferred to return the pressure relief line to the tank with the outlet below the minimum water level and away from the vortex plate to avoid air entrainment. When this is not practicable then the pressure relief line shall enter the pump suction pipe at an angle of 90° at least 10 pipe diameters upstream of the pump suction flange. There shall be an approved visual indicator of water flow in the pump relief line, or a valve position indicator on the pressure relief valve.

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NZS 4541 :2007

404.6.5 Other automatic control valves

Listed automatic flow control valves shall be used for tasks on sprinkler systems where remote or automatic control of water is required. These tasks include the control of infill into supplementary tanks, quick discharge of installation pressure for remote hydraulic anti~interference devices etc.

404.7 Deluge and pre-action valves

404.7.1

Deluge valves which shall be of a listed type are employed to control the water supply to an array of open sprinklers or sprayers which are required to discharge simultaneously. The valve is normally held closed and is released automatically either by a loss of pressure from independent pipework carrying sprinkler heat detectors or initiated by the operation of an approved heat or smoke detection system. Alarm equipment is normally connected to the outlet pipework from the valve so that an alarm is given when water flows into the distribution pipework. See also 303.

404.7.2

Pre-action valves, which shall be of a listed type, are similar in use to a deluge valve except that the sprinkler pipework will be charged with gas under pressure and fitted with closed sprinklers. The normally closed valve is opened by the operation of a separate installation of detection sprinklers on small diameter, gas-filled pipework. See also 302.4.

404.8 Drain valves

404.8.1

A drain valve shall be fitted at the installation control valves to provide the functions of drainage, pressure switch testing where appropriate and water supply checking.

404.8.2

For installations up from extra light hazard to and including ordinary hazard group 3, the drain valve and attached pipework shall be sized to allow the discharge of the highest design flow at the related design pressure. For ordinary hazard 3 special and extra high hazard installations, the drain valve and attached pipework shall be 50 mm in diameter.

404.8.3

The valve shall be clearly labelled and shall be locked or strapped shut.

404.8.4

The discharge pipe shall not have a diameter smaller than that of the drain valve.

404.8.5

The discharge pipe shall terminate in a sump or drain capable of disposing of the full open discharge of the drain valve without causing flooding in the building. Discharge of the drain test directly onto a sealed surface, such as a carpark, is permitted where the discharge will not cause damage or undue risk to the public.

404.9 Water meters Water meters shall be listed. They shall be detector check valve style or of some other non-intrusive style.

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NZS 4541 :2007

404.10 Town's main water supply strainer

404.10.1

Where strainers are required on a town's main each strainer shall be designed:

(a) To provide at least 25 mm2 screen open area for each litre per minute of design flow, and not less than four times the cross sectional area of the supply pipe;

(b) With each orifice at least 1 mm smaller than the smallest sprinkler head or sprayer orifice used in the system which does not itself have a fitted strainer;

(c) To enable removal of the screen for cleaning;

(d) To be protected against corrosion.

404.10.2

Each strainer shall be installed on the connection from the town's main upstream of any combined main check valve or backflow prevention unit, and any fire pump preferably within, or directly adjacent to, the respective control valve or fire pump enclosure.

404.10.3

A pressure gauge shall be fitted immediately upstream of the strainer.

404.11 Hazardous processes and explosion hazard - Special precautions concerning pipework, valves and the like

In buildings or sections of premises in which particular hazardous processes are carried out or conditions exist which are liable to result in explosions:

(a) No sprinkler control valves shall be located within 6 m of such premises;

(b) There shall be arrangements whereby the sprinkler protection in the hazardous area may be quickly and independently shut down in the event that an explosion demolishes the mains within, or close by, the building. This shall be done in one of the following ways:

(i) The hazardous area shall be protected by an installation that does not also protect a non­hazardous area

(ii) The hazardous area shall be protected by an installation protecting non-hazardous buildings. In such cases, the sprinklers in the hazardous protected area shall be fed by a separate main distribution pipe connected to the remainder of the installation immediately downstream of the alarm valve. A subsidiary stop valve located within the control valve enclosure shall be fitted to this main

(iii) The hazardous area shall be protected by an installation that also protects non-hazardous areas. A separate connection to supply the hazardous area shall be made to a distribution pipe within the non-hazardous building at a point downstream of the last range supplied by that distribution pipe, At floor level, but within 3 m radially of the pOint of connection, there shall be an automatic pressure control valve and, immediately upstream of that, a subsidiary stop valve. All valves shall be readily accessible and in a well lit position:

(A) The pressure control valve shall be arranged to close down in the event that the flow through it exceeds 150 % of the design flow in the hydraulically most favourably placed assumed area of operation in the hazardous building

(8) Very careful attention is needed in setting the operating pressure of the automatic valve. The operating pressure shall be specifically approved. Adequate means of checking and testing its operation and pressure setting shall be provided

(C) Prominent reference to the existence and location of the automatic valve and subsidiary stop valve shall be incorporated on the block plan;

(c) Sprinkler water supply pipes shall not be carried within these buildings or any locations subject to damage following collapse after an explosion;

(d) Water supplies, such as pressure tanks or gravity tanks shall not be housed therein.

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NZS 4541 :2007

405 ENHANCED SAFETY VALVE SET Enhanced safety valve sets are designed to allow the alarm valve to be serviced without decommissioning the sprinkler system, or isolating the FBA. They also allow for increased floor areas per valve set, subject to conditions specified in 302.1.5. See 211.3.

An enhanced safety valve set shall consist of the following components:

(a) Normally open stop valves shall be fitted both upstream and downstream of the alarm valve. Both valves shall be locked and labelled and supervised in accordance with 404.2.4 and 404.2.5 as subsidiary stop valves, through the subsidiary stop valve isolation device, to allow authorised closing of the valves without isolation of the FBA. A durable label shall be fitted to the inside of the FBA cabinet door noting that the main stop valves are supervised through the subsidiary stop valve isolation switch;

(b) The fire brigade alarm, installation pressure gauge, fire sprinkler inlet and any pump start lines shall be connected downstream of the second (downstream) stop valve;

(c) A bypass, of the same size as the main alarm valve, shall be fitted around the control valves. This shall incorporate:

(i) A drip tight check valve in the case of Type X systems or a second alarm valve in the case of Type Y systems

(ii) Locked and labelled, normally closed, supervised stop valves, both upstream and downstream of the check or alarm valve

(iii) The supervised stop valves shall give a DEFECT signal when opened by more than two turns of the hand wheel

(iv) For Type Y systems the hydraUlic gong outlet shall be piped to the retard chamber, to give a rise in pressure alarm in accordance with 407.2.2.2. Check valves shall be installed on both gong outlets, to provide separation between alarm valves;

(d) The super pressure pump or Type Y bypass shall be piped to downstream of the second (downstream) main stop valve;

(e) Clear testing, maintenance and isolation procedures, as agreed to by a SSC, shall be provided in a durable form and displayed in a conspicuous position adjacent to the control valves;

(f) A durable sign shall be mounted on the alarm valve as follows: "DO NOT CLOSE main stop valve. In the case of sprinkler activation or for service work use appropriate floor or sectional isolation valve - see block plan".

A schematic diagram of this arrangement is shown in figure 4.5.

NOTE - To maintain the enhanced safety features of these systems, it is important that service and maintenance personnel are familiar with this type of valve set when working on the installation. The water supplies and FBA functions should remain as fully operational as possible at all times.

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NZS 4541 :2007

To sprinklers

Monitored stop , valve N.Q I , (subsidiary) ,

Super , I To retard chamber _ I I

pressure

ZS if required pump

Main alarm valve assembly as required

Typical Monitored stop bypass valve N.o if required (main)

From water supply

Figure 4.5 - Enhanced safety valve set arrangement

406 PRESSURE GAUGES

406.1

To FSI

To pump start pressure switches

Monitored stop valve N.C.

Bypass check I alarm valve

Monitored stop valve N.C.

Each installation shall be fitted with an installation gauge which indicates the pressure above the alarm valves, and a fire brigade alarm (FBA) gauge which indicates the pressure on the FBA release mechanism.

406.2 Each system shall be fitted with a gauge indicating the pressure on the upstream side of each water supply back pressure valve.

406.3 The section of pipe immediately upstream of the main stop valve shall be fitted with a gauge indicating the single or combined main supply pressure.

406.4 Pressure gauges shall comply with the requirements of BS 1780, DIN 16005 or other equivalent Standard. shall be marked in kPa, and be not less than 90 mm nominal size.

406.5 The maximum scale value shall be of the order of 150 % of the known maximum pressure. All gauges downstream of the alarm valve shall have the same calibration and maximum scale value. All water supply gauges shall have the same calibration and maximum scale value except pump suction gauges.

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406.6 Pressure gauges shall be calibrated with divisions not exceeding:

20 kPa for maximum scale values ~ 1000 kPa

406.7

50 kPa for maximum scale values> 1 000 ~ 1600 kPa 100 kPa for maximum scale values> 1600 kPa.

NZS 4541: 2007

The negative pressure section of compound suction gauges shall have divisions not exceeding 20 kPa.

406.8 All pressure gauges shall be neatly and permanently labelled as to their purpose in such a manner that there is no possibility of the label fading, becoming detached from the gauge or fouling the operation of the gauge.

406.9 Special requirements for the location and marking of pressure gauges for fire sprinkler inlets are set out in 610.5.3.

406.10 A means of isolating a gauge shall be provided immediately below each gauge.

406.11 A permanent plugged fitting shall be provided between any normally pressurised gauge and the gauge isolation valve to allow the attachment of a test gauge.

407 ALARM DEVICES Every installation shall include, adjacent to the sprinkler valves, both an hydraulic water flow alarm and a fire brigade alarm. An installation may also include a connection to an evacuation alarm and to flow switch indicators.

407.1 Hydraulic water flow alarms

407.1.1 General

The following requirements apply: (a) The water flow alarm shall be a listed hydraulic gong, which detects and locally notifies water flow

through the alarm valve; (b) The gong shall be located outside the building as close as possible to the alarm valve. It shall be

painted red and bear the words "FIRE SPRINKLER ALARM" in contrasting letters; (c) The water flow alarm shall not cause any Signal to be transmitted to the fire brigade, except in the

case of Type Y signalling.

407.1.2 Hydraulic gong

The following requirements apply: (a) Method of operation. The device shall be actuated by the lifting of the alarm valve permitting

water to flow to an hydraulic motor which directly operates the sounder; (b) Pipe work. The pipework shall comply with the listing requirements of the gong. The gong drain

shall not be interconnected with the system drain except via an air gap; (c) Testing. Means shall also be provided to permit testing of the gong without lifting the alarm valve; (d) Number. Where there is more than one installation and the alarm valves are grouped together,

one gong may serve two or more sets of control valves. Where there is more than one gong, each gong shall be numbered according to the installation it serves.

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NZS 4541 :2007

407.2 Fire brigade alarm

407.2.1 General

The type of fire brigade alarm (FBA) shall be determined by the maximum water supply pressure, measured at the alarm valve and downstream of any pressure reducing valve, in any water supply in relation to the highest design pressure and the pressure rating of sprinkler system components.

A 1 I The fire brigade alarm shall comply with 407.2.2.1 (Type X) where one of the following applies: (a) The maximum water supply pressure does not exceed 800 kPa; (b) The sprinkler system components have a maximum working pressure higher than 1200 kPa; (c) The system is dry-pipe, pre-action or deluge; or (d) The system requires a pump to achieve the design pressure at the design flow and the normal

(unboosted) pressure of the water source when measured at the alarm valves does not exceed the highest design pressure by at least 140 kPa.

Where the maximum water supply pressure exceeds 800 kPa and the sprinkler system components have a maximum working pressure of 1200 kPa the fire brigade alarm shall comply with 407.2.2.2 (Type V).

NOTE-(1) A diagram of a wet pipe control valve showing an acceptable arrangement for Type X signalling is given in

figure 4.6. (2) A diagram of a wet pipe control valve showing an acceptable arrangement for Type Y Signalling is given in

figure 4.7. (3) A diagram of a dry pipe control valve showing an acceptable arrangement of signalling (see 407.2.2.1 (b)) is given in

figure 4.8.

407.2.2 Types otfire brigade a/arm

407.2.2.1 Type X Fire brigade alarm Type X shall be a listed device which interfaces to hydraulic connections to the sprinkler installation and to external alarm signal transport wiring and which:

(a) Detects, and is activated by, a drop in pressure in the installation and initiates an alarm signal. It shall be capable of detecting three different pressure states known as "NORMAL", "DEFECT", and "FIRE";

NOTE Where the brigade receiving eqUipment does not incorporate a facility to detect three different alarms states, or where the fire brigade alarm is not connected to the fire brigade receiving eqUipment, the requirement in (a) above for a "DEFECT" signal may be deleted.

(b) Generates, in the case of a dry pipe, pre-action or deluge system the various alarm states by either a drop in pressure or a rise in pressure or by a combination of the two and shall be subject to approval;

(c) Detects, and signals in the manner of a "FIRE" call, unauthorised activation of supervisory devices on main and subsidiary stop valves. Authorised closure shall necessitate the transmission of a signal other than "NORMAL" or "FIRE" where the equipment has that capability;

(d) Consists of a lockable cabinet enclosing pressure sensor(s), signal generating devices and labelled isolation switches as required and, if no suitable alternative is provided, a space for the testing record book;

(e) Includes listed pressure sensors that:

(i) Are pressurised through a pipe incorporating a drilled check valve, pressure gauge and test valve (piped away to a suitable location) arranged to permit the operating pressures of the pressure switches to be accurately set and subsequently checked

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NZS 4541 :2007

(ii) For wet installations are set and connected to the signal generating device such that a "FIRE" signal is generated at approximately 140 kPa above the highest supply pressure. A "DEFECT" signal (if provided) shall be generated approximately 140 kPa above the fire pressure sensor setting and at pressures higher than that of a "NORMAL" signal shall be generated. The installation pressure shall be no less than 140 kPa above "DEFECT" pressure. The actual settings shall be approved

(iii) Have different differentials for dry pipe, pre-action and deluge systems as may be appropriate. The settings shall also be approved;

(f) Includes a signal generating device of a listed type and, where it is connected to the fire brigade receiving equipment, it is also authorised for use by the New Zealand Fire Service.

Stop valves are not permitted in pipes connected to pressure switches.

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NZS 4541 :2007

isolate

:nstollotion flow ,est

Main gouge--

/~ Gauge test ~ point (typical)

Gauge test __

poloi (typical)

To

Drilled (2mm

I normally closed valve !

X normally open valve

Supervisory device

From F.S.I

. Drop :n pressl"lre' defect switch

Superpressllfe Pump

)_--- Second(lry

Water supply riol exceeding 800 kPa

supply gauge

Gauge test point (tYPlcol)

Figure 4.6 - Wet pipe control valve showing an acceptable arrangement for type 'X' signalling complying with 407.2.2.1

NOTE (1) Backflow prevention devices require valves upstream and downstream for testing and maintenance purposes. If fit

for purpose, the street valve and main stop valve may meet this need. Alternatively, additional supervised valves will need to be installed.

(2) This illustration is for guidance only. In the event of any disparity the requirements of the text of the Standard take precedence.

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NZS 4541:2007

407.2.2.2 Type Y Fire brigade alarms Type Y shall be a listed device which interfaces to hydraulic connections to the sprinkler installation and to external alarm signal transport wiring and which:

(a) Detects, and is activated by, a pressure rise in the hydraulic alarm gong line and also by a drop in pressure to 140 kPa above the highest installation design pressure required at the alarm valve. In the case of a rise in pressure in the gong line, the alarm shall be activated within 60 s of the lifting of the alarm valve seat. The equipment shall be capable of signalling two states known as "FIRE" and "NORMAL";

(b) Detects and signals in the manner of a "FIRE" call, unauthorised activation of supervisory devices on main and subsidiary stop valves. Authorised closure shall necessitate the transmission of a signal other than "NORMAL" or "FIRE" where the equipment has that capability;

(c) Is arranged as shown in figure 4.7 and:

(i) Has a lockable cabinet housing pressure sensor(s), signal generating devices, labelled isolation switches as required and, if no suitable alternative is provided, a space for the testing record book

(ii) Additionally, provides protection against false alarms being generated via transient pressure surges. This requirement shall be achieved by either: (A) Providing a hydraulic retard system including the provision of one or more retard

chambers installed in the gong line between the alarm valve and the gong valve, so sized and designed as to retard the rise in pressure as a consequence of transient openings of the alarm valve. The retard chamber shall incorporate a permanent drain and the drain, inlet pipe and chamber shall be so sized and designed as not to retard the transmission of a FIRE signal more than 20 s after the alarm valve lifts in response to one sprinkler head opening and the satisfactory operation of the gong, or

(B) By providing an electronic retard system, including the installation of a listed pressure sensor, incorporated with an integral electronic time delay function, installed in the lockable cabinet described in (i). The gong line shall include a drain, complete with orifice to allow any trapped water to automatically drain

(iii) A piped connection shall be provided in parallel and bypass the alarm valve. This bypass trim shall be of a size specified by, and use a check valve supplied by, the alarm valve manufacturer for this purpose

(iv) Test devices (piped away to suitable locations) and pressure gauges shall be provided for both the rise in pressure and drop in pressure alarm functions and be labelled accordingly. These shall permit the operating pressures to be accurately set and subsequently checked. Generally, they shall be arranged as shown in figure 4.7 including orifices and check valves. Stop valves are not permitted in pipes connected to pressure switches. An inspector's test valve complete with orifice equivalent to the smallest sprinkler shall be installed to prove that single head flow will generate a fire call

(v) Pressure sensors shall be of a listed type;

(d) Includes a signal generating device of a listed type and, where it is connected to fire brigade receiving equipment, is also authorised for use by the New Zealand Fire Service.

A super pressure pump may be fitted to the valve set trim to allow the installation pressure to be raised as a means of reducing false alarms. Where this pump is manually controlled its discharge rate shall be limited to ensure that single head flow generates a fire signal. The installation pressure shall not be raised above the pressure rating of the components installed in the sprinkler system.

NOTE - Type X systems generally provide better immunity to false alarm generation, when compared to Type Y systems. Most fire protection equipment has a maximum pressure rating of 1200 kPa. Some sprinkler heads, valves and pipe couplings are available with pressure ratings in excess of 1200 kPa, It is recommended that if the use of such equipment will avoid the use of Type Y alarms, that such equipment be used.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Fr:>",t droin required)

mm m::::x.)

10

F.$.I

woter 5upply exceecing 800

SlJpe~viso(y device

Superpressure

devi::e

111 Dn~sst..re

SW1!ctl

) -~ --, -,- Secandory gauge

Figure 4.7 - Wet pipe control valve showing an acceptable arrangement for type 'V' signalling complying with 407.2.2.2

NOTE (1) Backflow prevention devices require valves upstream and downstream for testing and maintenance purposes. If fit

for purpose, the street valve and main stop valve may meet this need. Alternatively, additional supervised valves will need to be installed.

(2) This illustration is for guidance only. In the event of any disparity the reqUirements of the text of this Standard take precedence.

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Frott 1rol" recuired)

mrn m:Jx.)

NOTE-

Stra'iner tc d(jwn n(flC€

Optional subsidiary stop ,,(JIve

tnsL:Jllotion gouge

leGl (typicill)

Main gOclge

gauge

tesl __ E

(lyp;col)

Te install:::::ion

DriUod check vulvc "n(Jx.)

Waler supply

Figure 4.8 - Typical dry pipe control valve arrangement

NZS 4541 :2007

riller with dr0i:1

GOuge test point ({YPI~oJ)

..-,~.-Test volve

Secondary supply gouge

l.,l (lyp;cnl)

(1) Backflow prevention devices require valves upstream and downstream for testing and maintenance purposes. If fit­for purpose, the street valve and main stop valve may meet this need. Alternatively, additional supervised valves will need to be installed.

(2) This illustration is for guidance only. In the event of any disparity the requirements of the text of this Standard take precedence.

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NZS 4541 :2007

407.2.3 Connection to the fire brigade

The fire brigade alarm shall be transmitted automatically to an alarm service monitoring provider contracted to the New Zealand Fire Service to monitor private alarms. Transmission may be via dedicated data circuits (whether multiplexed or not) or via data-over voice circuits where digital packet networks facilities are available. "Fire" signals shall be annunciated automatically, either in a manned Fire Service control room, or cause automatic activation of mobilising alarms at an unmanned fire station. "Normal", "defect", "isolate" and other supervisory alarms shall be annunciated either at the same place as the "fire" signal or at some other location provided that procedures exist to promptly initiate appropriate action in response to such signals and provided that the Fire Service can exercise control over, and have means of monitoring the correct performance of such procedures.

407.2.4

A SSC may determine that due to distance, or the absence of suitable receiving equipment, or an adequate signalling path, connection of the fire brigade alarm to brigade receiving equipment is not required, it shall require in its place:

(a) A locally operated general alarm which shall normally be audible over a 1 km radius;

(b) Evidence of a suitably trained person to be available to respond to the alarm at all times;

(c) The power supplies for such alarm to be from an extremely reliable source.

407.2.5 Fire brigade alarm (FBA) power supply

The power supply for the FBA shall be via a listed device dedicated to or incorporated in the FBA and complying with the relevant requirements of NZS 4512.

407.3 Evacuation alarms

407.3.1 General

Where a sprinkler protected building is fitted with a system of evacuation alarms, the sprinkler installation may be connected in such a way as to cause the evacuation alarms to operate on activation of the fire brigade alarm fire signal. This connection shall not cause the system of evacuation alarms to transmit a signal to the New Zealand Fire Service.

If such a facility is fitted, an external evacuation sounders cut off switch shall be mounted on the fire brigade alarm cabinet. Operation of this switch shall generate a "DEFECT" signal.

While this Standard does not mandate the interconnection of sprinkler installations with evacuation alarms, it is anticipated that normal practice would be to ensure that the building is partially or completely evacuated on sprinkler activation.

407.3.2 Testing

The connection to the evacuation alarm shall be made in such a way as to permit both the evacuation alarm alerting devices and the sprinkler system to be isolated or rendered inoperative without the need to isolate or render inoperative the other system. All alerting devices activated by the fire sprinkler system shall be isolated by a switch located in the cabinet described in 407.2.2.1(d) or 407.2.2.2(c)(i), as applicable.

407.4 Flow switch indication In certain cases, this Standard requires flow switches to provide indication of the section of the sprinkler installation which is operating (see 211.5). Flow switches shall be listed. Flow switches shall incorporate a test facility with orifice size not greater than the smallest nominal sprinkler or nozzle orifice used in that part of the sprinkler installation and this shall discharge via fixed pipework into a

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NZS 4541 :2007

permanent drain. The valves controlling the test facility shall be labelled and strapped in the closed position.

NOTE To ensure that the flow through this assembly will allow the flow switch to be tested, the drain pipework will require to be adequately sized.

Flow switches shall not be installed in series, in combination with Boolean logic to determine which section of a sprinkler installation has operated.

Flow switch indicators shall not be used to generate a signal to the fire brigade.

407.5 Super-pressure pump In any sprinkler system that contains a Type X fire brigade alarm (see 407.2.2.1) there shall be installed an electrically driven super-pressure pump that can be connected to each Type X installation so that the water pressure in the installation can be raised to a minimum of 100 kPa above the system's designed standing pressure.

The super-pressure pump shall be connected to the sprinkler installation downstream from the alarm valve through a normally closed drip-tight isolation valve.

A pressure relief valve shall be fitted between the pump and the isolation valve. It shall be set to limit the maximum pump output pressure to 100 kPa above the system's designed standing pressure.

It is recommended that an isolation valve be fitted on the input side of the pump to enable the pump to be removed for service. One of the two valves on this system shall provide backflow prevention capability when open or alternatively a non-return valve may be fitted.

The super-pressure pump may be positive displacement or roto-dynamic (centrifugal). The pump electric motor shall be fitted with a thermal overload switch. If not hard wired, a power outlet must be installed adjacent to the pump.

In single storeyed extra light hazard occupancies with less than 250 sprinklers, a manual pump may be installed as an alternative to an electrically driven pump.

NOTE (1) The super-pressure pump should be sized to pump the sprinkler system from the highest no-flow delivery pressure

of the water supply up to the installation standing pressure in a period not exceeding 1 hour. (2) In the case of antifreeze and tail-end antifreeze systems the super-pressure pump for the antifreeze component of

the installation shall be sized to fill the installation and charge it up to its standing pressure in a period not exceeding 1 hour.

408 STORAGE HEIGHT LIMITATION INDICATORS

408.1 Where there is a potential for storage to exceed the heights for which the system was designed, a sse may require signs or other visual height indicators to be fitted which notify building occupants as to the maximum height of storage permitted and to warn against exceeding that height.

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NZS 4541: 2007

408.2

408.2.1 Hanging signs shall be of substantial sheet material marked on both sides, Unless approved otherwise by a sse, signs shall be white with black lettering, with safety red and white arrows outlined in black, as shown in figure 4,9. They shall be at least 1.2 m wide and 0,8 m high, Safety red shall be shade No, 537 to NZS 7702 or 04 E 53 of BS 5252,

408.2.2 A sse may approve alternative means of indicating storage heights, provided they give a clear and unambiguous indication of the maximum storage height permitted.

408.3 The bottom of signs or indicators shall be at the highest level to which the storage is permitted.

408.4 Such signs shall be installed to the satisfaction of a sse at such spacing as to be readable from all points of the open floor and 90 % of any aisleways formed.

408.5 In cases where there is a single category of storage involved or where the racks or stacks are known to contain a mixture of goods of different categories, the wording shown in figure 4.9 shall be used based upon the most hazardous category.

Where there are, within one area, stacks or racks containing goods of a single category and other stacks or racks containing goods of another category, the wording and arrangement of signs shall be to the satisfaction of a sse.

E E o o

1200 mm min.

--I

I ~O?mm ~etyred

Figure 4.9 - Storage height limitation sign

£ E E E o o Q)

NOTE - The height limitation shown in the figure, i.e. 4,0 m, is an example only. In use the actual height limitation appropriate to the situation will be shown,

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NZS 4541 :2007

409 AEROSOL WARNING SIGNS

409.1 Where levels 2 and 3 aerosol products, packaged in cartons, are stored or handled, a sse may require signs to be fixed around areas of designated aerosol storage to notify building occupants that these products must be kept within the areas that have been designed to cope with this fire load.

409.2 Such signs shall be metal or substantial sheet material and shall be painted in White with Black lettering and the Safety Red circle (and slash) shall be outlined in Black, as detailed in Appendix L. Safety Red to be Shade No. 537 to NZS 7702 or 04 E 53 of BS 5252.

409.3 Such signs shall be installed to the satisfaction of a sse at such spacing as to be readable from all points approaching the designated area and from 90 % of any aisleway within the designated area. Prohibition signs shall be positioned on all storage racks or storage areas immediately adjacent to the designated aerosol storage area.

410 FIRE DOORS Fire doors installed in accordance with 205 shall be kept closed when not in use, and shall be self closing or close automatically upon detection of fire immediately adjacent to unprotected side of the fire door.

Automatic closing shall be achieved by either: (a) A fusible link mechanically releasing the door closure mechanism; or (b) The activation (release) of a magnetic door hold open device, via a Signal from the fire brigade

alarm, by way of a sprinkler head installed for detection purposes only, on the unprotected side of the doorsel. This activation may be additional to other control requirements of the doorset, and does not preclude activation by other building fire safety systems.

NOTE - Magnetic hold-open devices should be installed at the same level of the self-closing devices. If the devices are at different levels there is a possibility that timber doors will warp due to the opposing forces being applied to the door.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Part 5 LOCATION OF SPRINKLERS

501 GENERAL

501.1 Clauses 501 to 517 do not provide guidance for the installation of suppression mode or control mode specific application sprinklers. The installation requirements for these sprinklers are provided in 518 and 519 respectively, Also some of these clauses are superseded by 520 in respect of ECOH and ECLH sprinklers.

Sprinklers may be located under beams or in bays or a combination of both, provided the locations meet the provisions outlined generally in 501.2.

501.2 In addition to meeting the limitations specified for the maximum area coverage per sprinkler and the maximum distance between sprinklers they shall be so located that there will be minimum interference to the discharge pattern by structural members such as beams, columns, girders and trusses or any other obstructing feature. Also sprinklers shall be located at the appropriate distance below ceiling and beams as required in 503.

NOTE - For further information on measurements converted to metric values see 102.

502 WALLS AND PARTITIONS

502.1 Except as provided for in 504 and 510, the distance of sprinklers from walls and partitions shall not exceed half the maximum allowable distance between sprinklers or half the design spacing whichever is the less (see figure 5.2).

502.2 Where an external wall is omitted, the distance of sprinklers from the outer edge of the roof or ceiling structure shall not exceed half the design spacing (see figure 5.1).

502.3 No sprinkler shall be placed with its axis closer than 50 mm from a window, wall, partition or beam, except horizontal sidewall sprinklers mounted through the wall or beam.

503 CEILINGS AND ROOFS

503.1 Distance of sprinklers below ceiling Sprinklers shall be positioned below the underside of ceilings, roofs or equivalent surfaces in accordance with the listing details for the sprinkler.

If there are no specific limitations described within the listing, the centre line of the heat activated element shall be located not greater than 150 mm below the underside of any ceiling, roof or equivalent surface. Under the following circ*mstances, this distance may be increased up to the maximums shown below.

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NZS 4541 :2007

(a) Continuous structural or architectural members contiguous with the ceiling, roof or equivalent surface above, running in two directions, forming bays of area:

(i) Not greater than 30 m2 ........................................................................................ 450 mm

(ii) Greater than 30 m2 but less than 100 m2 ............................................................. 350 mm

(b) Continuous structural or architectural members contiguous with the ceiling above, running in one direction only:

(i) At spacing on centres not greater than 900 mm .................................................. 450 mm

(ii) At spacing on centres greater than 900 mm but less than 2,300 mm ................ 350 mm

(c) Not withstanding (a) and (b) above, 150 mm below the underside of any continuous structural or architectural members, contiguous with the ceiling, roof or equivalent surface above (see figure 5.1).

NOTE - The above requirements do not apply to residential, ECOH, suppression mode and control mode specific application sprinklers.

The placement of sprinklers below any ceilings, roofs or equivalent surfaces that do not conform to the above criteria shall be specifically approved. In determining acceptance, a Sprinkler System Certifier (SSG) shall consider whether the speed of detection is slower than would be the case with one of the options detailed above.

503.2 Deflectors of sprinklers shall be parallel to the slope of the ceiling, roof or incline of stairs. Sprinklers installed upright shall have at least 25 mm clearance between their deflectors and any plane surface directly above them (see figure 5.1).

503.3 Where both the slopes are greater than one in three, a line of sprinklers shall be fixed at the apex unless there is a row of sprinklers not more than 750 mm distant radially therefrom. The valley at the intersect of the projection of such roof slopes shall be deemed to be the line of a wall for the purpose of 502.1 (see figure 5.1).

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NZS 4541 : 2007

c: ~Contlnuous surtace (see 5031(c) ~

'e '" Any wall beam or obstruction

~,

50mm

UPRIGHT SPRINKLER PENDENT SPRINKLER

(a) Distance below ceiling - See 503.1

smooth ceiling

max.

100 to 150 mm

Obstruction

1.8 m min.

STANDARD SIDEWAll UPRIGHT

50 to 150 mm

Obstruction max.

1.8 m min.

50 to 150 mm

STANDARD SIDEWAll PENDENT

(b) Location of standard sidewall sprinklers see 510.1.1

i_----,6 ~ t .

,,200 mm max. I~~

=::::;:==

/750 mm max / radially from apex

S 0.5 S ',- Treat valley J--.:..:..:.-=.-t-------=------..j-.-=-=---j as wall

"'- Truss member S x D Design area per sprinkler

(see 503.3)

(c) Open roof trusses - see 508.2 (d) Sloping ceilings - see 503.3and 505.2

Figure 5.1 - Positioning of sprinkler heads

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NZS 4541 :2007

504 STAGGERED SPACING

504.1 Where sprinklers are required to be staggered, the arrangements should be uniform, as indicated in figure 5.2. The distance from the end sprinkler to the wall or partition in each alternate row shall be not more than one-fourth of the maximum design spacing down the row and the spacing of the next sprinkler in the same row shall be not more than three-fourths the maximum design spacing (see table 5.1).

0.25 S

<t' f 'f 1 0.755 i ~

1 r 5 <t>

\

r r J, ~

0.755

0.25 S 05D

Standard spacing Staggered spacing

Figure 5.2 - Spacing arrangements - Standard and staggered

Table 5.1 - Spacing arrangements - Standard and staggered

Hazard Standard spacing Staggered spacing** SxD classification Smax.* D max! i Smax.* D max.*

max. (m) (m) (m) (m)

(m)

Extra light: i

10 mm heads 4.6 4.6 - 21 15 mm heads 4.6 4.6 - - 21

Ordinary 4.0 4.0 4.6 4.0 12

Extra high*** 3.7 3.7 - 9 or 12 * S = Design spacing of sprinklers on range pipes

D = Distance between adjacent rows of sprinklers ** For spacing to end walls see 504.1 *** See 904.1.5 and 904.1.6

505 POSITION OF SPRINKLERS

505.1 Unless otherwise listed, sprinklers shall not be spaced closer than 1.8 m apart except where intervening constructional features provide a satisfactory baffle or where special baffles as described below are installed, in order to prevent the first sprinkler operating and wetting adjacent sprinklers.

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NZS 4541:2007

Baffles should be 200 mm wide and 150 mm high and be of a strong rigid material. They should be located between the sprinklers and arranged to baffle the actuating elements. When placed on range pipes, the top of the baffles should extend above the deflectors by 50 to 75 mm.

505.2 Where sloping ceilings or roofs are concerned, the spacing measurements shall be taken horizontally (see figure 5.1 (d».

506 VERTICAL OBSTRUCTIONS TO SPRINKLER DISCHARGE

506.1 Where sprinkler deflectors are above the level of the bottom of beams, joists, light fittings or ducts, the sprinklers shall either be at a sufficient horizontal distance (as defined by table 5.2), with regard to the relative levels of the deflector and base of the obstruction so as not to cause undue interference with the discharge pattern, or the obstruction treated as a wall or partition. Special requirements apply in relation to residential sprinklers (see 506.5) and sidewall sprinklers (see 510).

NOTE - Attention is drawn to the need to comply with 503.1.

Table 5.2 - Sprinkler distances from obstructions

Minimum Maximum height of sprinkler Minimum Maximum height of sprinkler horizontal deflector above bottom of horizontal deflector above bottom of distance obstruction distance from obstruction

from sprinkler to sprinkler to Conventional Spray side of Conventional Spray

side of sprinklers sprinklers obstruction sprinklers sprinklers obstruction installed (upright and installed (upright and

upright pendent upright pendent types) and types) and

conventional conventional sprinklers sprinklers installed installed pendent pendent

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

100 - 17 1000 90 415 200 17 40 1100 110 440 300 25 70 1200 135 460 400 34 100 1300 170 460 500 42 150 1400 200 460 600 51 200 1500 230 460 700 60 250 1600 265 460 800 68 300 1700 300 460 900 i 78 360 1800 340 460

(See illustration below)

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NZS 4541 :2007

506.2

Depth of obstruction

Height of deflector above bottom of obstruction

~'" _____ -_-_-~1{~~_-~~~ I I I I

I I I~ .,

Minimum horizontal distance

Figure 5.3 - Sprinkler distances from obstructions

Where the depth of the obstruction exceeds 300 mm (combustible ceilings) or 450 mm (non­combustible ceilings) and it is impracticable to position sprinklers at the required distance from the side of the beam, the beam shall be treated as a wall in relationship to the sprinklers in the adjoining bay.

506.3 Where the depth of beams or joists is such that the dimensions specified in table 5.2 cannot be complied with and the beams or joists are spaced closer than 1.8 m measured from centre-to-centre of beam, special consideration may be given to a relaxation if full particulars are submitted to a sse. In such cases it will normally be a requirement that the sprinklers be staggered.

NOTE - Where beams of the above depth are spaced closer than 1.2 m, they should be underdrawn with sUbstantial noncombustible material.

506.4 Where the top flange of a beam does not exceed 200 mm nominal width, sprinklers may be located directly over the beam, provided the sprinkler deflectors are at least 150 mm above the top of the beam (see figure 5.1 (c)).

506.5 Where residential sprinklers are installed the listing data specified by the manufacturer shall be complied with. Where such data is not part of the listing the requirements of table 5.3 and figure 5.4 shall apply.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Ceiling obstruction

- ---

Maximum vertical distance deflector above bottom of ceiling obstruction

Distance from near side of ceiling obstruction

Ceiling

--- -

Figure 5.4 - Position of residential sprinkler deflector when located above the bottom of a ceiling obstruction

Table 5.3 - Maximum distance of residential sprinklers above bottom of ceiling obstruction (where not specified by manufacturer)

Horizontal distance from Maximum vertical distance permitted sprinkler to near side of ceiling (see figure 5.4)

obstruction (mm) (mm)

Up to 150 Not permitted 151 to 300 0 301 to 600 25 601 to 750 50 751 to 900 75 901 to 1050 100

1051 to 1200 150 1201 to 1350 175 1351 to 1500 225 1501 to 1650 275 1651 to 1800 350

506.6 Unless otherwise listed, where upright sprinklers are installed directly attached to pipework 100 mm or larger, they shall be installed on sprigs of a distance three times greater than the nominal pipe diameter, up to a maximum distance of 600 mm.

Upright sprinklers shall be installed at least 150 mm away from rod hangers and similar obstructions. They shall be installed with the frame arms parallel to the direction of pipe to which they are fixed.

507 COLUMNS

507.1 For obstructions such as columns, sprinklers shall be positioned away from obstructions a minimum distance of three times the maximum dimension of the obstruction. If the obstruction has a maximum dimension greater than 200 mm, sprinklers shall be located on opposite sides of the obstruction, with both sprinklers within half the design spacing from the obstruction.

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NZS 4541 :2007

508 OPEN ROOF TRUSSES

508.1 Sprinklers shall be at least 300 mm laterally from truss members which are 100 mm nominal width or less. Where trusses exceed 100 mm nominal width, the sprinklers shall be at least 600 mm laterally therefrom.

508.2 Where range pipes pass above or through trusses the sprinklers may be located on the centre line of the truss if the truss members are not more than 200 mm nominal width and the sprinkler deflectors are at least 150 mm above the truss member. When sprinklers are located alongside truss members, the distance of the sprinkler deflectors therefrom shall be in accordance with table 5.2 (see figure 5.1).

509 CLEAR SPACE BELOW SPRINKLERS

509.1 A clear space of at least 500 mm shall be maintained below the level of the sprinkler deflectors throughout the room. For high piled combustible stock, increased clearance of 900 mm or more shall be provided. Roof trusses shall at all times be accessible to water discharged from the sprinklers.

509.2 Where sloping ceilings or roofs are concerned, the storage of goods may follow the slope thereof subject to compliance with the above requirements.

NOTE (1) For concessions for bonded stores see 907.B.S. (2) For maxima and minima for aerosol storage areas see 907.7. (3) For requirements where control mode specific application sprinklers are used see 519.2.3. (4) For requirements where suppression mode sprinklers are used see 518.3.4.

510 SPACING AND LOCATION OF SIDEWALL SPRINKLERS

510.1 Standard pendent or upright sidewall sprinklers

510.1.1 Location

The deflectors of standard sidewall sprinklers shall be located between 100 mm and 150 mm below the ceiling. The centre line of the sprinklers shall be between 50 mm and 150 mm from the face of the wall on which they are mounted. Deflectors shall be aligned parallel to ceilings and roofs (see figure 5.1).

510.1.2 Spacing

Maximum spacing along wall Extra Light Hazard ............................................................. 4.6 m Ordinary Hazard (combustible ceiling) ............................... 3.4 m Ordinary Hazard (noncombustible ceiling) ......................... 3.7 m

Maximum spacing from end walls shall be half spacing along wall. Maximum spacing across room, from wall to wall

Extra Light and Ordinary Hazard ....................................... 3.7 m

510.1.3 Sloping ceilings

Where installed under a sloped ceiling (slope of greater than 1 in 12) sprinklers shall be located at the high point of the slope and positioned to discharge downward along the slope.

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NZS 4541:2007

510.1.4 Obstructions

There shall be no obstruction at the ceiling within a rectangle extending along the wall 1 m on each side of the sprinkler and 1.8 m at right angles to the wall. Obstructions outside this rectangle shall meet the requirements of table 5.4.

Table 5.4 - Obstructions to standard sidewall sprinkler discharge

Depth of obstruction not Minimum distance from sprinkler to obstruction exceeding At right angles to wall Along wall

- (mm) (m) (m) 100 1.8 1.0 125 2.1 1.2 150 2.4 1.4 175 2.7 1.6

200 3.0 1.8

510.2 Standard horizontal sidewall sprinklers

510.2.1 Location

The deflectors of horizontal sidewall sprinklers, unless otherwise listed shall be located between 150 mm and 300 mm below the ceiling. The base of the sprinklers shall be no more than 200 mm from the face of the wall on which they are mounted.

Spacing, sloping ceilings and obstructions to be as per 510.1.2, 510.1.3 and 510.1.4.

510.3 Extended coverage and residential horizontal sidewall sprinklers

510.3.1 Location and spacing

Sprinklers shall be located and spaced as required by the specific approved sprinkler head data sheet.

510.3.2 Sloping ceilings

Where installed under a sloped ceiling (slope of greater than 1 in 12) sprinklers shall be located at the high point of the slope and positioned to discharge downward along the slope.

510.3.3

There shall be no obstruction at the ceiling within a rectangle extending along the wall 2.44 m on each side of the sprinkler and 2.44 m at right angles to the wall. Obstructions outside this rectangle shall meet the requirements of ANSI/NFPA 13.

511 LOCATIONS OR CONDITIONS REQUIRING SPECIAL CONSIDERATION

511.1 Concealed spaces

511.1.1

Concealed spaces not exempted from sprinklering shall be sprinkler protected. The minimum design criteria shall be in accordance with the requirements for extra light hazard occupancies, namely, six sprinklers flowing at a minimum flow rate of 57 Llmin each.

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NZS 4541 : 2007

511.1.2

Where any part of a space below a ground floor is not exempted from sprinkler protection under 207 such part of the space shall be protected in accordance with the hazard classification.

511.2 Machinery pits and production lines Machinery pits and the undersides of production lines, where waste may collect, shall be protected by sprinklers.

511.3 Hoists, lift shafts and enclosed chutes through floors All hoists, lift shafts and chutes inside, or in communication with, sprinklered buildings otherwise than as permitted in 207 shall be protected by sprinklers. Sprinklers installed at the head of lift shafts shall be protected by listed guards.

511.4 Elevators, rope or strap races, gearing boxes and dust receivers

511.4.1

A sprinkler shall be fitted in the head of all seed and combustible product enclosed bucket elevators so that it can discharge down both legs of the elevator. Such sprinklers may be omitted from elevators which are less than 8 m high, have an internal cross section of each leg of less than 0.1 m2 and do not penetrate any floor other than service platforms.

511.4.2

Sprinklers shall be fitted internally in all rope or strap races, gearing boxes and in all enclosed belt or shaft machine drives.

511.4.3

Sprinklers shall be fitted in dust cyclones, collection chambers and boxes where these are:

(a) Housed within the protected building;

(b) Erected outside and directly above the protected building unless the roof is of noncombustible construction;

(c) External to, but connected with and closely adjacent to the protected buildings.

Where dust cyclones, collection chambers and boxes are erected above noncombustible roofs or are situated remote from the protected building at least one sprinkler shall be fitted inside the trunking where it leaves the protected building.

511.4.4

In corn, rice, provender and oil mills:

(a) Sprinklers shall be fitted not more than 3 m apart inside all dust trunks which are more than 30° from the vertical and constructed of combustible materials;

(b) A sprinkler shall be fitted at the head of every dust trunk;

(c) When centrifugals or similar machines are placed one above another in tiers as in figure 5.5 and are less than 1 m from each other, sprinklers shall be fitted in the spaces as shown.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Ceiling

Floor

Figure 5.5 - Sprinkler positions for machines in tiers

511.5 Bins and silos All bins and silos having a plan area in excess of 9 m2 for the storage of flour, bran, or other similar material which has undergone any process of reduction (in such premises as flour mills, granaries, oil mills or distilleries), or for the storage of sawdust, wood flour, pulverised coal and similar easily ignitable materials which can be extinguished by water, shall be internally protected by sprinklers on the basis of one sprinkler per 9 m2 of the bin or silo area. If the bin or silo contains material which will swell if wet, and thereby incur the risk of bursting, exemption from this rule may be allowed if full particulars are submitted to a SSC.

511.6 Escalators Sprinklers shall be fitted under the escalator and in the escalator boot and motor space. Where limited space prevents this, sprinklers shall be fitted in any surrounding ceiling space immediately adjacent to the escalator, to the satisfaction of a SSC. These sprinklers shall be fitted regardless of the depth of the ceiling space.

511.7 Canopies, doorways and set back external walls Any omission of sprinklers permitted by the following subclauses shall not override any requirement of 205.

511.7.1 Canopies

Sprinklers shall be installed under all canopies where goods are stored or handled and which communicate with the sprinkler-protected building. Canopies which are of noncombustible construction and do not extend more than 2.3 m from the wall of the building need not be fully protected provided that "cut-off' sprinklers are fitted under the canopy over each of the openings into the sprinkler-protected building. Where such openings do not exceed 2.5 m in width one sprinkler positioned centrally over each opening will suffice. Where openings exceed 2.5 m in width the sprinklers over the opening shall be spaced not more than 2.5 m apart and not more than 1.25 m from the sides of the opening.

In the case of verandahs and canopies covering walkways around the perimeter of a protected building, sprinklers will not be required over that portion of the walkway where:

(a) The walkway is constructed of concrete;

(b) There is no exposure created by other than any combustible elements of construction of the canopy; and

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NZS 4541 :2007

(c) The walkway is a footpath owned by the city corporation or is the subject of a lease requirement (which is observed) to the effect that the walkway has to be kept clear of any objects in the nature of storage, displays or otherwise.

NOTE Furniture of the nature typically found in outdoor seating areas and the like will not be deemed to be a significant fire load. However, where goods such as combustible furniture are stacked for storage or displays, sprinkler protection should be required.

511.7.2 Recessed doorways

Where a building has recessed doorways where goods or refuse could be stored, such areas shall be sprinkler protected unless:

(a) A SSC agrees to the omission of such protection; or

(b) The ceiling of the doorway has a FRR of -/30/30, and the doorway does not exceed 800 mm in depth and 2 m in width.

511.7.3 Set back external walls

Where a part of an external wall is set back from the face of the building thereby forming a recess, sprinklers shall (except in the case of a doorway) be omitted from the exterior space thus formed only with approval which should be granted only where:

(a) It is clear that there cannot be any combustibles in the recess; and

(b) The walls and ceilings of the recess have not less than the FRR required by the Approved Documents for the New Zealand Building Code Fire Safety Clauses.

Recess depth (m) FRR

:::;0.6 Nil

511.7.4 Residential decks and patios

>0.6 - 1.0 -/30/30

> 1.0 - 2.0 -/60/60

>2.0-4.0 -/120/120

>4.0 -/180/180.

Sprinklers shall be provided over permanently covered residential patios, decks, verandas and the like where they exceed 1.5 m in depth.

511.8 Exterior docks and platforms Sprinklers shall be installed under the floor of exterior docks and loading platforms of combustible construction unless such space is closed off against the accumulation of debris.

511.9 Enclosed paint lines, drying ovens and drying enclosures Sprinkler protection shall be provided inside the above structures and ducts in which combustible materials can accumulate unless a SSC considers that no benefit would accrue. Sidewall sprinklers may be used for this purpose.

511.10 Extractor hoods and ducts

511.10.1

Extractor hoods over deep friers, or other processes which produce flammable vapours or mists, require sprinklers under the hood. These shall be located in the flow path of the extractant in sufficient numbers to cover the area beneath the hood. Where filter banks are provided, the sprinklers shall be located below the filters. Sidewall sprinklers shall not be used.

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NZS 4541 :2007

The provisions of this clause may be met by the provision of a listed kitchen fire suppression system, complying with UL 300. Such systems will only be acceptable for listing if they include the continuous discharge of water spray or water mist spray, to ensure that any fire does not re-ignite following the discharge of any wet chemical fire suppressant agent.

511.10.2

Ducts where any cross section dimension is 300 mm or greater and which are handling extractants that can lead to build up in the duct of combustible material (including condensed flammable vapours and trapped fly) shall be fitted with sufficient sprinklers inside the duct to wet ali interior surfaces and any electric motors therein. Permanent provision shall be made in the duct to allow replacement of such sprinklers.

Exhaust ducts shall have one sprinkler located at the top of any vertical riser and at the mid-point of any offset. The first sprinkler in a horizontal duct shall be installed at the duct entrance. Horizontal ducts shall have sprinklers located at 3 m centres, with the first sprinkler located no more than 1.5 m from the duct entrance. See figure 5.6.

A

G 2S

A Exhaust fnn B Spnnkler or nozzle at top of vertical nser C Sprinkler or nozz:e at midpoint of each offset D 1.5 m max. E Horizontal duel nozzle or sp;'inkier F 3 m rna:<. G Nozze or sprinkler in hood or duct colar H 25 mm min., 300 mm max I Nozzle or sprinkler in hood plenum S EXi-J8USt hood

s

Figure 5.6 - location of sprinklers in extraction ducts

In the case of commercial cooking hoods, a sprinkler shall be located between 25 mm to 300 mm above the point of the duct collar connection into the hood plenum. Hood exhaust plenums shall have one sprinkler in each chamber not exceeding 3 m in length.

Where a kitchen extraction hood is protected by a listed system as allowed by 511.10.1, and such a system is listed for the protection of ductwork, additional sprinkler protection is not required to be provided for sections of ductwork which provide extraction for a single kitchen hood only.

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NZS 4541 :2007

NOTE-(1) Attention is drawn to 402.4.2 concerning temperature rating of sprinklers. (2) Sprinklers may require routine cleaning. (3) Experience has shown that fires in friers are effectively controlled by sprinklers without consequential risk of injury.

511.10.3

Bench type recirculating fume cupboards of less than 2 m3 volume are not required to be sprinkler protected.

Bench type recirculating fume cupboards greater than 2 m3 volume require sprinkler protection, unless a specific adverse reaction of the proposed contents with water is proven to the satisfaction of a sse.

Bench type or walk-in vented fume cupboards require sprinkler protection regardless of volume. Where combustible ducting material is used, one sprinkler additional head is to be located between 25 to 300 mm above the point of duct collar connection into the cupboard plenum area.

NOTE - Automatic fire sprinkler operation without either a fire or mechanical interference is extremely unlikely. The likely effects of a fire in an unprotected fume cupboard containing combustible solvents and chemical reagents, combined with potential fire spread to concealed spaces and other areas through duct work, is considered a significantly greater hazard to life safety and property protection than a fire in a fume cupboard controlled by sprinkler discharge. It should also be noted that the hazards associated with water and/or other incompatible reagents are often already in the fume cupboards. Manual firefighting is seldom effective as automatic sprinkler protection, and fume cupboards can be unattended. The proximity of a firefigher to the fire, the effects of extinguisher discharge and any subsequent chemical reactions with the extinguishing agent are also considered to pose a greater life safety hazard than automatic fire sprinkler discharge.

Suitable anti-corrosion measures are required in respect of all sprinkler hardware installed in fume cupboards or associated ducting.

NOTE The known adverse water reactions of high replacement series metals (potassium, lithium, sodium, barium, calcium and magnesium) together with complex metal hydrides, metal carbides, metal phosphides and metal nitrides should be duly noted.

511.11 Electrical substations Where medium to high voltage (over 400 V) switchgear and associated equipment, or high wattage equipment, are within a sprinkler protected building, the rooms containing such items shall be sprinkler protected. Hoods or shields may be installed to protect vulnerable electrical equipment from direct sprinkler discharge subject to sse agreement. Where oil-filled equipment is used consideration must be given to the use of waterspray systems. See 203.5.2.

Sprinklers may be omitted from these rooms if the room containing this equipment is an enclosure of FRR 120/120/120 including protection of any penetrations and access openings. Fire doors shall have a FRR of -/120/60.

NOTE If a room containing oil-filled electrical equipment is not protected it is recommended that the room be of masonry construction with suitable provisions for bunding and explosion venting, in accordance with Clause F3 of the New Zealand Building Code. The effectiveness of sprinkler protection in controlling fires in such risks is well proven.

511.12 Other situations In any other situation where the meaning of 'throughout' in 204 is uncertain, the need for additional sprinklers shall be determined by having regard to whether the heat will reach the sprinklers sufficiently early and whether the discharge from other sprinklers will satisfactorily control the source of heat.

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NZS 4541:2007 -------

512 OBSTRUCTIONS BELOW SPRINKLERS

512.1 General Where obstructions below sprinklers are such that the operation of sprinklers could be delayed, or effective distribution of water from the sprinklers could be impaired, sprinklers shall be mounted below such obstructions in accordance with the following requirements.

512.2 Suspended or floor mounted vertical obstructions

512.2.1

In light hazard occupancies only, the distance of all spray sprinklers (standard and extended coverage, vertical and sidewall) to privacy curtains, freestanding partitions, room dividers and other similar obstructions shall comply with table 5.5 and figure 5.7.

512.2.2

For ordinary and extra high hazard occupancies these types of obstruction shall be treated as a wall unless the vertical clearance of the sprinkler obstruction is more than 500 mm for OH and 900 mm for EHH.

Table 5.5 - Extended coverage and extra light hazard spray sprinkler distances from suspended or floor mounted obstructions (see figure 5.7)

Horizontal distance from sprinkler to far side Minimum height of sprinkler deflector above of obstruction top of obstruction

.--____ --=-D-'-im--;eCC-n.....;s;;.c..io-':-:n..:....>..:a-'-;-':in:-=:---m""-m'----____ ----I ______ . Dimension (b) in mm Less than 150 75

150 to less than ~22~5=----------I- 100 225 to less than 300 150

r------73700~to~l=essthan~3~7~5------r---- ------:2~0~0-------~

375 to less than 450 450 to less than 600-------+--

600 to less than 75=-c:0'-____ -+ __

or roof

b

Obstruction

Figure 5.7 - Position of sprinkler head to avoid suspended or floor mounted obstruction to sprinkler discharge (extended coverage or extra light hazard spray sprinklers)

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MZS 4541 :2007

512.3 Overhead platforms and perforated ceilings and decks

512.3.1

Sprinklers shall be installed below internal overhead platforms, heating panels, galleries, walkways, stagings, stairs and stairways and chutes exceeding 800 mm wide and closer than 150 mm to adjacent walls. If the clearance from adjacent walls exceeds 150 mm, sprinklers shall be fitted below any such structure which exceeds 1000 mm width.

512.3.2 Perforated ceilings and decks

Sprinklers shall be provided below perforated ceilings and decks according to the proportion of open areas as set out below. In determining compliance the openings or perforations comprising an "open area" shall have no dimension less than 6.5 mm, the depth of the ceiling or deck shall be no greater than any dimension of the openings, and its top plane shall be at least 1000 mm below the deflectors of the sprinklers above.

Proportion of open area Protection required %

0-25 Sprinklers beneath 26-50 Sprinklers beneath and a

sprinkler at least 1 m2 in area solid cover above each

51 70 Sprinklers beneath and a solid cover over the whole of the deck or ceiling

>71 Sprinklers not required

512.4 Ducts Sprinklers shall be installed under rectangular ducts exceeding 800 mm width and under circular ducts exceeding 1000 mm diameter unless there is at least 150 mm clearance from adjacent walls in which case the width and diameter without protection may be 1000 mm and 1200 mm respectively. Where a duct is erected with the top of the duct less than 500 mm (or in extra high hazard 1000 mm) below the sprinkler deflector, it shall be regarded as a beam and the requirements of 506 shall apply.

512.5 Suspended ceilings Sprinklers shall be installed below suspended ceilings (as, for example, in connection with diffused lighting) except where the ceiling construction has been shown to the satisfaction of a sse not to impair detection and the effective water distribution from the sprinklers above.

512.6 Hoods over papermaking machines The underside of hoods or shields over the dry ends of papermaking machines shall be sprinkler protected. Sidewall sprinklers may be used for this purpose.

512.7 Work tables Sprinkler protection shall be provided under any work table where the width exceeds 2.0 m or the length exceeds 10 m or both, if the table is of combustible construction or the area beneath is open sided so as to permit the accumulation or storage of combustibles or rubbish.

Sprinklers may be omitted if the area beneath the table is subdivided, by vertical partitions having a -/30/30 FRR, at intervals not exceeding 5 m in either direction and that table is not used for storage of combustibles classified higher than Category 1.

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NZS 4541 :2007

512.8 Sliding filing systems Where the total area occupied by the filing systems exceeds 4 m2 the sprinkler head layout shall provide at least one head within 1000 mm of the centre line of sliding filing systems (for example of Lundia type).

Where the clear space above these cabinets is less than 300 mm, the sprinkler head layout should be arranged so that sprinklers are located immediately above the cabinets.

513 FILM AND TELEVISION PRODUCTION STUDIOS

513.1 Overhead platforms or walkways including those for lighting or other equipment, whether slatted or not together with stairs thereto, shall be fitted with sprinklers on the underside if they exceed 800 mm width. (This does not apply to temporary platforms in connection with sets.)

513.2 Concealed spaces or cavities between walls and combustible linings which exceed 100 mm width and those between roofs and combustible linings which exceed 100 mm depth, shall be fitted with sprinklers. Electric cables are permitted provided the wiring is either in screwed steel conduit or in mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable.

514 THEATRES AND MUSIC HALLS

514.1 Proscenium openings Where drenchers are installed on a proscenium opening and the water supply for the drenchers is common to any water supply to the sprinkler system, the system of drenchers shall be deemed a part of the sprinkler system and the following requirements shall apply.

NOTE - For the purposes of determining the water supply requirements for the sprinkler system in terms of 602, the maximum flow and pressure requirements for the drenchers should be added to those required in Parts 7, 8 and 9 and any addition required by 206 in the case of external sprinklers.

All design and constructional details of the drencher system shall comply with the relevant provisions of this Standard.

The flow requirement of the drenchers in the case of a system incorporating open-head drenchers

shall be established by the sum of Q = K JP for all drencher heads, where K is the K-factor of the

head and P is the highest pressure at which each head will operate when the least favourable design area of the sprinkler system is in operation.

NOTE - This clause should not be taken to impose any requirement or preference for the provision of drenchers on a proscenium opening in a sprinklered building.

515 CUPBOARDS AND WARDROBES

515.1 All in-built enclosures such as understair cupboards and floor-to-ceiling height cupboards or wardrobes shall be protected. The permitted exceptions noted in 515.2 shall not be applied to any enclosure that contains electrical switchboards or circuit breaker panels, or other potential sources of ignition, such as water heaters, clothes washers and driers and the like, or if the enclosure is located in a sleeping area.

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NZS 4541 :2007

515.2 Cleaners' cupboards, kitchen pantries and linen cupboards being less than 2 m3 in volume are not required to be sprinklered subject to the following:

(a) If the enclosure is open to the void space over, the void space is sprinkler protected; or

(b) If the enclosure has a ceiling and the ceiling is constructed of a flame barrier complying with the Compliance Documents of the New Zealand Building Code, and the enclosure is provided with a vent into the sprinklered area by a clear opening of at least 0.02 m2 free area in the top of the enclosure.

NOTE - 10 mm gypsum plasterboard meets this requirement.

516 SKYLIGHT SHAFTS Skylight shafts shall be protected except where:

(a) The skylight projects through a sprinkler protected concealed space and is less than 1000 mm deep with a cross-sectional area of less than 1 m2

; or

(b) The volume of the skylight shaft is less than 1.5 m3 and its partitions have a 10 minute flame barrier as defined in the Compliance Documents of the New Zealand Building Code.

517 EXTERNAL SPRINKLERS

517.1 Extent of application Any part of an external wall of the sprinkler-protected building, including glazed openings and roof overhangs with a FRR less than -/30/30 required to be protected from an Exposure Hazard, shall be protected with external sprinklers.

For the purpose of this clause 'external wall' shall include the fac;:ade of raised sections of the building, such as roof lanterns, set back from the perimeter of the sprinkler-protected building; and 'Exposure Hazard' shall mean a source of radiant heat such as a nonsprinkler-protected building with a FRR less than -/30/30 or areas used for storage or handling of flammable or combustible materials.

517.2 Sprinklers All sealed sprinklers used for exposure protection shall be rated as quick response and shall have a temperature rating of 93°C.

Sprinklers shall be any of the following types and orientation:

(a) Pendent Spray (SP) mounted horizontally with the deflector towards the window or wall;

(b) Upright Spray (SU) - mounted horizontally with the deflector away from the window or wall;

(c) Pendent Sidewall (WP) - mounted pendent and oriented to direct the spray towards the window or wall; or

(d) Sprinklers specifically designed for the purpose and located and spaced in accordance with their listing.

Conventional sprinklers (CUlP) shall not be used, except in the case of protection beneath roof overhangs. Sprinklers beneath roof overhangs shall not be considered a substitute for protection of walls.

517.3 Shielding Where building features do not shield sprinklers to prevent cooling from sprinklers operating above, such sprinklers shall be fitted with metal shields not less than 80 mm diameter for pendent/upright sprinklers, or 150 mm x 100 mm for horizontal sprinklers.

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NZS 4541:2007

517.4 Sprinkler spacing and location Unless specifically listed otherwise, sprinklers shall be located in accordance with table 5.6.

In addition to the requirements contained in table 5.6, a sprinkler shall be positioned not more than 1.25 m horizontally from:

(a) The vertical extremities of the protected surface;

(b) The vertical extremities of each glazed opening, with the sprinkler located within the opening; and

(c) The centre of any building feature such as downpipes and glazing bars or mullions, which project more than 40 mm from the protected surface.

Where vertical glazing bars or mullions project more than 40 mm from the glazed surface and are spaced not more than 1,660 mm centre to centre, every alternate sprinkler may be positioned on the centre line of a mullion or glazing bar, except that sprinklers shall be positioned within 1.25 m of each side of any vertical glazing bar or mullion that exceeds 40 mm in width.

Table 5.6 - Sprinkler spacing and location

Distance Position Maximum Minimum Point of measurement

Distance between Horizontally 2.5m 1.8 m Centre of sprinkler sprinklers (see Note)

Ver:tically 4.0 m N/A Deflector to deflector Horizontal . Horizontal 100 mm 50 mm Sprinkler deflector distance from wall I sponkler

Pendent s~rinkler I 300mm 100 mm I Centregf sprinkler Vertical distance . Horizontal 100 mm 50mm

I

Centre of sprinkler below top of . sprinkler protected surface

I Pendent sprinkler I 100 mm 50mm Sprinkler deflector NOTE The 1.8 m minimum distance may be reduced where sprinklers are separated by a baffle or building feature which will prevent coolinq from an adjacent operatinq sprinkler.

517.5 Performance Sprinkler systems that incorporate exposure protection shall be fully hydraulically designed so that the flow from any external sprinkler shall be not less than 75 Llmin when the required maximum number of external sprinklers are operating.

Where the area to be protected by an individual sprinkler is less than 2.5 m wide, the flow rate may be reduced proportionally subject to a minimum end head pressure of 70 kPa.

The required number of sprinklers assumed to be in simultaneous operation shall be the number of sprinklers opposed to each Exposure Hazard, (see 206.1.1 and 206.1.2). Hydraulic calculation methods shall conform to the requirements of Part 10, as appropriate.

Sprinklers that are specifically listed for this purpose shall comply with the performance criteria given in the listing.

517.6 Water supply If the maximum calculated demand of the exposure protection is in excess of that required for the internal sprinklers alone, the water supply shall be increased to cover the excess.

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NZS 4541 :2007

518 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SUPPRESSION MODE SPRINKLERS NOTE In previous editions of this Standard, these sprinklers were known as Early Suppression Fast Response Sprinklers.

518.1 General Suppression mode sprinklers offers a number of attractive advantages over other technologies in the protection of some risks. The most significant advantage is often the elimination of in-rack sprinklers. Achieving these advantages requires a technology vastly different to previous technology, which has much less tolerance to deficiencies in design and installation when compared to previous technologies. For new facilities, suppression mode sprinkler design requirements must be incorporated into the building design from the earliest stages of planning. Otherwise the use of suppression mode sprinklers may not be possible. In addition, retrofitting suppression mode sprinklers into existing buildings may not be possible.

Further information on the installation requirements for suppression mode sprinklers may be found in the latest edition of FM Global's Data Sheet 2-2. If, as the result of full scale fire testing, or loss history, the requirements of the latest edition of FM 2-2 differ from the requirements of this Standard, a SSC may publish an advisory notice allowing the use of this document as an alternative means of compliance.

518.2 Building construction

518.2.1 Roof construction

Except as noted below, install sprinklers in every bay or channel formed by solid structural elements at the roof and ceiling.

Sprinklers are not required in every bay or channel, when the structural elements are less than 300 mm deep, and the sprinkler deflectors are located below the bottom of the members. An example of such construction includes metal-framed buildings, with purlins of less than 300 mm depth.

518.2.2 Ceiling and roofs

Do not install suppression mode sprinklers below a roof slope exceeding 10°. Where the slope exceeds 10 0

, sprinklers may be installed below a subceiling of a slope of less that 10°.

Where the ceiling height is higher than permitted, suppression mode sprinklers may be installed below a subceiling to reduce the height to an acceptable ceiling. Ceiling heights are measured to the underside of the roofing material or cladding. For corrugated roofs, with corrugations less than 76 mm deep, measure to the bottom of the cladding. For deeper corrugations, measure to the top of the cladding.

A1 I Design suspended ceilings to withstand fire plume uplift pressures of at least 140 Pa.

518.2.3 Ventilation and venting

518.2.3.1 Heat and smoke venting Automatic heat and smoke vents in area protected with suppression mode sprinklers shall use a high temperature (i.e. with an operating temperature in excess of 141°C) operating mechanism.

Do not install suppression mode sprinklers in areas with melt-out (drop-out) type vents. Plastic skylights that are not designed as heat/smoke vents do not create this problem.

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NZS 4541 : 2007

518.2.3.2 Roof and ceiling-level ventilation Natural and powered ventilation can lead to critical delays in suppression mode sprinkler operation. Examples of powered ventilation include exhaust fans, air conditioning/refrigeration supply and return vents and air inlets to roof mounted mechanical equipment. Examples of natural ventilation include turbine vents, vent stacks and ridge vents.

It is necessary to coordinate the location of suppression mode sprinklers and ventilation to ensure that the air velocity at sprinklers does not exceed 1.5 m/s. If this is not possible, one of the following design options may be applicable:

(a) If the vent openings have a maximum dimension of less than 1.4 m, centre a suppression mode sprinkler in the opening. This option does not apply to commodities greater in hazard than cartoned unexpanded plastics, such as uncartoned plastics, aerosols, or rolled tissue in buildings higher than 9.1 m.

(b) Install a subceiling under the vent and install suppression mode sprinklers under the ceiling. The subceiling shall be designed to limit the air velocity at the sprinklers to under 1.5 m/s.

(c) Install linear type heat detection or flame detection to shut down the fans in powered ventilation, or close dampers in natural ventilation. The latest edition of FM Data Sheet 2-2 provides design guidance on this option.

The only practical way to protect ridge type vents is by providing sprinklers beneath them at roof level for vents no wider than 1.4 m, or by installing a subceiling with suppression mode sprinklers beneath them, as described in (b) above.

518.2.3.3 Draft curtains Draft curtains may be required to separate between areas protected by suppression mode sprinklers and other types of sprinklers, to ensure that the suppression mode sprinklers do not operate, and divert excessive amounts of water away from the fire. They shall be centred between rows of sprinklers.

When required, they shall extend at least 600 mm below the ceiling, be of noncombustible construction, and fit tight under the ceiling. Openings created by ribs in roofing material are not a concern, but channels created by gaps between purlins and roofing material need to be filled. Solid beams or other structural features can meet the requirement for draft curtains.

Draft curtains shall be centred over clear aisles at least 1.2 m wide (see 902.9).

518.3 Sprinkler installation criteria

518.3.1 Spacing

518.3.1.1 General requirements For buildings up to 9.1 m height, install sprinklers at a maximum spacing of 3.7 m apart.

For buildings greater than 9.1 m height (but less than 13.7 m high) the maximum spacing between sprinklers is 3.1 m.

The minimum spacing between sprinklers is 2.4 m.

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NZS 4541 :2007

518.3.1.2 Special circ*mstances Elimination of obstructions is critical to the success of suppression mode sprinkler operation (see 518.4). In some cases, where a slight extension of the spacing requirements provided in 518.3.1.1 in isolated areas can eliminate obstructions. If increasing spacing between two adjacent heads on a range or between two adjacent ranges can eliminate obstructions, then the following extensions are allowable:

(a) In buildings up to 9.1 m high, the maximum spacing of 3.7 m may be increased to 4 m and the area of coverage may be increased to 10.2 m2 for those sprinklers that need to be moved in order to be at least 300 mm from obstructions;

(b) In buildings over 9.1 m and up to 12.2 m high, the maximum spacing of 3.1 m (see 518.3.1.1) may be increased to 3.4 m, with a maximum area of coverage of 10.2 m2

, for those sprinklers that need to be moved in order to be at least 300 mm from obstructions.

These extensions apply only to a maximum of two adjacent sprinklers on a range or two adjacent ranges. See figure 5.8.

T Standard

( <) 0

Spacing _t_ (

Extended () )

Spacing Extended Spacing

() () > Standard Spacing

<Y )

Figure 5.8 - Examples of allowable extended spacings for suppression mode sprinklers to avoid obstructions

518.3.2 Area per sprinkler

Install suppression mode sprinklers at a maximum area per sprinkler of 9.3 m2, except as allowed by

518.3.1.2.

Install suppression mode sprinklers at a minimum area per sprinkler of 6.0 m2.

518.3.3 Distance below ceiling

Suppression mode sprinklers shall be installed with either the centre line of their thermal sensing elements, or their deflector distances below the ceiling in accordance with table 5.7.

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Table 5.7 - Suppression mode sprinklers - Allowable distances below ceiling

Type of sprinkler Distance of deflector below Distance of centre line of i ceiling i thermal sensing element below

ceiling (mm) (mm)

Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum

K20 or K24 Pendent 127 356 102 330

K20 or K24 UpriQht N/A N/A 102 330

K32 or K36 Pendent 152 457 102(*) 457(*)

* The ability to install K32 and K36 heads with a thermal sensing element at 457 mm below the ceiling is based on FM Global'S design criteria. The use of this criterion is only acceptable if FM design criteria are used.

518.3.4 Clearance to storage

Ensure that at least 900 mm clearance is maintained between storage and suppression mode Sprinkler Deflectors.

518.4 Obstructions to suppression mode sprinkler discharge

518.4.1 General

Effective operation of suppression mode sprinklers requires that water be delivered directly to burning commodities at high volume and high momentum. Obstructions can interfere with the distribution pattern and significantly reduce downward momentum of the water discharge and penetration of the fire plume, resulting in a failure to suppress a fire. In the types of storage protected by suppression mode sprinklers, this will result in an uncontrolled fire.

Testing has clearly shown that even comparatively small obstructions, when they are at critical locations, can result in an uncontrolled fire if the fire starts beneath them.

Obstructions can be located at or near the ceiling, or entirely below sprinklers. These include, but are not limited to: beams, girders, truss and bar joist bottom chords, wind bracing and bridging, ducts, heaters, cable trays, conduit, sprinkler system or other piping, noise abatement curtains, draft curtains, lighting fixtures, etc.

518.4.2 Solid obstructions at ceiling level

51B.4.2.1 General Obstructions extending from a point at or above the level of a sprinkler to a point below the sprinkler deflector can block a significant portion of the sprinkler discharge. Typical examples of this type of obstruction include, but are not limited to: concrete or steel beams, steel girders, joists or trusses whose webs are less than 70 % open, draft curtains, etc. The only way to mitigate this effect is to locate sprinklers in relation to the obstructions such that the "umbrella" of the discharge pattern passes beneath the obstruction.

To accomplish this, locate sprinklers so that the vertical distance from the sprinkler deflector to the bottom of the obstruction and the horizontal distance from the nearest edge of the obstruction are as shown in figure 5.9.

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H,mm I

H,mm

2000 1500 1000 500 300 a 300 500 1000 1500 2000

o I I il ~ I I 199~~~~~~~~~fj3=-' /~~'~~~~~~~~~~1gg

I I I

E 300i .. / 300 E E 400 ~ 400 E ~~ ~~ Obstructions are 600

~gg - not permitted in 700 800 this area 800

Figure 5.9 - Area where obstructions not allowed

As an alternative for beams, girders, draft curtains and other obstructions at ceiling level that are no more than 300 mm wide, locate sprinklers on either side of the obstruction no more than 1.8 m from the nearest edge of the obstruction in buildings up to 9.1 m high, and no more than 1.5 m from the nearest edge of the obstruction in buildings up to 13.7 m high. Maintain a minimum of 900 mm clearance between the top of storage and the obstruction above it (see figure 5.10). Meeting the requirements of this section will mitigate obstructions created by other objects, although it may not be the most practical solution. Alternate requirements for specific types of obstructions are shown in figures 5.10 to 5.17.

BEAM

~ H

r r /

i .' /

T~ 900 mm 300 mm

min. max.

Top of storage

H

r

v

NOTE The maximum permitted "H" is 'h the maximum sprinkler spacing permitted for the building height and is not dependent on "V".

Figure 5.10 - Alternative arrangement for obstructions no more than 300 mm wide at ceilings

518.4.2.2 Open-web structural members at ceiling-level Webs of structural members that are more than 70 % open (referred to as open-web structural members) do not obstruct the sprinkler discharge pattern significantly but the bottom chords of these members can. Bracing and bridging can also significantly interfere with the sprinkler discharge. Provided that any individual sprinkler is only subject to a single obstruction, sprinklers can be located a minimum of 300 mm horizontally from the bottom chord of a bar joist, truss, or a similar open-web structural member, and from bridging (see figure 5.11). Where the horizontal distance between

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adjacent open-web structural members is less than 900 mm measured between the edges of the bottom chord, a solid barrier or suspended ceiling should be installed beneath the members with sprinklers located beneath.

Minimum 300 mm

Figure 5.11 - Minimum clearances to bar joists

518.4.3 Obstructions below sprinklers

Obstructions located entirely below sprinklers, while they may not create as large an interruption of the distribution pattern of sprinklers, can create "shadows" and reduce the momentum of the sprinkler discharge to the point that a fire will neither be suppressed nor controlled. Testing has shown that a single obstructed sprinkler can result in an uncontrolled fire if it is in a critical location and a fire starts beneath it. An individual obstruction 20 mm wide or less and at least 100 mm below the sprinkler deflector may be ignored.

NOTE Individual objects and obstructions are considered "individual" only if they are separated from the nearest adjacent object or obstruction by a distance of at least six times their least dimension. For example, a group of six 25 mm diameter conduit spaced 25 mm apart would be treated as a group and would create an obstruction 280 mm wide. If the same group of conduit were spaced 150 mm apart, it would be treated as six 25 mm wide objects.

Obstructions located more than 900 mm below suppression mode sprinklers will not disrupt the discharge pattern, but cannot be ignored because they can obstruct water penetration into flues in storage. Obstructions that are located directly over flues must be at least 900 mm above the flue.

518.4.3.1 Pendent suppression mode sprinklers Obstructions below sprinklers that meet the requirements of figure 5.9 are acceptable. Otherwise, the following requirements shall be met: (a) For continuous obstructions below sprinklers wider than 20 mm and up to 50 mm wide locate the

sprinkler deflector at least 300 mm horizontally from the nearest edge of the obstruction or locate the obstruction at least 600 mm below the deflector (see figure 5.12);

(b) For continuous obstructions greater than 50 mm and up to 300 mm wide locate the sprinkler deflector at least 300 mm horizontally from the nearest edge of the obstruction (see figure 5.13);

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(c) For continuous obstructions greater than 300 mm and up to 600 mm wide locate the sprinkler deflector at least 600 mm horizontally from the nearest edge of the obstruction (see figure 5.14);

(d) For obstructions greater than 600 mm wide, meet the criteria in figure 5.9, or: (i) If the obstruction is continuous, flat, horizontal and solid, install a line of sprinklers with the

thermal sensing elements located a maximum of 330 mm below the centre of the obstruction. Use the same type of sprinkler as used at the ceiling spaced them a maximum of 2.4 m apart. Maintain at least 900 mm between the sprinkler deflector and the top of the storage (see figure 5,15). Include the sprinklers below the obstruction in the 12 head design area operating, and the equivalent number of heads at the ceiling or roof immediately above the obstruction turned off

(ii) If the obstruction is continuous and not flat (as in the case of a circular duct) or is not solid (as in the case of grouped cables), install a flat barrier under the obstruction at least as wide as the obstruction. Install a line of sprinklers below the centreline of the barrier as described in paragraph (i) (see figure 5.16). Include the sprinklers below the obstruction in the 12 head design area operating, and the equivalent number of heads at the ceiling or roof immediately above the obstruction turned off;

(e) If the obstruction below sprinklers is not continuous and has a circular or rectangular horizontal cross-section less than 600 mm in diameter of 600 mm across the flats respectively (such as a pendant light), locate the sprinkler deflector at least 300 mm horizontally from the nearest edge of the obstruction (see figure 5.17).

518.4.3.2 Upright suppression mode sprinklers Full-scale fire testing done in conjunction with the approval of the K20 Llmin.kPa-o.5 upright suppression mode sprinkler showed small obstructions located directly below the sprinklers have less impact on the performance of the tested sprinkler than on pendent suppression mode sprinklers. Therefore, the obstruction requirements of this Standard can be relaxed as follows:

When upright suppression mode sprinklers are used obstructions below sprinklers can be ignored if any of the following apply:

(a) They are open-web bar joists or trusses having chords no more than 100 mm wide;

(b) They are bridging or wind bracing no more than 100 mm wide; or

(c) They are individual pipes and conduit 100 mm in diameter or less, or individual groups of smaller pipe or conduit having a total width of 100 mm or less.

Where obstructions exceed the limits of (a) to (c) above install suppression mode sprinklers under the obstructions to the same requirements as 518.4.3.1.

NOTE Individual objects and obstructions are considered "individual" only if they are separated from the nearest adjacent object or obstruction by a distance of at least six times their least dimension. For example, a group of six 25 mm diameter conduit spaced 25 mm apart would be treated as a group and would create an obstruction 280 mm wide. If the same group of conduit were spaced 150 mm apart, it would be treated as six 25 mm wide objects.

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Obstructions 50 mm wide and less permitted

outside shaded area

Figure 5.12 - Obstructions greater than 20 mm and up to 50 mm wide below sprinklers

NZS 4541 :2007

"'''''~=~

~ V~AJ

I than 300 mm wide ~ Obstructions no more

I

~ permitted outside

I shaded area

!/i Figure 5.13 - Obstructions greater than 50 mm

and up to 300 mm wide below sprinklers

Obstructions no more than 600 mm wide permitted outside

shaded area

F~gure 5.14 - Obstructions greater than 300 mm and up to 600 mm wide below sprinklers

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NZS 4541 :2007

I~I ~

900mm Minimum

Storage

I~I ~

900mm Minimum

Storage

Figure 5.15 - Flat horizontal obstructions greater than 600 mm wide below sprinklers

900mm Minimum

Storage 900mm Minimum

Storage

Figure 5.16 - Round or rectangular obstructions less than 600 mm wide below sprinklers

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I-l (\l~!J \J / E-

D

H

Ceiling

When 0 is 600 mm or Ie can be 300 mm or grea

independent of V.

SS, H ter,

NZS 4541 :2007

Figure 5.17 - Round or rectangular obstructions below sprinklers less than 600 mm wide

518.4.4 Mezzanines, walkways and conveyors

Mezzanines, walkways and conveyors installed in warehouses protected by suppression mode sprinklers at the roof can prevent water discharge from sprinklers reaching and suppressing a fire. Additional sprinklers shall be required beneath the obstruction in the following circ*mstances.

518.4.4.1 Solid mezzanines To prevent simultaneous operation of suppression mode sprinklers beneath and above solid mezzanines and to allow the water demand for sprinklers under the mezzanine to be independent of the water demand or sprinklers above, either provide a draft curtain around the perimeter of the mezzanine or keep all storage underneath the mezzanine inside the sprinklers located nearest the perimeter of the mezzanine.

For mezzanines extending no more than 4.6 m above floor level, install suppression mode sprinklers designed to supply four sprinklers at the pressure required for the type of sprinkler used, or quick response sprinklers designed for the hazard involved.

For solid mezzanines extending more than 4.6 m above floor level, install suppression mode sprinklers using the design criteria required for the storage height and type of sprinkler used.

Control-mode sprinklers designed for the hazard involved may be used below a mezzanine more than 4.6 m high only if a draft curtain is provided at the perimeter.

518.4.4.2 Grated mezzanines In order to be considered grated, the grating of a mezzanine must be least 70 % open. If the grating is less than 70 % open, then make the mezzanine solid (in order to allow sprinklers underneath it to operate promptly) and protect it as a solid mezzanine according to 518.4.4.1.

If storage exists either above or below a grated mezzanine, but not both above and below, no additional sprinklers are needed under the mezzanine.

If storage or storage structures above and below grated mezzanines are arranged to provide aisles that are vertically aligned above and below, treat the aisle portions of the mezzanines the same as walkways. (See 518.4.4.3.)

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NZS 4541 : 2007

If storage or storage structures are not vertically aligned above and below the mezzanine, regardless of openings in the grating, make the mezzanine solid and protect it as a solid mezzanine according to 518.4.4.1.

518.4.4.3 Walkways Walkways are located between storage structures for material-handling purposes. In order to be considered grated, the grating of a walkway must be least 70 % open. Treat grated walkways wider than 3.1 m as grated mezzanines.

No additional sprinklers are required under single-level grated walkways that are no more than 3.1 m wide.

For multi-level grated walkways no wider than 3.1 m, provide one line of suppression mode or quick response control-mode sprinklers (K of 115 or greater, 68°C temperature rating). For two-level walkways, install them beneath the lower walkway. For three-level walkways, install them beneath the mid-level walkway.

Locate the sprinklers at the centre of the walkway, at a maximum horizontal spacing of 3 m. Include two of these sprinklers when calculating the ceiling sprinkler water demand. For suppression mode sprinklers, supply these two additional sprinklers at the minimum pressure approved for the type of sprinkler used.

For control-mode sprinklers, design the two sprinklers to discharge a minimum of 230 Umin each.

518.4.4.4 Conveyors Single conveyors are typically located on walkways or mezzanines between storage structures to ease inventory picking. Multiple conveyors are located side-by-side to convey product between storage areas and shipping/receiving areas. In either case, they can obstruct sprinkler discharge and create shielded areas that can prevent fire suppression.

When sprinklers are installed below solid walkways and mezzanines in accordance with this Standard, the addition of conveyors on the mezzanines and walkways does not require additional sprinklers.

For grated mezzanines and walkways with belt-type conveyers (or roller-type conveyers less than 50 % open), individual conveyers or groups of conveyers wider than 600 mm sprinklers in addition to those required for the mezzanines or walkways themselves will be required. The only exception to this requirement is where there is no possibility of combustibles being present beneath the conveyers.

Install suppression mode or quick response spray sprinklers (K of 11.5 or greater, ordinary temperature rating) beneath the conveyers on a maximum horizontal spacing of 3 m. Include two of these sprinklers in the ceiling sprinkler water demand.

For suppression mode sprinklers, supply these two additional sprinklers at the minimum pressure approved for the type of sprinkler used.

For quick response spray sprinklers, design the two sprinklers to discharge a minimum of 240 Umin each. If sprinklers are installed under both the grated mezzanine and walkways and conveyors, it is only necessary to add a total of two sprinklers to the ceiling demand.

When there are multiple, vertically aligned levels of conveyors that are 50 % open or more, add a line of suppression mode sprinklers under the lower conveyor for two levels; add a line under the middle conveyor for three levels.

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NZS 4541 :2007 ~~~~~~----------

519 SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROL MODE SPECIFIC APPLICATION SPRINKLERS

Further information on the installation requirements for control mode specific application sprinklers (CMSA) may be found in the latest edition of FM Global's Data Sheet 2-7.

NOTE - Large droplet sprinklers referred to in previous editions of this Standard are a type of CMSA sprinkler.

519.1 Building construction When CMSA sprinklers are used under open wood jOist construction, the minimum design pressure forthe sprinklers shall be 345 kPa.

It is recommended that CMSA sprinklers not be used in conjunction with automatic smoke and heat venting. If automatic vents are used, it is recommended that they be rated to operate at a minimum temperature of 182°C.

519.2 Sprinkler installation criteria

519.2.1 Sprinkler spacing

The maximum spacing for CMSA sprinklers shall be 3.7 m.

When used in conjunction with open wood joist construction, the maximum spacing shall be reduced to 3 m.

The minimum spacing for CMSA sprinklers shall be 2.4 m.

The maximum area of coverage for CMSA sprinklers shall be 9.3 m2.

The minimum area of coverage shall be 7.4 m2.

519.2.2 Range sizes

Range sizes shall be determined by full hydraulic calculation. Notwithstanding this, the minimum range size shall be 32 mm.

With the exception of the first head on a range, CMSA sprinklers may only be directly connected to 50 mm and smaller pipe. The first head on a range may be directly connected to a 65 mm starter pipe.

Where range pipes exceed 50 mm in diameter, the sprinklers shall be connected to the ranges via riser nipples, to elevate the sprinkler deflectors above the centre line of the pipe as indicated in table 5.B.

Table 5.8 - Required deflector height above range centreline

Range pipe Required height nominal diameter of deflector above

pipe centreline (mm) (mm)

50 N/A 65 330 80 380 100 460

>100 N/A

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NZS 4541 :2007

519.2.3 Clear space below sprinklers

Maintain a clear space below sprinkler deflectors and the top of storage of at least 900 mm.

519.2.4 Distance below ceiling

Ideally, position sprinklers so that the deflector is 90 mm below the bottom of joists in wood joist construction, and 180 mm below the ceiling in other types of construction. Where practical considerations do not allow the ideal distances to be met, comply with the requirements in table 5.9.

Table 5.9 - Minimum and maximum distances of deflectors below ceiling

Construction type Minimum distance Maximum distance (mm) (mm)

Smooth ceiling 152 203 Portal and purlin 152 305 Panel up to 28 m2 152 356 Open wood joist 25 below joist bottom 152 below joist bottom

519.3 Obstructions to CMSA sprinkler discharge

519.3.1 Ceiling level obstructions

When CMSA sprinklers are located above the bottom of obstructions such as beams, ducts and the like, they shall be located in accordance with table 5.10, read in conjunction with figure 5.18.

Table 5.10 - Position of deflector when located above bottom of ceiling obstruction

Distance from sprinkler to side of beam Maximum distance of deflector above bottom or other obstruction of beam or other obstruction

(mm) (mm) Less than 300 0

300 to less than 500 40 500 to less than 600 75 600 to less than 800 140 800 to less than 900 200 900 to less than 1100 250 1100 to less than 1200 300 1200 to less than 1400 380 1400 to less than 1500 460 1500 to less than 1700 560 1700 to less than 1800 660

1800 or more 790

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NZS 4541 : 2007

Beam or

Other o bstructi or

------

~Ceiling

Not to Exce~d Maximum speCifil for Ty~e of CTuction

Maximum Distance Deflector Above

Bottom of Obstruction

Distance From Near Side of Obstruction

Figure 5.18 - Position of deflector when located above bottom of ceiling obstruction

519.3.2 Obstructions located below sprinklers

Sprinklers shall be located with respect to obstructions located entirely below the sprinkler, such as fluorescent lights, ducts and other obstructions in accordance with table 5.11, and as illustrated in figure 5.19.

Table 5.11 - Position of sprinklers relative to obstructions located entirely below

Distance of deflector above bottom of I Minimum distance to side of obstruction obstruction

(mm) (mm) Less than 150

150 to less than 300 300 to less than 450 450 to less than 600 600 to less than 750 750 to less than 900

Distance Deflector Above Bottom of Obstruction

/0000"

Minimum Distance

From Near Side of Obstruction

500 900 1200 1500 1700 1800

Figure 5.19 - Position of sprinklers relative to obstructions located entirely below

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NZS 4541 :2007

When the bottom of the obstruction is located 900 mm or more below the sprinkler deflectors, position sprinklers so the obstruction is centred between adjacent sprinklers, as shown in figure 5.20. Limit the obstruction to a maximum width of 600 mm. The extension to either side of the mid-point between sprinklers may not exceed 300 mm. Maintain at least a 460 mm clearance between the top of storage and the bottom of the obstruction. Install one or more lines of sprinklers below obstructions with a width greater than 600 mm, or which otherwise do not meet the maximum 300 mm extension requirements of this paragraph.

-----112 S -----"'i

Not more I than 300 mm -----1

Not more than 600 mm

900mm or over

Not less than

Figure 5.20 - Position of sprinklers in relation to obstructions located 900 mm or more below deflectors

519.3.3 Obstructions parallel and directly below ranges

In the special case of an obstruction running parallel to and directly below a range pipe, locate the sprinkler at least 900 mm above the top of the obstruction, as illustrated in figure 5.21 Limit the obstruction to a maximum width of 300 mm and a maximum extension of 150 mm to either side of the centre line of the branch line.

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NZS 4541 :2007 ---------------------------------

I sprinkler---~~~~~~:_-_-~-:_-_-_-_-_·~I Range pipe • CD

Not more than 1-----,

150 mm

Obstruction ..

Not more than 300 mm

Not less than

900 mm

Figure 5.21 - Position of sprinklers in relation to obstructions running parallel to and directly below range pipes

520 EXTENDED COVERAGE ORDINARY HAZARD (ECOH) AND EXTENDED COVERAGE LIGHT HAZARD (ECLH) SPRINKLERS - SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS

520.1 location

520.1.1

Any specific requirements detailed within the listing for an ECOH and ECLH sprinklers shall be applied in preference to 520.1.2 - 520.1.6.

520.1.2

ECOH sprinklers shall not be installed under ceilings with continuous structural or architectural projections exceeding 150 mm in depth unless the sprinkler is not required to spray beyond such a projection, or specific approval is obtained from a SSC.

520.1.3

The slope of the ceiling shall not exceed 10°. Deflectors shall be installed parallel to ceilings or roofs.

520.1.4

The deflector of the sprinkler shall not be more than 300 mm below the ceiling.

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NZS 4541 :2007

520.1.5

If the deflectors of ECOH and ECLH sprinklers are located at the same level or above ceiling mounted obstructions, then the sprinkler shall be positioned in accordance with the dimensions shown in table 5.12.

520.1.6

Where vertical obstructions exist with a clear space of less than 500 mm above them (e.g. suspended fittings or floor-mounted vertical obstructions, which do not exceed 100 mm in width), the sprinkler shall be positioned in accordance with the dimensions shown in table 5.5.

Table 5.12 - ECOH and ECLH sprinkler distances from ceiling mounted obstructions (see figure 5.22)

Minimum horizontal distance from sprinkler

I

Maximum height of sprinkler deflector above to side of obstruction bottom of obstruction

Dimension (a) in mm Dimension (b) in mm

Less than 500 a 500 to less than 900 I 25

900 to less than 1200 75 1200 to less than 1300 125 1300 to less than 1800 175

1800 to less than 2000 225 2000 to less than 2100 275

2100 or more 350

Ceiling

Sprinkler 'V Obstruction

b

a

Figure 5.22 - Position of sprinkler head to avoid obstruction to sprinkler discharge (extended coverage upright and pendent spray sprinklers)

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NZS 4541 : 2007

Part 6 WATER SUPPLY

601 GENERAL To ensure its reliability, every sprinkler system shall have a reliable primary water supply complying with this section. An additional or secondary water supply is required by this Standard where the building presents a greater risk to occupants or contents and is larger or higher, thus being more difficult for the Fire Service to control a fire (see 602.5).

A secondary water supply shall not be required for a sprinkler system to comply with the Compliance Documents of the New Zealand Building Code.

602 CLASSES OF WATER SUPPLY

602.1 Classification The water supply of a sprinkler system shall be classified according to its reliability and number of supplies as follows:

Class A - Dual superior supply Two approved supplies, both of which shall be carried independently to a combined main within each control valve enclosure, at least one of which shall be a primary supply, but only one of which may be dependent on a town's main.

Class B2 - Private site fire main A private reticulation system which complies with 612 and is reserved solely for fire purposes, being charged with water and normally pressurised, comprising of at least one approved ring and supplied by two approved supplies, at least one of which shall be a primary supply, but only one of which may be dependent on a town's main. The sprinkler system(s) water supply connection pipes shall be independently connected to the fire main. Two connections shall be carried independently to a combined main within each valve enclosure. Isolation valves shall be provided at each connection with the fire main so as to ensure that there are at least two isolation valves between any two connections.

Class C2 - Single superior supply A single approved primary supply. Where the supply is reliant on the use of fire pumps, two pumps shall be provided in parallel. Each pump shall be individually capable of meeting the highest design flow and pressure. At least one pump shall be driven by a diesel engine.

Class C1- Single supply One approved primary supply.

NOTE - See figure 6.1.

602.2 Primary supply A primary supply shall be only one of the following:

(a) A town's main, boosted town's main, or supplemented town's main provided that any pump is driven by a diesel engine;

(b) A diesel engine driven pump taking water from an approved source other than a town's main;

(c) An elevated tank.

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NZS 4541 :2007

~

TOWN'S MAIN OR OTHER APPROVED SUPPLY.

HYDRANTS ON A SPUR.

TOllY

TOWN'S MAIN OR OTHER APPROVED SUPPLY,

TOBY

TOBY

TOWN'S MAIN OR OTHER APPROVED SUPPLY.

CONTROL VAlVeS

TYPICAL CLASS A SUPPLY

Z I

TYPICAL CLASS 82 SITE FIRE MAIN

roWN'S MAiN BYPASS

TWO PUMPS IN PARALLElL· ONE PUMP ~iUST B£ DIESEL DRIVEN.

CONThOl VALVES

CLASS C2 SINGLE SUPERIOR SUPPLY

TOON'S MAIN BY:lASS

DIESEL DRIVEN PUMP IF NFCESSARY CONTROL VALVES

CLASS C1 SINGLE SUPPLY

KEY

-1><1-

~

~ i>..J-

-@-

PUMP DRAWING WATER FROM A TANK

PUMP DRAWING WATER FROM A TANK OR OTHER APPROVED SUPPLY, INDEPENDENT OF TOWN'S MAIN.

Stop valve

Alarm valve

Fire pump

Check valve

Hydrant

Figure 6.1 - Water supply classes - Typical diagrammatic layouts

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NZS 4541 :2007

602.3 Secondary supply A secondary supply shall be one of the following:

(a) A town's main, boosted town's main, or supplemented town's main where any pump is either diesel engine or electric motor driven;

(b) A diesel engine or electric motor driven pump taking water from an approved source other than a town's main;

(c) An elevated tank.

602.4 Every water supply shall:

(a) Automatically provide water at least at the design flows and pressures specified in 603;

(b) In cases other than town's mains, boosted town's mains or supplemented town's mains, have a storage capacity of at least that specified in 606;

(c) Meet the requirements of 604, 605, 606, 607, 608 or 609 as they relate to the particular water supply (see figure 6.2);

(d) Except in the case of town's mains, be under the direct control of the owner of the protected building. Where this is not practical, approval may be given to a legally binding arrangement which suitably guarantees the right of use of the building owner to the water supply.

NOTE (1) The use of salt or brackish water is not normally allowed. In special circ*mstances where there is no suitable fresh

water source available, consideration may be given to the use of salt or brackish water, provided the installation is normally charged with fresh water.

(2) Attention is drawn to the need to comply with the requirements of the New Zealand Building Code Clause G12.

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NZS 4541 :2007

FIOW8

Jd

pressure requirements

603 ,-----~.-

604

6·4

I Classes of:

water supply

602

, s!orage!~. nkl ' capacity and

refilling

606

601

605.1

artesian bores

606.4

I

pum~;l .. I engines

i '";' I L6r

608

Pump units

607

: motors

607.8

Figure 6.2 - Diagrammatic key to water supply requirements

609

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NZS 4541 :2007

602.5 Minimum water supply requirements

602.5.1 Class A and 82 water supplies

A Class A or Class B2 water supply as defined in 602.1 is required for the following buildings:

(a) Buildings greater than 25 m high, measured from the point of lowest entry to the floor level of the highest normally occupied floor, and located in areas having a hazard factor Z, greater than 0.13 (as defined in NZS 1170.5). For further information, see Appendix H;

(b) Buildings or groups of buildings used for crowd or sleeping occupancies, with a total floor area of more than 11,000 m2

, unless the building is subdivided into sprinkler protected floor areas of 11,000 m2 or less by one of the following:

(i) Walls having a FRR of 60/60/60

(ii) External walls at least 10m from the external walls of other buildings

(iii) Combinations of (i) and (ii).

602.5.2 Class C2 water supply

A Class C2 water supply, as defined in 602.1 is the minimum required for buildings greater than 25 m high, measured from the point of the lowest entry to the floor level of the highest normally occupied floor, and located in areas having a hazard factor Z, equal to or less than 0.13 (as defined in NZS 1170.5). For further information, see Appendix H.

602.5.3 Class C1 water supply

A Class C1 water supply as defined in 602.1 is the minimum requirement for all buildings not described in 602.5.1 or 602.5.2.

NOTE - A Class C1 water supply is the only supply required for a sprinkler system to comply with the Compliance Documents of the New Zealand Building Code.

603 FLOW AND PRESSURE REQUIREMENTS The flow and pressure requirements for each installation shall be defined at a point immediately above the alarm valve and shall be those specified in Parts 7, 8 and 9 as appropriate to the hazard plus the requirements of any internal drenchers or, proscenium opening drenchers. Where external sprinklers or deluge systems, or a drencher system installed for Building Consent purposes which utilises the same water supply and imposes a greater requirement then this requirement shall be provided.

Except for internal drenchers installed for building consent purposes and proscenium opening drenchers, systems shall not be required to be designed to deal with internal and external concurrent demands.

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NZS 4541 :2007

604 TOWN'S MAINS, BOOSTED TOWN'S MAINS, SUPPLEMENTED TOWN'S MAINS

604.1 Town's mains A water supply may be obtained by means of a piped connection from a town's main which meets the following requirements.

604.1.1

The town's main shall be part of a reticulation system under the control of the Network Utility Operator and which has been approved by a Sprinkler System Certifier (SSC) after first determining that the system:

(a) Is in good order with a record of reliable drought free operation;

(b) Is supplied by an inexhaustible source of water or has sufficient stored capacity to meet the normal needs of the area served for a 24 hour period during peak demand;

(c) Has, where pumps are used to provide or supplement pressure, at least 50 % of the pumping capacity independent of the local Network Utility Operator for its electrical power supply.

NOTE - Town's mains are likely to be significantly impaired following a maximum credible earthquake event. The building owner may wish to consider a more reliable water supply to cater for such an event.

The flow and pressure characteristics of a town's main shall be determined by method 1 or method 2 of Appendix C. Based on past history a SSC may nominate the use of method 2 at design parameter review.

If the static pressure of the main exceeds 1,000 kPa, full particulars shall be submitted to a SSC including any proposed use of automatic pressure control valves.

604.1.2

On a class C1 or C2 system, two such connections may be made to the reticulation network and combined to produce a complying single supply provided that:

(a) A prominent sign warning of the two connections is affixed to the block plan and both connections are shown;

(b) An engraved metal sign is affixed to the underside of the toby box lid of both street valves drawing attention to the existence and location of the other valve;

(c) The Network Utility Operator consents; and

(d) If check valves or backflow prevention devices are installed in each connection there shall be a labelled pressure gauge located at the control valves showing the pressure upstream of each check valve/backflow prevention device in accordance with 406.2. If the check valves or backflow prevention devices are installed in a remote location (such as at the boundary), the gauges shall be located at the control valves. The connections may be run in a suitably pressure rated small bore plastic tube. Attention is drawn to the need to ensure that this tube is not subject to freezing.

604.1.3

Where it is proposed to make two connections to a private site fire main to provide a Class B2 supply (see 612), the flow and pressure available at each point of connection shall meet the design requirements and, in addition, there shall not be anyone section or component of the reticulation on which both points of connection depend. Hence:

(a) The mains shall be part of different reticulation systems; or

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NZS 4541 :2007

(b) The mains shall form part of an interconnected reticulation system that:

(i) Is supplied from at least two reservoirs or pumped sources, and

Oi) Is fitted with sufficient stop valves so that in the event of a breakdown anywhere in the system, selective closing of these valves will ensure that at least one of the mains can remain operational;

(c) The branch connections to an interconnected reticulation system shall comply with 604.1.8.1 (c) and have at least two other valves between them. The location of such valves shall comply with 604.1.8.1 (d);

(d) Each branch connection shall be capable of supplying the design flow and pressure;

(e) The reticulation network shall be tested with sufficient valves closed to simulate the hydraulically worst condition of breakdown or repair. The particular configurations of closed valves shall be approved.

604.1.4

Except in the case of a supplemented town's main, a listed strainer, complying with 404.10, shall be installed on every town's main water supply in the following cases:

(a) Where the design flow is 2,300 Llmin or greater;

(b) Where the deSign flow is less than 2,300 Llmin and previous experience or test results indicate a need for a strainer to eliminate particulate matter which could block a sprinkler or other system orifice.

In such cases, the contractor may obtain an early ruling regarding the need for a strainer, by the submission of appropriate information to, or by facilitating demonstrative tests for, a sse.

Ordinarily, it will not be necessary to require a strainer for an "Extra light hazard" occupancy design flow if the town's main is 100 mm or larger.

604.1.5 Pipework

The pipework of a connection to a town's main shall comply with 403.1.1.

604.1.6 Connections for hose reels and other low demand uses

Provided the town's main and the branch connection are not less than 100 mm nominal diameter:

(a) A single pipe not larger than a 40 mm internal diameter may be taken off the branch connection from the town's main for low demand purposes only; or

(b) A single pipe not larger than a 40 mm internal diameter may be taken off the branch connection from the town's main for supplying hydraulic hose reels for firefighting purposes. A single pipe not larger than a 40 mm internal diameter may be taken off this 40 mm pipe for low demand purposes in which case there shall be stop valves .suitably labelled on each of the supply pipes for hydraulic hose reels and for low demand purposes fixed in close proximity to their common connecting point;

(c) Where the water supplies comprise connections taken from more than one town's main, a pipe or pipes not larger than a 40 mm diameter to supply hydraulic hose reels for fire-fighting purposes only may be taken from the main which conveys the combined supplies from the point at which they are joined together up to the installation control valves. A stop valve suitably labelled shall be fitted on the pipe taken off for hose reel purposes close to the point of its connection with the combined main;

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NZS 4541 :2007

(d) Such connections shall be fitted with a labelled stop valve in close proximity to the point of connection;

(e) Where required by the Building Consent Authority, such connections are fitted with an approved backflow prevention device.

604.1.7 Connections for industrial and/or high demand use

Water for industrial, large domestic demands or other purposes requiring a supply greater than 40 mm, may only be taken from the branch connection from a town's main with approval and if all the following conditions are complied with:

(a) All industrial uses are supplied from a single spur from the branch connection;

(b) The spur is provided with a stop valve, complying with 604.1.8.1(d) within the boundary of the protected premises so that the spur may be independently closed;

(c) There is no water meter on the branch connection to the town's main although there may be a meter on the spur and downstream of the valve in (b);

(d) Apart from the street stop valve, there is no other stop valve in the waterway to the sprinkler installation unless they are fitted with a listed supervisory device and their location is specifically approved by a sse;

(e) There is a listed pressure sustaining valve fitted on the downstream side of the spur stop valve, arranged to modulate the flow to the industrial users to preserve water to the sprinkler system. The pressure sustaining valve shall have a position indicator fitted to show the relative open/closed position of the valve. Stop valves shall be located immediately upstream and downstream to permit testing and servicing. Suitable test facilities and testing instructions shall be provided;

(f) The position of all valves and the industrial uses spur shall be shown on the block plan; and

(g) Where required by the Building Consent Authority, such connections are fitted with an approved backflow prevention device.

604.1.8 Connection of hydrants

604.1.8.1 Hydrants including those on risers in multi-storeyed buildings may only be connected to a branch connection from the town's main, provided they comply with the following conditions:

(a) The branch connection is at least 100 mm diameter;

(b) The hydrants are located on a spur, fitted with valves from the branch connection and which may be in the form of a ring and/or may be supplied by more than one connection to a town's main; or

(c) Alternatively, the hydrants and the sprinkler connection are taken directly from a ring main supplied by the branch connection. In this case, normally open valves shall be located on the ring, immediately on either side of the junction with the branch connection, and also immediately on either side of an unvalved connection to each sprinkler installation. No other valves may be located in the ring or the respective branch connections. The ring main may be supplied by more than one connection to a town's main (figure 6.3);

(d) All valves, other than the street valve on each branch connection at the junction with the town's main, shall be listed post indicator valves, or stop valves and toby boxes complying with 604.1.9, or listed stop valves located beneath a suitably sized manhole cover, service duct or accessible part of the building, and shall be locked in the open position and the above ground portions painted red. The hydraulic position of valves shall be as indicated in figure 6.3;

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NZS 4541 :2007

(e) The location of all street stop valves, ring mains, hydrant spur mains and associated stop valves shall be shown on the block plan,

No hydrant may be supplied from any combined main,

... " ~-- -------- I

I I I J I

" "

I I ~_ I I \ I L_~ !

I I I

TOW1'S L- _ _ I

main 1-f*1----'-------J

... I'

/' " Town's main

Town's main

/ "-

Hyrdants provided on a spur main

~ " , . " / ..,,, -*""----,/ "-

"" ! , • i ..,,, ;

"\./

/' \.

Hydrants provided on a ring main

I I

-1'(:-

I \ I.._.l.

1 r.

I '", • L __ _

Towns main

Legend

o Hydrant

-C>+- Sprinkler system

--*- Street stop 'ialve

""-'@se-Postindicatorvalve or stop valve

"\. / --? ... -- Option

Figure 6.3 - Permissible supply to hydrants from town's main sprinkler connections -diagrammatic layout (class C1 supply)

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NZS 4541 :2007

604.1.8.2 Where the fire sprinkler system is supplied from a town's main which has fire hydrants located on that town's main supply hydraulic design allowances will be made in accordance with SNZlPAS 4509.

(a) The hydrant demand shall be available at the closest two hydrants to the sprinkler valve set when the main is supplying the sprinkler system design demand;

(b) Where the sprinkler system and the hydrants are supplied by an internal ring main (figure 6.3), the pressure availability at the sprinkler valves shall be determined by closing the hydraulically most favourable arm of the ring;

(c) Where the sprinkler system(s) and the hydrant(s) are fed by a ring main i.e. a Class B2 system, the pressure availability at the sprinkler valves shall be determined by closing the hydraulically most favourable arm of the ring, or by the impairment of either of the water supplies.

The hydrant allowance shall be in addition to the sprinkler demand. It is not necessary to provide the demand at the highest design pressure, but merely to be able to demonstrate that the demand is available at a residual pressure of 100 kPa, within 100 % of the sprinkler water supply. See figure 6.4.

In certain cases, the provision of hydrant demand will impose an additional burden on the building owner, where the town's main is not able to provide for both the sprinkler demand plus the hydrant demand, If in such cases, the provision of the hydrant demand would necessitate the provision of a fire water storage tank, the requirement for hydrant demands may be waived if notification is provided in writing to the National Commander of the New Zealand Fire Service with a copy to a sse. The notification shall give an indication of what the shortfall will be.

604.1.9 Stop valves and toby boxes

A left handed closing stop valve enclosed in a toby box shall be provided at the point of connection to the town's main.

NOTE - With the agreement of the Network Utility Operator, the underside of the toby box lid should be painted with a colour distinctive to fire sprinkler connections.

Other than valves installed to allow the isolation of pumps, no other valves may be fitted to the water supply of any sprinkler installation, between this valve and the main stop valve, unless supervised. Underground stop valves on private site ring mains are not required to be supervised.

604.1.10 Water meters

Where required by the Network Utility Operator, listed water meters may be installed on the connection to the town's main. See 404.9.

604.1.11 Private potable water mains to multiple buildings

Private potable water reticulation mains serving multiple buildings and/or sprinkler systems shall be deemed to comply provided all of the following conditions are met:

(a) The reticulation main must be supplied by at least one approved primary supply;

(b) The reticulation main can be demonstrated to have a similar level of reliability to a town's main;

(c) Where multiple buildings are served by the reticulation main the connections to each building, for other purposes, shall be required to comply with 604,1.6 and 604.1.7 except that one connection shall be permitted per building, or in the case of residential units, one connection per unit.

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0)

..... .....

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~ I

I: til .... ~ I» =: < CD CD >< I» 3 1j

is" a :::r '< Co ~

I» ::;, .... e!. 0" =E I» ::l g (ii

CD CD 0) 0 !>-.... Co i-.3 -

10

9 1-'-!

8

7

0 0 6

>< ttl

0.. 5 .::.:

w a: 4 :::l (j)

(j)

w 3 a: 0..

2

,

!

-; 0

PRIMARY I SECONDARY I TERTIARY i

L! ! i

,--------- -------,---

=-:J= Um I !

----------

kPa elm i kPa ----- ----- f-

0 795 I

! --- ------- ;---- ,----------

1950 550 ------ -----

I i'~, I ! 2700 350

I'r--...:-..,. 1----------

!

[ Hydrant allowance 3450 100

,--------- ---- ,--- -------

" (See SNZ PAS 4509) ./

i'--~

i 1

:--.... I

...... ---r--

L i '" ;----

1- ~" Margin required by Appendix C f ......... I- (80 % or 90 % derate as applicable) ------

-~:-..,. I r Highest demand

J~ ~ " I

K~ : I :-- -------+- ---_._----

i -- ~" .. I

: I ! ;

1--- Minimum residual 1------- -----

'" :----- -'--- --- 1---

~ pressure - 100 kPa 1-----

! /' ----- ----------

! : : ~7

-----

I I

I --I '1 i ! . i

----- -------

i CONCLUSION: would appear ADEQUATE I MARGINAL I INADEQUATE /INVESTIGATE FURTHER

2 3 2.7

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13.5

FLOW (Clm x 300)

Z N en .j:lI.

~ ....a.

N e e ......

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NZS 4541 :2007

604.2 Boosted town's main

604.2.1 General

In any situation where a town's main, which otherwise complies, cannot meet the necessary pressure requirements, an automatic starting diesel pump unit or, in the case of a secondary supply, an automatic starting electric pump unit may be used to boost the pressure to meet the relevant design pressure requirements. (See figures 6.5,6.6 or 6.7 for typical layouts.)

Abbreviations: PRV Pressure relief valve BPV Back pressure valve

Toby box

Town's main Town's main supply connection

Strainer If required 604.1,4

Town's mail' tlypass

Pump test return Calibrated orifice plate '--

Flexible with thrust two rolled groove joints

BPV

PFlV 6072.4

NOTE W.W. means water works pattern stop valve.

SUDervised pump lest return valve

Pump slart lines

1 s i

Pump cooling lines to wasle

~j , Pumplesl cooling drain valve 604.2.5

main

To valves

Figure 6.5 - Typical arrangement for boosted town's main without pressure relief line

604.2.2 Pump unit

The combined output of the town's main (when measured in accordance with method 1 or 2 of Appendix C) and pump shall meet the pressure and flow requirements of the system. The pump unit shall comply with 607.

604.2.3 Town's main pressure

The residual pressure in the main when meeting the highest design flow shall not fall below 100 kPa at the point of connection to the town's main and shall be positive pressure between that point and the suction point of the pump. This value is not subject to derating in terms of Appendix C.

604.2.4 Bypass

A bypass shall be provided around the pump of the same diameter as the town's main connection and shall be fitted with a non-return valve to prevent recirculation.

604.2.5 Pump test return

A pump test return pipe shall be taken from the pump delivery (downstream of the flexible coupling) to the pump suction (upstream of the flexible coupling). This pipe shall be fitted with a normally closed, locked and labelled indicating stop valve fitted with a supervisory device. A normally closed pump

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NZS 4541 :2007

cooling drain may be required in accordance with 607.2.4, figures 6.5,6.6, and 6.7. An orifice plate, sized to induce approximately 110 % of the design flow, shall be fitted in the pump test return unless the hydraulic characteristic of the pipework is such as to cause 110 % of the design flow to be induced. The pump test return valve shall be supervised to signal defect when more than 5 % open (see also 607.9).

604.2.6 Pump discharge pressure control

Where the boosted discharge pressure from a pump will exceed the rating of the system components or cause difficulties with operation of the system then listed pressure relief or listed pressure reducing valves may be fitted. Typical arrangements are shown in figures 6.6 and 6.7.

Abbreviations: PRY Pressure relief valve SPV Back pressure valve

Town's main Town's main Supply connection

Town's main bypass

Pumo lest return

Pressure relief line

thrust f(:slrainl or two

Caiibrated orifice plate

BPV

installallon

1

BPV

Supervlsed / pump test

return valve

I Pump cooling lines 10 waste

Pump lesl cooling drain valve 604,2,5

'" Boosled lown's mam

To valves

Figure 6.6 - Typical arrangement for boosted town's main with pressure relief line

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NZS 4541 :2007

Abbreviations: PRV Pressure relief valve BPV BAr.k pressure val'Jc

Tovvn's main sLpply

TO\'\'t1's maIn connection

To'wTl'S main bypass

Calibrated orifice plate

Pump jest .",tum '"

PRV607.2.4

BPV

/ Superv 'sed pump S" test return valVe

low flow pressure reducing bypass if required

/ 15 rnm ball V.81>Je to a~I!OW for testing the relief vaNe

Pressure reducing valvo: 404.6.2

Pressure relief valve discharging to a VisjblQ location

Run ssparate lines !o each iflstallal:on

! Locate gauge adjacent lo the reducing valves

Figure 6.7 - Typical arrangement for boosted town's main with pressure reducing valve system

NOTE (1) Low flow pressure reducing bypass may be required to allow stable pressure control at single head flow. This valve

is typically set a minimum of 100 kPa above the main reducing valve set pressure. Consult with valve manufacturer to correctly engineer this valve.

(2) A pressure relief valve is required downstream of the pressure reducing valve to cater for transient surges. The pressure relief valve is to be piped to waste. The use of a pilot-operated relief valve is recommended.

604.3 Supplemented town's main (using in-fill tank)

604.3.1 General

In any situation where a town's main, which otherwise complies, cannot meet the necessary flow requirements, an in-fill tank and automatic starting diesel engine driven pump unit or, in the case of a secondary supply, an automatic starting electric pump unit may be used to provide the relevant design flow requirements for the required period of discharge.

604.3.2 Tank

The following requirements apply:

(a) The tank shall comply with the requirements of 606.1 606.3 other than those of 606.2.3;

(b) The tank shall be filled by the town's main. The filling pipe shall terminate below the level of the anti-vortex plate. Adequate arrangements shall be made to prevent inflow turbulence creating air entrainment in the pump suction at all tank levels within the design capacity;

(c) The inflow shall be controlled by a listed automatic valve operated by an approved pilot control arrangement so that a lowering of the water level more than 75 mm below the overflow will fully open the inflow. The automatic valve shall close before the tank overflows. The arrangement shall have regard to wave action and the need to be tested and the overflow pipe shall have a cross-sectional area at least twice that of the in-fill pipe and be capable of preventing the water level rising above the overflow pipe;

(d) A 15 mm nominal diameter connection controlled by a ball valve and float in parallel to the main inflow valve may be provided to facilitate toppillg up;

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NZS 4541 : 2007

(e) The tank shall be of sufficient capacity and the automatic in-fill flow rate sufficiently large that, taken together, the pump can deliver the design flow for the times specified below, without the town's main residual pressure falling below 100 kPa at the inlet to the automatic control valve;

I Supply I Primary supply l...§econdary sLJpply

i Extra light and ordina----"'-~ _ _'___l .. --Ex-tr-a-hi h hazard 60 minutes See table 6.1 40 minutes

---~------~~~~~--------~------------------~

(f) Where the flow requirement for external sprinklers exceeds that for the hazard classification within the protected area, the tank and main capacity combined shall also be capable of meeting the specified minimum operating times (see also 606.1.3);

(g) The capacity shall be measured as the depth of water contained between a horizontal plane 50 mm below the overflow, and the level below which air entrainment due to in-flow turbulence may occur or the level of the anti-vortex plate, whichever is the higher;

(h) Where the water storage tank provides water supply to fire hydrants the tank capacity shall be increased by 45 m3

.

NOTE - In certain circ*mstances consideration should be given to increasing the volume for hydrants where external fires may occur.

604.3.3 Pump unit

The pump unit shall comply with 607.

604.3.4 Town's main

The town's main in-fill shall incorporate, for the purposes of testing and checking, a labelled pressure gauge and a stop valve controlled test connection with one or more permanent test connections complying with 610.5.7. There shall be a supervised stop valve between the automatic valve and the discharge pipe into the tank which shall be closed for testing and checking of the in-fill rate and automatic valve functions. The test connection take off shall be between the automatic valve and the supervised stop valve.

605 PUMPED SUPPLIES - WATER SOURCES

605.1 Acceptable sources The following are acceptable sources of water for pump units, provided they satisfy the detailed requirements set out in this Standard:

(a) Town's mains (see 604);

(b) Tanks (see 606.1 606.3);

(c) Wells and artesian bores (see 606.4);

(d) Open water (see 606.5).

In each case, the water shall be clean and free from sediment and debris.

605.2 Town's mains Town's mains supplying water for a pump shall meet the requirements for boosted or supplemented town's mains.

605.3 Tanks See figure 6.8.

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NZS 4541:2007

Pump test gauge

I Pump test relurn

-*- Overflow ~----Calibrated Run separate

T50mm

orifice pla1e Pump line 10 each cooling installation

<D <!> line Ol :> ;:, .!!' '" 0) Capacity <D _

Supervised ... .c Ol pump test s: .;;;

return valve

Strainer and Supervised Flexible coupling anti-vortex stop valve Pump main

plale (indicating) with thrust restraint Rubber

padlocked or two rolled compensator

open groove joints or two rolled groove To valves joints

Figure 6.8 - Typical arrangement for pump and tank supply

606 WATER STORAGE

606.1 Storage tank capacity

606.1.1

Where a water supply incorporates a storage tank, the minimum effective capacity shall be the product of the greatest design flow and the time (as specified below) during which that flow shall be delivered. Where the water storage tank provides water supply to fire hydrants the tank capacity shall be increased by 45 m3

.

Hazard Primary supply classification Extra light 60 min x desi(:ln flow Ordinal}' 60 min x design flow Extra high table 6.1

NOTE (1) For in-fill tanks associated with supplemented town's mains, see 604.3. (2) Where external sprinklers are provided see also 606.1.3.

Secondary supply ~

40 min x design flow 40 min x design flow table 6.1

(3) In certain circ*mstances consideration should be given to increaSing the volume for hydrants where external fires may occur.

606.1.2

The effective capacity shall be measured as follows:

(a) Where the storage tank or elevated tank ;s used exclusively as a water source for the sprinkler supply, the capacity shall be measured between a horizontal plane 50 mm below the overflow and the top of the anti-vortex plate;

(b) The capacity of a storage tank or elevated tank that also provides water for other purposes is the volume contained in the depth by which the sprinkler anti-vortex plate is below the other purposes outlet.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 6.1 - Duration of water supplies for EHH occupancies

Commodity Storage type Height Time Time (m) primary secondary

supply supply (min) (min)

Process Other than storage areas n/a 90 60 occupancies

ies 1 to 3 Rack Any 90 60 aries 4,5 & 6 Rack Any 120 60

Categories 1 to 4 Solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin- Up to 3.6 60 60 box

Categories 1 to 3 Solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin- Greater than 3.6 90 60 box

Category 4 Solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin- Greater than 3.6 120 60 box

Categories 5 & 6 Solid pile, pallelised, shelf and bin- Any 120 60 box

Rubber lyres See 907.1 ffiE 120 Roll paper See 907.2 60 Baled fibres and Solid pile (not in racks) See 907.3 240 120 waste paper Hanging garments See 907.4 60 60 Carpet See 907.5 120 60 Idle pallets Group I See 907.6 90 60

Group II 120 60 Aerosols See 907.7 120 60 Distilled spirits Palletised barrel storage 480 240

Barrel storage in racks See 907.8

20 60 I Cased glass boUle storage 60

Cased PET bottle storaQe 0 60 NOTE (1) The water supply duration for CMSA sprinklers shall be to table 6.1. (2) The water supply duration for suppression mode sprinklers shall be for a minimum of 60 minutes for primary and

secondary supplies.

606.1.3

In the case where the design number of external sprinklers create a flow requirement in excess of the hazard classification within the building, the capacity of any storage tank shall be increased, where necessary, as follows:

(a) Where the exposure consists of a private dwelling or other structure of sirnilar size, there shall be sufficient storage for 30 minutes discharge at the highest design flow imposed by the design number of external sprinklers;

(b) In other cases, so that there is sufficient storage for 60 minutes discharge at the highest density flow imposed by the design number of external sprinklers.

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NZS 4541 :2007

606.2 Refilling and topping up

606.2.1

Provision shall be made on all storage tanks and elevated tanks to:

(a) Automatically keep the tank topped up;

(b) Manually refill the tank after emptying.

606.2.2 Topping up

Topping up may be by either:

(a) A float operated valve or other suitable device controlling a 15 mm NB pipe connected to a town's main; or

(b) An electrically driven 20 L1min pump taking suction from a reliable source, automatically switched by a level controlled switch;

Where (a) or (b) cannot be achieved, topping up may be provided by a continuous overflow controlled supply from rainwater or other less reliable source.

606.2.3 Refilling

The following requirements apply:

(a) Refilling may be provided by a connection to a town's main, provided that this will not deplete a town's main supply to the system in the event of the system operating, or from some other reliable source of water;

(b) Refilling shall be achieved within the following times:

Tanks up to 500 m3 ............................................................................. 6 h

Tanks of larger capacity ...................................................................... 12 h;

(c) If the refilling time specified above cannot be met alternative contingency plans shall be submitted for consideration to a SSG.

606.2.4 Rainwater

Where rainwater or other unfiltered water is used to provide topping up or refill, it shall first pass through a debris and sludge trap.

606.2.5 Float operated valves

Float operated valves shall be accessible for maintenance without requiring significant water storage depletion.

606.3 Construction

606.3.1 Design and manufacture

Tanks of the following types may be used provided they are either of a design and manufacture approved by a professional structural engineer or comply with the appropriate Standard:

(a) Roofed concrete tanks (constructed in accordance with NZS 3106);

(b) Roofed wooden tanks (constructed in accordance with ANSI/I\IFPA 22);

(c) Roofed steel tanks constructed of stainless or protected mild steel;

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NZS 4541 :2007

(d) Any other tank where evidence is provided in the form of a design certificate from a chartered engineer;

(e) Swimming pools which meet the requirements of the TA, provided that:

(i) The drain valve is chained and padlocked shut, and labelled in 12 mm high white letters on a red background "FIRE SPRINKLER PUMP WATER SUPPLY. DO NOT DRAIN BEFORE NOTIFYING SPRINKLER CONTRACTOR"

(ii) A grating additional to the suction inlet strainer is installed to prevent foreign matter reaching the strainer

(iii) The water is kept clean at all times by an effective filtration unit

(iv) The purification system does not utilise sodium chloride or other corrosive materials;

(f) An embankment-supported membrane pillow tank constructed in accordance with Appendix 0;

(g) A polyethylene tank constructed to AS/NZS 4766 and secured fixed via built-in tie-down lugs formed into the tank to comply with NZS 1170.5 seismic resistance. The maximum size of any polyethylene tank is to be 30 m3

.

606.3.2 Location and support

The following requirements apply:

(a) Tanks should be placed in positions that are not likely to be exposed to fire;

(b) They shall be supported on adequate foundations, at or below ground level; and

(c) Tanks shall be constructed to meet the requirements of NZS 4219 or NZS 1170.5 with respect to seismic design.

606.3.3 Access

Access, secured against unauthorised entry, shall be provided to inspect and maintain the fittings and fixtures of every tank.

606.3.4 Indicator

The tank shall be fitted with an indicator showing the contents above the level of the vortex plate.

606.3.5 Overflow pipe and air vent

A tank overflow pipe of suitable size shall be provided which discharges in an observable place. An air vent of suitable size shall be fitted.

606.3.6 Freezing protection

In situations where freezing of water is likely, the tank, together with the inlet and suction pipes, pumps test retum and level indicator shall be protected against freezing.

606.3.7 Suction pipe inlet

All suction pipes shall commence with:

(a) A screen having a net cross section open area of 4 times the cross sectional area of the suction pipe and openings in the screen shall not have a major dimension larger than 8 mm; and

(b) An anti-vortex plate having a minimum dimension, measured from the centre of the outlet pipe to the outside edge of the plate, of 0.4 m for design flows up to 2,000 Umin and 0.6 m for greater design flows; or

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(c) An anti-vortex plate complying with (b), and a strainer complying with 404.10, installed immediately downstream of the stop valve identified in 606.3.8(b).

606.3.8 Suction pipe

The following requirements apply:

(a) The size and position of the suction pipe shall be such that, at the highest design flow, the water velocity does not exceed 4.0 m/s and the total pressure loss between the entry to the suction pipe and the inlet of the pump (including any permissible static lift) does not exceed the net positive suction head required minus 20 kPa when the water is at the level of the anti-vortex plate;

(b) A supervised stop valve fitted with an open and shut indicator and chained and padlocked open shall be located in the suction pipe upstream of any flexible coupling;

(c) Butterfly valves shall not be placed within 10 pipe diameters of the pump suction inlet;

(d) The suction pipe should be laid such that no air may be trapped in it. Where this is impracticable, provision shall be made for the automatic release of trapped air;

(e) Provision shall be made to accommodate differential settlement and seismic movement between the tank and pump, and between tanks where multiple tanks are interconnected.

See also 607.2.3 and figure 6.9.

NOTE The velocity limitation specified in this clause does not apply to the 10 pipe diameter length of pipe attached directly to the pump casing, as specified in 607,2.3(d).

606.3.9 Flooded suction

The location of the tank and suction pipe with respect to the pump shall be such that the centreline of the suction inlet of the pump is below 60 % of the required stored water capacity in the tank and at least 650 mm below the overflow and any other-purposes outlet on the tank.

606.3.10 Priming devices and foot valves

Automatic priming devices and foot valves are not permitted.

606.3.11 Pump test return

A pump test return shall be taken from the pump delivery (downstream of the flexible coupling) to the tank. This pipe shall terminate below the normal water level in the tank so no air entrainment will take place during the pump testing.

When it is not practicable to pipe the test return back to the tank then, with specific approval, the test line shall be piped back into the pump suction pipe such that it enters the suction pipe at an angle of 90° at least 10 pipe diameters upstream of the pump suction flange.

The test return pipe shall be fitted with a normally closed, locked and labelled stop valve fitted with a supervisory device, An orifice plate, sized to induce approximately 110 % of the design flow, shall be fitted in the pump test return unless the hydraulic characteristic of the pipework is such as to cause approximately 110 % of the design flow to be induced. The pump test return valve shall be supervised

to signal defect when more than 5 % open (see figure 6.8 and 607.9).

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606.4 Wells and artesian bores

606.4.1 Approval required

Wells and artesian bores may be used as a source of water for a pump unit only with SSC approval. Any application for approval shall set out full details of the hydrological history of the proposed aquifer or one close to it and provide details of the water quality and well design.

606.4.2 Well development

The well development flow shall be at least 150 % of the highest design flow. At completion of development at such flow, the number of sand grains lifted shall not exceed 50 per litre.

606.4.3 Well construction and accessories

The following requirements apply:

(a) The well shall have a screen with a sealed bottom;

(b) The velocity of water through the screen shall not exceed 50 mm/s;

(c) Foot valves are not permitted;

(d) The top of the inlet to the pump or dip pipe shall be submerged at least 2 m at all conditions of flow up to and including the highest design flow;

(e) An approved device to measure draw down level under all flow conditions shall be permanently fitted;

(f) Adequate facilities shall be available for withdrawal of the dip pipe and, where needed, submersible pump.

606.4.4 Pumps

Where submersible pumps are used, attention is drawn to the need to comply with the requirements for vertical shaft pumps and submersible electric pumps.

Where an artesian well provides the highest design flow at the surface, above-ground pumps may be used provided that such flow is delivered to the pump at a pressure of at least 10 kPa.

606.4.5 Pump test return

A pump test return similar to that described in 606.3.11 shall be installed. The point of discharge should be back to the well casing.

606.5 Open water

606.5.1 Approval required

With approval and subject to any conditions imposed, water for a pumping unit may be taken from a river, lake, pond or reservoir for which an appropriate water right is held.

606.5.2 Design details

Full details shall be submitted to a SSC concerning:

(a) Quality of the water;

(b) Design of the suction pit, settlement chamber and water entry;

(c) Capacity and available flow at all times;

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(d) Flood protection arrangements;

(e) Lowest and highest known water levels.

606.5.3 Flooded suction

The lowest known water level of the water source shall be at least 650 mm above the pump centre line.

606.5.4 Pump test return

A pump test return similar to that described in 606.3.11 shall be installed. The point of discharge should be back to the water source.

Should the water source be a considerable distance away from the pump then, with a see approval, a pump test return similar to that described in 604.2.5 may be used (see also 607.9).

607 PUMPED SUPPLIES - PUMP UNITS

607.1 General

607.1.1 Pump selection

The published manufacturer's curve of the selected pump shall demonstrate that:

(a) At the design flow of every installation supplied, the pump will produce 110 % of the additional pressure needed, at the point of connection to the water supply of the pump inlet flange, in order to meet the highest design pressure of each installation at the control valves, plus the pressure losses (or gains) due to difference in height and due to friction between the pump delivery and each alarm valve.

In determining the pressure available at the pump suction, the following shall be allowed for:

(i) On tanked or open water supplies, the pressure loss due to friction at the highest design flow in the suction pipe between the tank and the pump suction, plus allowance for the difference in elevation of the pump suction and the level of water (in tanks, when both full and empty).

(ii) For boosted town's mains, the pressure differences due to friction loss (at the highest design flow) and due to static height, between the point at which the pressure measurement is taken to determine the characteristics of the town's main and the suction inlet of the pump;

(b) The "Net positive suction head (NPSH) required" at the highest design flow is not more than the "NPSH available" minus 20 kPa at the suction inlet, measured or calculated as an absolute pressure having regard to the water temperature;

(c) At 150 % of the highest design flow, the pump will produce at least 65 % of the pressure available (on the manufacturer's curve) at the design flow and, when driven by the selected driver the pressure will fall progressively with the rate of flow.

NOTE In this context, the expression "design flow" means whichever is the larger of: (1) The flow rate required to supply all sprinklers discharging over the assumed area of operation to provide the design

density or otherwise provide the flow required for control mode specific application or supression mode sprinklers; or (2) The flow rate required to operate any water spray or deluge system forming part of the sprinkler system; or (3) If the pump also provides water for a fire hydrant system (as permitted by the Standard), the flow rate required to

supply the sprinklers or water spray or deluge system plus hydrant demand. (4) Any flow rate discharged or recirculated to control pump discharge pressure should be added to the flow rates

required in 1, 2 or 3.

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607.1.2 Component parts

A pump unit consists of a listed pump, listed motor, listed controller and a unit frame.

607.1.3 Unit manufacture

Pump units shall be manufactured by a manufacturer or contractor listed for that purpose and:

(a) When ordering a pump unit, a schedule of relevant information, including the data specified in Appendix D, shall be advised to the unit manufacturer;

(b) Before dispatch from the manufacturer's premises, every pump unit shall be inspected for compliance, including operation of control functions, and for units up to 100 kW a flow test (for larger units see 607.2.2).

607.1.4 Pump coupling and mounting

The pump unit and driver shall be assembled so that: (a) The mounting on the frame shall allow either driver or pump to be removed without disturbing the

other and the impeller to be withdrawn without removing the driver or pump body; (b) There shall be ready access for checking the alignment of resilient couplings when the

installation is complete; (c) Cement grout or oil resistant flexible pads shall be provided under the frame unless the

manufacturer's instructions state otherwise. Care shall be taken not to distort the frame when bolting it down;

(d) The alignment shall be checked to be in accordance with the manufacturer's specification after the pump frame is installed, bolted down and pipework connected;

(e) The pump and driver shall be in line direct or close coupled, and the coupling shall be rated for the maximum torque of the driver under all conditions, and of a design such that if any elastomeric element used in the coupling to absorb vibration should fail, that the pump shall continue to be driven under all operating conditions, except that a right angle gear drive may be used for vertical shaft pumps.

607.1.5 Automatic starting

Automatic starting shall be provided so that:

(a) It shall be initiated by a listed pressure switch having dual enclosed contacts in parallel, that close on drop in pressure;

(b) Start pressure switches shall be located on the controller;

(c) Every time a drop in pressure closes the contacts of a start pressure switch, the pump, if it is not already running, shall start;

(d) The pump start arrangement shall comply with the reqUirements of either 607.1.5.1 or 607.1.5.2.

607.1.5.1 Individual installation start arrangement This form of start arrangement has each sprinkler installation connected separately to the water supply pump(s) controller by an hydraulic pipe to sense a drop in pressure in that installation. The following requirements apply:

(a) A start pressure switch shall be provided for each sprinkler installation supplied by the pump;

(b) The start pressure switch shall be pressurised through a hydraulic line with a check valve (opening away from the pressure switch) in which a 2 mm orifice or equivalent score across the valve seat has been made. The hydraulic line shall also incorporate a test valve piped to drain and pressure gauge arranged to penmit accurate setting and testing of the pressure switch, unless, within easy reading distance, other test apparatus will serve the same purpose. Where a

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distant pump enclosure necessitates long hydraulic connections, such connections may be run in high density polyethylene pipe provided that the check valve is located close to the control valves;

(c) The start pressure switch shall close before the pressure drops below that required to provide the most hydraulically remote 6 sprinkler heads operating;

NOTE - In most cases it will not be necessary to calculate the start pressure if it is possible to set the pump start pressure switch above the highest design pressure.

(d) Where there are both electric motor and diesel engine driven pumps then:

(i) Where there are two storage tanks, the electric motor driven pump is to start first

(ii) If there is a storage tank plus one other type of water source of unlimited capacity (e.g. a town's main) the pump on the unlimited capacity source is to start first;

(e) This method of starting shall not be used for dry pipe, deluge or preaction installations.

607.1.5.2 Water supply manifold start arrangement This form of start arrangement senses a drop in pressure of the sprinkler system water supply main to initiate the pump(s) starting. The following requirements apply:

(a) A start pressure switch shall be provided with connection downstream of the pump discharge check valve;

(b) The start pressure switch shall be pressurised through a hydraulic line with a check valve (opening away from the pressure switch) in which a 2 mm orifice or equivalent score across the valve seat has been made. The hydraulic line shall also incorporate a test valve piped to drain and pressure gauge arranged to permit setting and testing of the pressure switch;

(c) The start pressure switch shall close before the pressure drops below that required to provide the most hydraulically remote 6 sprinkler heads operating;

NOTE In most cases it will not be necessary to calculate the start pressure if it is possible to set the pump start pressure switch above the highest design pressure.

(d) The pressure downstream of the pump discharge check valve shall be maintained at a pressure above the pump start pressure switch setting, but below the lowest FIRE pressure switch setting for any installation served by the pump. If this requires the use of an automatic jockey pump, it is recommended that this be served by an essential service switchboard serving the site;

NOTE - For 82 supplies, 612.3 requires the pressurisation to be maintained for 24 hours without the standard power supply.

(e) Where there are two storage tanks, the electric motor driven pump is to start first;

(f) Where there is a storage tank plus one other type of water source of unlimited capacity (e.g. a town's main) the pump on the unlimited capacity source is to start first;

(g) This method of starting shall be used for dry pipe, pre-action or deluge installations.

607.1.6 Manual starting

A labelled green manual start button shall be provided on the controller to energise directly the starter contactors.

607.1.7 Stopping and isolation

Once started, every pump unit shall run until manually stopped at the pump unit. The use of a failsafe device such as an 'energised to stop' solenoid is accepted as meeting these requirements providing it

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meets the other requirements of this clause. Automatic or remotely operated stopping is not permitted. The following facilities shall be provided:

(a) A red, clearly labelled, easily accessible stopping device that automatically resets or returns to its normal position;

(b) Manual means of individually isolating each start pressure switch. Only pressure switches that are closed may be isolated. Reopening the pressure switch shall automatically cancel the isolation.

607.1.8 Gauges

The following gauges shall be provided:

(a) A pressure gauge complete with gauge co*ck connected to the suction of every pump far enough from the pump not to be influenced by pump entry turbulence;

(b) A pressure gauge complete with gauge co*ck connected to the pump delivery;

Gauges shall comply with 406.

607.1.9 Pump running indicator

Every pump unit shall be provided with a device which indicates at an approved location that the pump is running. On diesel engine driven pumps, a sse may agree to the omission of this alarm if the noise of the engine will serve the same purpose. A self-resetting device may be incorporated to suppress an electrically operated alarm for up to 60 minutes. Where the indication is made at a location which is not manned at all times, a defect signal shall be generated through the fire brigade alarm (FBA). The FBA control box used to generate the defect signal shall be clearly marked "Pump running alarm connected to this unit."

607.1.10 Pressure relief valves

Pressure relief valves may be used to limit pump discharge pressure where excessive pressures may be generated. If fitted to boosted town's mains or tank supplies, these valves shall not discharge to waste. See 404.6.4.

607.1.11 Acceptance of load

The design flow of the pump unit shall be provided automatically (at the pressure designated on the pump curve) within 30 seconds of the pump start signal when tested under open discharge conditions.

607.2 Pumps

607.2.1 Listing of pumps

Only listed rotodynamic pumps shall be used. Factors that shall be considered for any listing are:

(a) Materials and construction;

(b) Performance range and accuracy against the manufacturer's curve;

(c) Availability of documentation.

Every application for listing of a pump shall be accompanied by the following:

(d) Details of construction;

(e) The discharge versus power absorbed at duty speed;

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(f) The net positive suction head required (NPSHR) versus discharge at duty speed;

(g) The total head versus discharge at various speeds and impeller diameters; and

(h) The maximum impeller width and diameter.

607.2.2 Measured performance of pump

Every pump shall be demonstrated, by means of one of the methods specified below, to provide on test any flow (up to and including 110 % of the highest design flow) at not less than 95 % of the pressure available on the manufacturer's curve at that flow. The methods are:

(a) Production of a certificate, duly identified with the pump serial number, of a test conducted in accordance with AS 2417 or other approved equivalent;

(b) A bench test conducted in accordance with AS 2417, or other approved equivalent, witnessed by a SSC; or

(c) An in situ test of the installed pump unit using a certified test device (whether installed or portable) witnessed by a SSC.

Additionally, every pump forming part of an installed pump unit shall demonstrate on test when the design flow is induced through the alarm valve of every sprinkler installation supplied by the pump unit that:

(d) On newly installed pump units, the available pressure at the alarm valve is at least 105 % of the highest design pressure for that installation; and

(e) Subsequently, that the available pressure at the alarm valve is not at any time less than the highest design pressure for that installation.

NOTE - In evaluating the test results in items (c), (d) and (e), the pressures recorded during flow tests need to be corrected to take account of variance in suction conditions, i.e. tank or town's main minimum permitted suction condition.

607.2.3 Waterway fittings

The following requirements apply:

(a) The pump suction and delivery shall be connected to the fixed piping through listed flexible couplings to prevent transmission of running vibration and seismic movement and to ensure that the pump alignment is not stressed by the pipes. Any elastomeric type couplings shall be mechanically restrained;

(b) Stop valves are not permitted between the pump delivery and the main stop valve, unless supervised and the location approved;

(c) Pump suction isolation valves are to be supervised;

(d) Any valves or fittings which are so constructed that turbulence may be introduced through change in direction or obstruction of the waterway shall be located at least 10 nominal diameters of the suction inlet from the entry to the pump. An uninterrupted length of 10 nominal diameters of pipe, the same diameter as the pump suction, shall be installed immediately upstream of the pump suction flange to effect this requirement. See figure 6.9;

(e) When a reducer is required in the pump suction pipework it shall be installed so that no air will be trapped in it, usually necessitating the use of eccentric style reducers. See figure 6.9.

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(IF REQUIRED)

I STRAINER

f BACKFLOW PREVENTER (If REQUIRED)

REDUCER IF REQUIRED (ARRANGED TO PREVENT TRAPPED AIR)

NOMINAL 10 PIPE DIAMETER LENGTH OF STRAIGHT PIPE OF THE SAME DIAr~ETER AS THE PUMP sumaN

TWO FLEXIBUE ROLL GROOVED COUPUNGS

Figure 6.9 - Pump suction waterway fittings

607.2.4 Pump casing cooling

Means shall be provided to prevent the temperature of the water in the pump casing rising to more than 35 °C during nil or low flow discharge conditions over a 1 hour period. Acceptable means of achieving this include:

(a) A pressure relief valve set to open at a pressure higher than the highest design pressure;

(b) A differential pressure valve;

(c) The diesel motor cooling water supply;

(d) A normally open discharge line to a tank.

Where an around the pump pressure relief and/or test pipe is provided to allow full flow testing, either the foregoing devices or an additional device (manual or automatic) shall be arranged to provide cooling of the pump casing at high flow rates (see figures 6.5 to 6.7) during pump testing. Manual devices shall be labelled.

607.2.5 Vertical shaft pumps

Vertical shaft pumps shall be installed to the pump manufacturer's particular specifications and:

(a) Shall be constructed of materials suitable for the quality and acidity of water to be pumped;

(b) Vertical immersion, end suction, radial discharge pumps are not acceptable for installations requiring a shaft longer than 4 m. Where greater depths are involved, a vertical shaft turbine pump shall be used;

(c) Vertical shaft bearings shall be of the water lubricated type and the bearing taking the hydraulic thrust and shaft weight shall be of adequate capacity.

607.2.6 Submersible electric pumps

The following requirements apply:

(a) Submersible electric pumps shall be installed to the pump manufacturer's particular specifications;

(b) They shall be constructed of materials suitable for the quality and acidity of water to be pumped;

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(c) The motor cable may have only one joint between the controller and the motor and this shall be made in a listed waterproof jointing box;

(d) The insulation resistance and circuit continuity of the motor and circuit from the controller shall be supervised as required by 607.7.6.

607.3 Diesel engines

607.3.1 Listing of engine

A listed diesel engine shall be used which shall be of a compression ignition direct injection type and may be naturally aspirated, super- or turbo-charged and/or intercooled. Engine intercooling shall be in accordance with the engine manufacturer's recommendations. Single cylinder engines are not permitted. Only those engines for which spare parts are likely to remain readily available may be listed.

607.3.2 Power

The following requirements apply:

(a) The engine shall be able to produce 110 % of the power requirement for the highest design flow when measured against the manufacturer's continuous power rating as defined in Part 1 of BS 5514 or approved equivalent Standard.

The power requirement at the highest design flow shall include an allowance equal to the power absorbed by any supplementary devices driven by the engine and any angled drive. In the case of a diesel engine driving a boosted town's main pump, "highest design flow" in the preceding paragraph shall mean the higher of:

(i) The highest installation design flow, and

(ii) 110 % of the maximum flow that can be induced in any pressure relief return loop that is provided to limit pump delivery pressure (607 .1.10), at the selected setting of the pressure relief valve;

(b) Any ratings or deratings specified by the engine manufacturer shall be observed. In the absence of manufacturer's data the engine shall be derated in kilowatts at the rate of 1.5 % for every 100 m of altitude over 200 m above sea level.

607.3.3 Performance and commissioning

The engine shall be able to be started automatically at an engine room temperature of 5 DC and shall accept full load within 30 s of receiving the signal to start. On in situ commissioning, the pump unit shall be run for a period of at least 'I hour on increasing load up to duty flow. During this commissioning period at least 10 consecutive starts shall be completed.

607.3.4 Governing

The engine shall be provided with a governor to control the engine speed within 10 % of its rated value under all stable conditions of load up to full load rating.

To provide automatic control of excess pump delivery pressure, a listed device may be connected to the governor to automatically reduce the governed speed. Upon any failure of the automatic control, the driver shall resume the unit's maximum specified speed.

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607.3.5 Heating

Where the pump unit enclosure is not automatically maintained at a temperature above 10°C, the engine shall be artificially heated by an approved device so as to maintain an engine temperature of at least 25 °e where:

(a) Either the minimum ambient temperature or the minimum engine temperature is maintained by devices dependent upon electrical power, provision shall be made to raise an alarm at an approved place in the event that temperatures drop below the paint at which the engine could be relied upon to start;

(b) The temperature sensing and alarm devices shall be listed and shall not depend upon mains electric power. If the alarm device can also be triggered by other supervisory functions, there shall also be a local, labelled, latching indication of the source of the alarm;

(c) A sse may waive this requirement if ambient temperatures are not expected to drop to this level.

NOTE See also 607.10.9 and 607.10.10,

607.3.6 Engine cooling

The engine shall be cooled by transferring the excess heat, either to air automatically vented to outside the pump house in a manner which complies with 607.3.6,1, or to water from the pump delivery discharged to waste or returned to storage in a manner which complies with 607.3,6.2.

Under full load running conditions, with all doors and windows in their normal positions, the rise in ambient pump room air temperature, measured close to and at the level of the aspirating air intake, shall not exceed 18 °e over a one hour period.

607.3.6.1 Air cooling Where motors are cooled by air the following requirements apply:

(a) Direct

The fan for direct air cooling shall be mounted on the engine crankshaft or be gear or multiple belt driven directly from the crankshaft. The rated capacity of the belts shall not be exceeded if one belt fails;

(b) Indirect

A radiator resiliently mounted in accordance with the motor manufacturer's recommendations, designed for stationary service and with all of the following facilities:

(i) A shaft, gear, or belt driven fan that pushes the cooling air away from the motor

(ii) A shaft, gear, or belt driven coolant circulating pump

(iii) The radiator header tank shall be fitted with the motor manufacturer's overflow/makeup tank and shall have a means of readily checking the level of coolant in it

(iv) The engine manufacturer's coolant circuit shall be used

(v) That the radiator may require to be adequately ducted to control pump enclosure temperatures and/or ensure that adequate fresh cooling air is drawn through the radiator;

(c) Ducting forming part of the air cooling arrangements shall be sized so that the pressure drop across the ducting does not exceed 80 % of the maximum recommended by the manufacturer. Ducts shall discharge to a safe place outside the pump enclosure;

(d) Any louvre forming part of, or required by, the air cooling system shall operate automatically but shall not be dependent on electricity.

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607.3.6.2 Water cooling Where motors are cooled by water the following requirements apply:

(a) Cooling water supply, control and discharge:

(i) Water to cool the engine shall be taken from the pump delivery to two isolation valves

(ii) One isolation valve shall be strapped open to supply the normal cooling circuit and be labelled "MOTOR COOLING, normally open"

(iii) The cooling water shall then pass through an easily accessible strainer, labelled "CLEAN MONTHLY". It shall have a screen that can be removed without taking the strainer out of the pipework. The screen shall have holes in it not less than 2 mm or greater than 5 mm in any dimension and the total screen area shall be equivalent to at least 8 times the cross section area of its supply pipe

(iv) The strainer shall be fitted with a listed device that automatically bypasses it should the strainer become blocked

(v) A flow regulating device where required shall be fitted downstream of the strainer

(vi) Where the suction head would cause water to flow through the cooling circuit when the pump is not running, a listed flow control device may be fitted downstream of the strainer

(vii) The other isolation valve shall enable cooling water to bypass items (iii) and (iv) and shall be strapped shut and labelled "OPEN FOR EMERGENCY COOLING, normally shut". This valve shall discharge into the motor cooling system upstream of the flow indicator

(viii) The cooling water shall then flow through a listed water flow indicator

(ix) If the engine requires a coolant circulating pump it shall be shaft, gear or belt driven

(x) The discharge pipe from the heat exchanger shall be at least one size larger than the inlet pipe. There shall be a flexible connection between the pipework and the engine cooling system or heat exchanger

(xi) The cooling water assembly shall be of an indirect heat exchanger type;

NOTE - To comply with this item, a listed pump unit manufacturer may obtain a listing for a generic COOling system in which the makes and models of the components are nominated together with pipe sizing, fittings and labelling requirements.

(b) Indirect heat exchangers

The cooling water assembly may discharge into the secondary circuit of a suitably sized heat exchanger which shall be capable of Withstanding the maximum supply pressure that can be applied. The primary cooling circuit shall have a header tank with a water volume at least equivalent in capacity to the engine's cooling jacket. It shall be connected to a suitable automatic overflow/makeup tank. The header tank shall have a means of readily checking the level of coolant in it;

(c) No part of the engine's waterjacket shall be subjected to a pressure of more than 100 kPa;

(d) All of the above should be agreed to by the engine manufacturer.

607.3.7 Electric starter motor

The engine shall be provided with the manufacturer's specified electric starter which shall be nominated in motor listing. The electric starter motor shall be able to crank the engine continuously for 60 seconds followed by one restart, without failure.

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607.3.8 Emergency start device

In addition to a manually operated starting button, each diesel engine shall have an approved means by which it can be manually started in emergency. One of the following is acceptable:

(a) A manual crank handle provided that sufficient energy can be imparted to the fly wheel to enable it to carry the engine through at least two compression strokes when the decompression lever is released. Any device used to assist manual starting shall return to the automatic start position when released. The entire manual cranking operation shall be capable of being performed by one person;

(b) The electric starter motor used for automatic starting (or an additional listed electric starter motor) provided that it is fitted with an approved device which directly switches both batteries on to the solenoid of the starter motor. The operating lever for this device shall be labelled "EMERGENCY STARTING" with an arrow to indicate the direction of operation and shall be painted green. It shall be spring loaded and strapped in the released position;

(c) Listed inertia and spring driven starters engaging the main ring gear or a separate ring gear. The operating lever shall be painted green and labelled to indicate its function and method of operation. It shall be strapped in the released position.

607.3.9 Batteries

Two separate lead-acid starting batteries each capable of supplying the controller load for a period of not less than 24 hours, and thereafter capable of cranking the engine for 60 seconds shall be provided and be indelibly marked "A" and "B" and with the date of installation.

Both batteries shall be normally electrically isolated on their non-earthed side and simultaneously connected to the starter motor only for starting. They shall be located so as to give ease of access for hydrometer testing, be adjacent to, but not over any part of, the pump unit and be protected with a strong non-conductive cover. They shall be secured in accordance with 105.2.

The batteries shall be suitable for continuous operations under float charge conditions, designed for stationery engine starting use, have a minimum service life of 3 years, and comply with AS 2149 or equivalent.

607.3.10 Combustion air

The air intake shall be fitted with an adequate filter.

607.3.11 Exhaust

Every engine shall have an exhaust which:

(a) Independently discharges to a safe location outside the pump unit enclosure, the outlet so positioned that it is guarded from the entry of rain water and birds;

(b) Is provided with a flexible metallic connection between the exhaust manifold and the exhaust pipe. Where the exhaust pipe rises above the manifold means shall be provided to trap any condensate and prevent it flowing back into the engine;

(c) Is provided with a screwed and plugged manometer hole in the exhaust manifold outlet to facilitate the measurement of manifold pressure. Under full load conditions, the pressure shall not exceed 7.5 kPa except where the manufacturer recommends a lesser maximum pressure;

(d) Has the exhaust pipe adequately supported from the building and kept at least 225 mm from combustible materials. Alternatively, it may be sleeved so that the pipe is at least 50 mm from the sleeve and the sleeve is at least 25 mm from combustibles and with the engine operating at full

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load, the temperature on the external surface of any exposed combustible material shall not exceed 70 DC;

(e) Is fitted with an adequate silencer, preferably outside the pump unit enclosure;

(f) Has the exhaust pipe guarded wherever it is within 2 m of the floor and could cause injury. Proprietary exhaust pipe wraps shall be permitted to the exhaust pipe only (not manifold, turbo, etc.) provided it is installed in accordance with the engine and the product manufacturers' instructions.

607.3.12 Drip tray

A drip-tray of lateral dimensions larger than the engine sump shall be provided under the engine.

607.4 Diesel engine controllers

607.4.1 Component parts

A diesel engine controller shall be a listed device consisting of a cabinet housing or supporting instruments, a controller logic unit, battery chargers, listed start pressure switches, manually operated start switch, test logbook, nameplate and such manual controls and technical data sheets as are specified. The electrical connection between the controller and the engine shall be made with a mechanically restrained multi contact plug and socket and the entire controller shall be listed. Removal of the plug from the socket shall cause an indication at an approved location. Where the indication is made at a location which is not staffed at all times, a defect signal shall be generated through the fire brigade alarm (FBA).

607.4.2 Location

The controller shall be located in the pump unit enclosure close to, but physically separate from, the engine and pump. It shall be free from engine vibration. Attention is drawn to the need to comply with NZS 1170.5 with respect to restraint against seismic forces.

607.4.3 Cabinet

The cabinet shall be robustly constructed and provided with adequate ventilation to facilitate dissipation of heat generated by electrical equipment. It shall include a dustproof compartment for the storage of technical data sheets and the test logbook.

607.4.4 Instruments, manual controls, alarms and lamps

The information in the following table shall be displayed in an easily seen and read form on the face of the controller. Analogue displays shall indicate the acceptable duty range by green shading and unacceptable levels by red shading. Tachometers should be digital. with the minimum number of display digits as specified below, or an analogue tachometer of suitable scale.

The controller shall have instruments, manual controls, alarms and lamps which shall enable the operator to determine information relating to the pumpset in an easily recognised manner as set out below:

(a) Digital displays shall have digits at least 15 mm high and comply with the requirements of the following table.

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Information

Pump suction pressure Pump delivery pressure Pump rotational speed Engine run time (hourmeter) Engine lubricant pressure Engine block temperature °C Voltage of each battery Charging current to each battery

Min. no. of significant figures on digital displays

3 3 4 5 3 3 4 3

Optionally, a single digital display may be used to annunicate:

(i) The voltage and charging current for each battery

(ii) The engine lubricant pressure and engine block temperature provided the display automatically defaults to annunciate any parameter in an alarm condition;

(b) The following manually operated devices shall be provided in easily visible positions on the face of the controller:

(i) A manual start button

(ii) A push button device or devices to permit the isolation of each start pressure switch;

(c) The following lamps or LED indicators shall be provided in easily visible positions on the controller to indicate:

(i) Whether each battery charger is energised

(ii) Operation of pressure switch

(iii) The controller unit status

(iv) Closed or isolated state of each pressure start switch

(v) The start logic controller status;

(d) All instruments, controls and lamps shall be clearly labelled as to their function. Where duplicate instruments associated with batteries are provided they shall be labelled either "A" or "B";

(e) Where remote annunciation is provided for off-normal conditions, for example:

(i) Pump running

(ii) Battery charger off

(iii) High engine temperature

(iv) Engine heating failure

(v) Low engine oil pressure

an alarm unit shall be provided and mounted on the controller to assemble and transmit such signals either individually or collectively. A timing device may be incorporated to suppress such alarms for a period of 60 minutes provided that it will automatically reset.

607.4.5 Controller logic unit

The following requirements apply:

(a) A controller logic unit to control the automatic starting sequences of the pump unit shall be provided. Continuity of service and availability of spare parts for the unit shall be considered;

(b) The controller logic unit's functions shall comply with figure 6.10 and the notes thereto;

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(c) Crankshaft speed shall be measured by a sensor driven directly by the crankshaft or a layshaft gear driven from it. The sensor device shall be considered part of the controller logic unit;

(d) If the unit incorporates polarity sensitive devices it shall be protected against or undamaged by reversal of its power supply polarity.

I Start switch

Closed

Isolated Unisolated

I T

Count engine revs. below minimum

Energise starter motor

Below minimum Above minimum

A~ I .... Recycling delay ,,.

Off On

I I I

Engine turning

,,~ ~ Count engine revs.

A~ Below minimum Above maximum .n

I t Running

De-energise starter motor

Engine running

t Engine

Speed falls below minimum

Start sw. closed Start sw. open

I I Minimum approx. 30 rpm Engine 3, standby Maximum approx. 500 rpm. Delay approx. 4 sec.

Figure 6.10 - Diesel engine controller logic unit

NOTE-(1) "Isolated" is a device which individually isolates each start pressure switch that is closed when the isolate button is

manually operated. Each pressure switch then remains individually isolated until it reopens. (2) "30 RPM" and "500 RPM" indicate that the crankshaft is rotating at approximately the stated speed. Actual speeds

are to be adjusted in accordance with the engine manufacturer's recommendations. (3) "Energise" means simultaneously connecting both batteries to the starter motor. (4) "Ready to Start", "Starter Isolated", "Engine Cranking" and "Engine Running" to be indicated by status lamps or LED

indicators.

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607.4.6 Battery chargers

A listed constant voltage current-limited battery charger shall be provided within the controller cabinet for each of the two starting batteries. The battery chargers shall each:

(a) Have automatic output control that maintains the battery fully charged within the "float" levels specified by the battery manufacturer;

(b) Have automatic control to limit the output current to the maximum rated value of the unit when lead acid batteries discharged to 1.85 V per cell are connected;

(c) Be capable of restoring the full nominal Ampere-hour capacity of the battery within a period of 24 hours while simultaneously supplying the full quiescent current (controller load);

(d) Be capable of tolerating continuous reversed polarity or short circuit on the output terminals without damage, and shall self-restore on removal of the same;

(e) Provide visual indication that the charger is energised.

The charger manufacturer shall specify any design constraints on charger output or the size and length of battery voltage sensing conductors. Compliance shall be required.

The 230 V mains supply for the controller and battery chargers shall be connected to a separate sub­circuit on the building's main distribution board which is clearly labelled "FIRE PUMP BATTERY CHARGERS".

607.4.7 Start pressure switches

Listed start pressure switches shall be mounted on the cabinet. They shall comply with 607.1.5. When they close, the initial current shall exceed 0.5 A.

607.4.8 Nameplate

An engraved label shall be affixed to the face of the cabinet and give the following information:

(a) Name of pump unit manufacturer;

(b) Unit number;

(c) Duty speed;

(d) Engine make, model and power at duty speed;

(e) Pump make, model and impeller diameter;

(f) Flow and pressure at duty speed.

607.4.9 Operator's handbook and logbook

The following shall be kept in the cabinet:

(a) A copy of the electrical circuits associated with the controller logic unit, battery chargers and engine;

(b) Manufacturers' operator handbooks for the pump, controller and engine unit;

(c) An approved logbook for recording all faults and the results of all tests including engine maintenance, oil changes, battery condition, hours run, fuel consumption, annual surveys.

A label showing the name and telephone number of the pump unit maintenance contractor shall be affixed to the inside of the cabinet.

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607.5 Diesel engine fuel supply

607.5.1 General requirements

Every pump engine shall have its own individual fuel supply tank.

NOTE - Attention is drawn to the need to comply with the relevant requirements of the HSNO Act, specifically those dealing with tank size and attachments, pipes, protection of fuel lines, oil level gauges and fuel secondary containment provisions.

607.5.2 Tank mounting

The tank may be mounted inside the pump house, but it shall be mounted separately from the engine with the fuel outlet not lower than the injector pump or more than 1.000 mm above the injector pump, unless this voids the manufacturer's warranty. Tank mounting shall comply with 105.2.

607.5.3 Tank capacity

The fuel capacity shall be assessed on the engine manufacturer's specified fuel consumption for the power absorbed by the pump unit at duty rpm for the periods nominated in table 6.2.

Table 6.2 - Nominal fuel duration

Hazard class Fuel duration (minimum) Extra liqht hazard 6 hours Ordinary hazard 6 hours Extra high hazard 6 hours but not less than twice the primary supply

duration required by table 6.1

607.5.4 Fuel gauge

The tank shall be fitted with a listed gauge. The gauge shall be marked indicating that the top half of the tank is fuel for test running and the bottom half is for fire duty running. It shall also indicate that the fuel level shall not normally fall below that allowed for testing.

607.5.5 Tank construction

The tank shall be constructed of at least 1.5 mm mild steel coated internally with a suitable anti­corrosive and oil resisting coating after it has been tested for leaks or alternatively of at least 1.25 mm stainless steel.

607.5.6 Tank connections

The following connections, none of which shall be galvanised pipe, shall be provided:

(a) A 25 mm vent pipe from the top of the tank that has a continuous upward grade to a down-turned flared and gauze-sealed vent outside the pump house;

(b) A minimum 20 mm filling pipe into the top of the tank. The tank may be filled only by pumping from a mobile tanker, storage tank or a portable drum. A minimum 20 mm filling pipe fixed into the top of the tank for use by a mobile tanker may be supplied, provided that this fill pipe shall extend to the outside of the building, or other suitable location and have a suitable threaded and sized locked valve attached at the delivery end. Suitable precations shall be taken to ensure that if the tank is overfilled, by a mobile tanker, that diesel is not discharged into the pump house;

(c) A 25 mm overflow pipe from the top of the tank which shall be carried on a continuous downward gradient to discharge in a safe place - usually the storage tank or a portable drum;

(d) A sludge sump at the lowest part of the tank, fitted with a normally closed and plugged stopco*ck;

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(e) A sealed opening not less than 100 mm diameter for tank cleaning purposes;

(f) A minimum of a 10 mm fuel outlet drawing from at least 25 mm above the bottom of the sludge sump and fitted with a stop valve padlocked in the open position;

(g) A fuel return line sized and installed in accordance with the engine manufacturer's recommendations.

607.5.7 Fuel secondary containment

Where required by the HSNO Act, provisions shall be made for diesel fuel secondary containment. One such method is to install the diesel fuel tank in a bunded area.

607.5.8 Fuellines

The fuel lines shall be at least 10 mm seamless copper or stainless steel tube with double ferrule compression fittings, brazed joints or black steel pipes and fittings and shall:

(a) Be well protected and supported, preferably in a continuous down-gradient to the engine. However, it is permissible to have one low point, provided there is a continuous rise from this point to both the engine and the fuel tank;

(b) Incorporate a transparent agglomerator bowl, immediately downstream of the fuel line stop valve, to indicate the presence of water, and an accessible, engine mounted, filter;

(c) Terminate at the engine at a metal armoured flexible connection.

NOTE This clause does not apply to any fuel lines forming part of the engine manufacturer's Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) equipment.

607.5.9 Air lock avoidance

Care shall be taken to avoid air locks in the system. No air relief valves are permitted and where air relief is essential, screwed plugs shall be used.

607.6 Electric motors

607.6.1 Type

Electric motors shall be of the three-phase low voltage squirrel cage drip-proof or totally enclosed type.

607.6.2 Power

The following requirements apply:

(a) The motor shall have 110 % of the capacity required to ensure that the continuous rated current is not exceeded under any conditions of pump discharge when power is being supplied at the nominal voltage. Should the motor have a service factor of 10 % or greater, this requirement shall be deemed to have been met;

NOTE (1) This 10 % capacity margin is necessary to take account of fluctuations in the supply voltage that will increase

the cu rrent. (2) Attention is drawn to the need to check the actual pumpset turning speed to ensure that the motor can provide

the power absorbed by the pump at that speed.

(b) The locked rotor current shall not exceed 750 % of the full load current of the motor.

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607.6.3 Nameplate

The motor shall have a nameplate attached to it, on which is indelibly marked:

(a) Manufacturer's name;

(b) Type and serial number;

(c) Continuous rated power output;

(d) Working voltage and frequency;

(e) Rotational speed at full load;

(f) Full load current.

607.6.4 Height above floor

Other than with submersible pumps, the pump unit shall be so mounted that no current carrying part of the motor is less than 150 mm above the floor.

607.6.5 Vertical shaft motors

Motors driving vertical shaft pumps shall be constructed for vertical operation and, if driving an assembly longer than 4 m, shall have a hollow shaft. Alternatively, the motor shall be of a listed submersible type.

607.6.6 Motor starting

The motor shall be started and stopped by means of a listed electric motor controller.

607.7 Electric motor controllers

607.7.1 Component parts and listing

An electric motor controller shall be a listed device the component parts of which are:

(a) A cabinet supporting or enclosing items (b) to U);

(b) A listed start pressure switch or switches and associated test devices;

(c) Pressure switch isolation devices;

(d) Manual start and stop buttons;

(e) Start contactor;

(f) Power supply supervisory equipment;

(g) Overload protection supervisory equipment;

(h) Pump running alarm switching devices;

(i) For submersible pumps insulation resistance and circuit continuity supervisory equipment;

U) A nameplate showing the following information:

(i) Name of manufacturer

(ii) Unit number

(iii) Pump make, model, turning speed and impeller diameter

(iv) Duty flow and pressure.

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607.7.2 Location

The controller shall be located in the pump unit enclosure as close as practicable to the motor with all electrical components at least 450 mm above the floor.

607.7.3 Starting and stopping

Automatic starting shall be provided by means of listed pressure switches and manual starting shall also be provided.

Stopping and isolation devices shall comply with 607.1.7. Additionally there shall be a lockable ON/OFF switch to isolate the power supply to the contactor.

607.7.4 Start contactor

The following requirements apply:

(a) The motor starting method shall be by a direct on line electromechanical contactor, except where the power supply is insufficient to allow direct on line starting, then either of the following may be used:

(i) An approved electronic variable power soft starter, or

(ii) An approved electronic variable frequency starter and speed controller, provided it is arranged to fail into direct on line frequency and voltage mode;

(b) The current rating of the contactor shall be at least 125 % of the nameplate continuous current rating of the motor;

(c) The short circuit category of duty shall be AC-3 to IEC 60947-4.

607.7.5 Overload protection

The following requirements apply:

(a) The thermal overloads shall be arranged to reset automatically. They shall be capable of adjustment to carry 30 % more than the nameplate continuous current rating of the motor;

(b) An adequate setting may be demonstrated by five successive pump starts at 20 s intervals without tripping, with the pump test return valve part open;

(c) They shall be supervised in such a way as to comply with 607.7.6;

(d) Motor winding temperature sensors, if fitted, may be used to operate a motor overheat alarm but they shall not automatically trip the motor contactor.

607.7.6 Supervisory monitoring

The following requirements apply:

(a) Approved supervisory monitoring of all of the following conditions shall be provided:

(i) Pump running

(ii) Loss or reversal of any phase at the line terminal of the contactor

(iii) Opening of any section of the contactor control circuit except the start button

(iv) In submersible motor driven pumps, low insulation resistance and discontinuity in the motor circuit;

(b) Except in the case of (a)(i), the absence of the above conditions (that is, normal state) shall be indicated on the face of the motor controller by means of continuous visual indicators;

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(c) The detection of any of the conditions specified in (a) above shall, after approximately 120 min, cause two sets of clean changeover contacts to switch. A test device shall be incorporated to compress the gating time to approximately 12 s;

(d) A listed alarm device, located in an approved location external to the pump unit enclosure, shall be connected to the supervisory device. The alarm shall be labelled "SPRINKLER FIRE PUMP MALFUNCTION ALARM", followed by instructions on who to contact.

607.8 Power supply

607.8.1 Source

The following requirements apply: (a) The power supply shall be obtained from an electrically reliable and physically secure source,

preferably from a public supply by an exclusive separate connection; (b) Where a suitable public supply is not available, approval of the generating plant shall be

obtained; (c) Where a separate connection from the public supply is not provided, a separate circuit shall be

taken from a point on the line side of a switch by which all other electrical services in the premises can be isolated to directly and exclusively supply the pump motor, motor starter and other ancillary services in the pump room;

(d) Conductors shall be appropriately sized to meet the motor manufacturer's requirements for nameplate voltage.

607.8.2 Security

The following requirements apply: (a) No part of either the high voltage or low voltage circuit inside the boundary of the protected

premises shall pass through an unprotected building. Exterior overhead cables inside the protected premises shall not pass closer than 10 m (measured horizontally) to any unprotected building or unprotected fire loads;

(b) There shall not be any switches on the circuit supplying the pump between the isolator on the pump unit controller and the point at which it is connected to the main supply;

(c) All switches on the protected premises which are capable of isolating the pump shall be clearly labelled "SPRINKLER FIRE PUMP LEAVE ON" in white letters on a red background;

(d) The normally open circuit wiring between the pump contactor and the motor shall be protected against physical damage. In the case of submersible pumps, this part of the circuit shall comply with 607.2.6 (c).

607.9 Facilities for routine testing

607.9.1 General

Every pump unit shall have facilities to allow routine test running under load and to prevent overheating in situations of nil or low discharge (see figures 6.5 to 6.8).

607.9.2 Open water source

Where a pumping unit draws directly from a tank or open water supply a test return pipe shall be provided and sized to enable the unit to be tested to a minimum of 110 % of the highest design flow (± 10 %). For pumps fitted with pressure relief valves complying with 404.6.4, test return pipework and valving may not be required if the pressure relief valve circuit produces at least 110 % of the highest design flow (± 10 %).

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In the case of tank supplies the test return pipe shall terminate at least one metre below normal water level to prevent air entrainment during testing and shall be restrained against jet reaction. If the same pipe is used for the pressure relief valve discharge then it must be terminated at vortex plate level.

The test return pipe shall be fitted with a supervised, labelled, indicating stop valve normally padlocked in the closed position. This valve shall signal "defect" when opened greater than 5 %.

607.9.3 Boosted town's main

A test return loop from the pump delivery to the pump suction shall be provided and sized to enable the unit to be routinely test run at least 110 % of the highest design flow (± 10 %). For pumps fitted with pressure relief valves complying with 404.6.4, test return pipework and valving may not be required if the pressure relief valve circuit produces at least 110 % of the highest design flow (± 10 %).

This test return loop shall be fitted with a supervised, labelled, indicating stop valve normally padlocked in the closed position. This valve shall signal 'defect' when opened greater than 5 %.

607.10 Pump unit enclosure

607.10.1 General

All pump units shall be installed in a clean dry weathertight enclosure with secure access to the sprinkler apparatus.

It is recommended that the pump unit enclosure is provided with direct external access.

607.10.2 Protection from hazards

The enclosure shall be situated where it is as free as possible from exposure to fire. explosion, flooding and windstorm damage and, in the case of below ground enclosures, care shall be taken to avoid or deflect run-off storm water from draining into it.

No liquid or gaseous fuels except those required as a fuel source for the pump unit prime mover shall be reticulated or stored in the enclosure and a fire extinguisher appropriate to the hazard shall be provided.

607.10.3 Plant rooms

With approval, a pump unit may be located in a screened area of a plant room protected by the sprinkler system complying with this Standard. In conSidering any such application, a sse shall ensure that there is:

(a) No boiler or other explosion hazard;

(b) No uncontrolled dust problem;

(c) No likelihood of water from other services discharging over the pump unit;

(d) No uncontrolled access by unauthorised persons to the pump unit.

All other requirements for pump unit enclosures shall be met.

607.10.4 Sprinkler protection

All pump unit enclosures shall be sprinkler protected. Where the enclosure is a detached building and is some distance from the nearest protected building, the sprinklers in the enclosure may be supplied

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through a labelled and strapped stop valve from the hydraulic connection to the start pressure switches, provided that this has been suitably sized, or a connection is provided from the pump delivery, through a check valve, to a point downstream of the stop valve to boost the supply to the pump house sprinklers. Acceptable arrangements to sound an alarm if such sprinklers operate shall be provided.

607.10.5 Enclosure size

The enclosure shall be of sufficient size to allow free access for testing, maintenance and removal of all equipment therein.

607.10.6 Access

Access shall be by a lockable door or hatch sufficiently large and located in such a position as to allow the removal of any individual component of the pump unit without disturbance or damage to other components.

607.10.7 Drainage

The floor shall be graded to drain to a sump which shall be emptied by means of a gravity drain or an automatic sump pump at a flow of at least 50 Llmin. The sump shall be at least 600 mm deep and shall have a capacity of at least 0.05 m3

.

607.10.8 Lighting

The enclosure shall be provided with artificial lighting.

607.10.9 Ventilation

There shall be sufficient ventilation to prevent condensation, to provide aspiration for any diesel engines and to limit the temperature rise to 18°C above ambient under all conditions of pump load for a one-hour period.

Ventilation and/or louvres shall not be dependent on mains electrical power supply.

Powered ventilation systems utilising the diesel engine shall be permitted. The requirements of 607.3.2 shall be complied with.

607.10.10 Heating

The enclosure shall be provided with a maximum/minimum type thermometer permanently fixed not more than 1.5 m from the floor. A reliable source of artificial heating shall be provided where necessary so as to maintain the temperature in the enclosure above 5 °C at all times.

NOTE - In the case of diesel engines, heating of the engine may also be necessary.

608 ELEVATED TANKS An elevated tank shall:

(a) Comply with 606.2 and 606.3;

(b) Be owned by, and under the sale control of, the owner of the sprinkler system or shall, in terms of suitable written guarantees, be available at all times for the use by the owner of the sprinkler system;

(c) Be of sufficient capacity to comply with 606.1;

(d) Be of sufficient height above the alarm valves to furnish without the use of pumps the requisite pressures at the design flows specified by 603.

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609 PRESSURE TANKS Pressure tanks shall be accepted in the case of extra light hazard class only supject to the approval of aSSC.

610 FIRE SPRINKLER INLETS

610.1 Function All automatic sprinkler systems shall be fitted with a fire sprinkler inlet connection to:

(a) Enable the fire brigade to pump water into the installation by the use of their own equipment during a fire;

(b) Permit proving tests of the water supplies to the installation to be regularly carried out;

(c) Facilitate the connection of an emergency water supply to the sprinkler installation if the usual supplies have been disabled.

610.2 Location Fire sprinkler inlets shall be on the outside of the protected premises in a location approved by the New Zealand Fire Service so as to permit effective fulfilment of each function. The fire sprinkler inlets may be located remote from the building provided that all criteria of the Standard are met.

NOTE - The New Zealand Fire Service is preparing "A guide to Fire Service operations in buildings" which provides guidance on their general requirements for the location of fire sprinker Inlets.

610.3 Enclosure

610.3.1 Construction

The following requirements shall be met:

(a) Fire sprinkler inlets shall be housed in enclosures constructed to ensure that delivery hoses can be connected to the couplings without kinking. The enclosure shall be of such dimensions to allow a solid cone having an included angle of 45° to be placed in each connection coaxially with the connection, without the cone touching any part of the enclosure or open door. No part of the enclosure or the door when open shall be a lesser distance than 125 mm from the axis of any connection projected. Couplings shall be located no more than 150 mm from the internal face of the enclosure door.

The axis of the couplings shall be between 15° and 30° down from the horizontal. See figure 6.11 ;

(b) A clearance of at least 75 mm shall be provided between the rim of any hand-wheel and any part of the enclosure or equipment;

(c) This enclosure may be deleted where sprinkler valve enclosures open to the exterior of the building through double doors with a total open width of at least 1.5 m. The fire sprinkler inlet shall be located on one side of the door opening. Where there are water supply pump sets in the enclosure the fire sprinkler inlet assembly shall be fitted with a splash guard as per 610.3.3;

(d) This enclosure may be deleted where valve sets are installed within self-contained cabinets designed for mounting on the exterior face of the building.

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CQNN[Cm)N SPR:I',KLt:R INSTALL6,TION

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Gt"lUGE wlr~ TEST PORT AND VALVE

DR.A.IN VALVE"

SPLASH_. GU.4HD

SLOPE BASE Dr~Alt~AGE

___ I

PLAN

CLEAR SPACE

ELEVATION

Figure 6.11 - FSI standard requirements

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NZS 4541 :2007

610.3.2 Door

Doors may be side hung or bottom hung and shall in either case, open through not less than 165°. The door shall be locked by a triangular key locking device, as shown in figure 6.12, requiring no more than 5 revolutions to open the lock.

8 -~

M10 i·

-- --as required----

6.3 J'~9'1 3.2

J'--15.5 i

dia. t 12.7 dia.

SCREW

Axis Two holes-

BASE

Dimensions in miilimetres

Figure 6.12 - Details of box lock

0.8

35

I

8

The door shall have a break-out panel large enough to enable delivery hoses to be connected without kinking, if the door cannot be opened and emergency access has to be made by breaking out the panel.

The break out panel should be designed so that on removal no sharp edges shall remain.

The outside of the enclosure door shall bear the words "FIRE SPRINKLER INLET' in contrasting letters of at least 50 mm high.

The inside of the enclosure shall have an engraved label bearing the words "FIRE BRIGADE! BOOST PRESSURE IF GAUGE IN RED SECTOR". In the case of enclosures housing more than one stop valve the words "FIRE BRIGADE! BOOST PRESSURE ON ANY II\JSTALLATION WITH GAUGE IN RED SECTOR" shall be used. The sign shall be collocated to the gauge specified in 610.5.3.

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NZS 4541 :2007

610.3.3 Splash guards

With the exception of fire sprinkler inlets installed in compliance with 610.3.1 (c) & (d), a splash guard shall be provided to the sides, rear and bottom of the enclosure to ensure that the risk of water damage to the interior of the building is minimised. The splash guard shall be provided with suitable drainage.

610.3.4 Usage

The enclosure may also be used to house the fire sprinkler inlet for any fire hydrant system serving the building. In such cases, the fire hydrant system and the fire sprinkler inlet shall be separate assemblies, each bearing the words "FIRE SPRINKLER INLET" and "FIRE HYDRANT INLET" in contrasting letters of at least 50 mm high respectively.

Other than any indication and control panels for the control of fire hydrant systems, the enclosure shall not be used to house any other equipment.

610.4 Inlets

610.4.1 Specification

Each inlet shall consist of a 70 mm male instantaneous hose connection and shall comply with SNZ PAS 4505. It shall be fitted with a clapper valve of the swing-hinged type.

610.4.2 Number of inlets

The number of inlets shall be provided in accordance with table 6.3.

Table 6.3 - Number of inlets

Highest system design Minimum number of flow (Umin) inlets required

Up to 1350 1 Up to 2700 2 Up to 4050 3 Up to 5400 4 Up to 6750 5

Greater than 6750 6

610.4.3 Height of couplings

The fire sprinkler inlet shall be positioned so that the axis of the highest and lowest coupling is not closer to the surrounding standing surface than 600 rnm or further than 1,350 mm.

610.4.4 Clear working space

A space measuring 600 mm either side of the inlet enclosure, 1,200 mm out from the face of the enclosure and extending up 2,000 mm from the surrounding standing surface shall be clear of all objects.

610.4.5 Falling glass

Where the door of the enclosure is on a glazed exterior wall of a multi-storey building, either a veranda or other assembly shall be provided extending at least 1 m in front and 1 m either side of the enclosure to provide protection from falling glass.

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NZS 4541 :2007

610.5 Connection pipe to system

610.5.1 Point of connection

The following requirements apply:

(a) The inlets shall be connected by pipework through a stop valve directly into the installation downstream of the alarm valve and main stop valve, and in enhanced safety valve sets downstream of the subsidiary stop valve;

(b) Where there is more than one alarm valve, they may all be connected through check valves and a manifold to the same inlet provided that a normally open, locked, supervised isolation valve is fitted to each connection. The isolation valve shall signal "Fire" when closed for more than two turns or 5 %;

(c) Where there is more than one alarm valve, and the provisions of (b) are incorporated into the fire sprinkler inlet design, a normally locked and closed test valve shall be installed to bypass the manifold check valve for the system with the highest design flow. Where multiple alarm valves are not collocated at one valve house a bypass test valve shall be located at each valve house;

(d) Where there is more than one alarm valve and the provisions of (b) are incorporated into the fire service inlet design, install a fire service inlet check valve test valve (normally locked close) to allow the check valves to be exercised in accordance with 1202.4(g);

(e) In wet pipe and antifreeze systems, the pipework downstream of the manifold check valves shall be primed from the water supply by a 15 mm nominal bore connection via a locked open isolation valve. See figure 6.13;

(f) Where a second stop valve is installed downstream of the alarm valve (as in a dry pipe valve situation), the fire sprinkler inlet connection shall be connected upstream of such a stop valve, to permit flow testing;

(g) The pipework and manifold(s) shall comply with the requirements of 109.

To sprinkler

Installation

Sprinkler installation -­control valve sets

FSI connection upstream

/ ~ftl~t~~Sidary stop valve,

.-.-.~7-·-·-:-.-:.-:-.-:.-:-.-:.-:-.-:.-:-.-:.-:-.-:.-:-.-:.-=.-:.-=.-:.-=.-:.-=.-:.-=.-:.-=.-:.-=.-:.-=.-:.-=.-:.~11 £/1''';' Gauge tubing - -- - ... , I '

I " / Supe~vised~ ! Isolation valve , (locked open)

L Check valve

/ Pressure gauge! i ! 0~/ on FSI header In I ' I

J sprinkler valve I'! I' PSI pressure ?-____ .....f_'""'"'"ro~om.:...._"'I, I, gauge.s

! i! (e,~ Q~ G_~Gauge

- Flow test bypass valve filted to installation with highest deman-d (locked closed) --- Check valve

FSI check - Isolation valve test valve (locked open)

! L~~l r test point L._._._.----.J

Fire Service inlet and Isolation valve (normally closed). See figure 6.9

?-,;.;Fr;;;.om~w.;.;;a;,;;;ter.;;su;;.:;po;,PIY"""""" _____ .....B. _____ .....I'--_..I':(IO~C~ke':'..'d c~lo""se,,:,!d)'----l __ 15 [11m pnming connection

lor wet pipe and ant freeze installations

Figure 6.13 - Fire service inlet arrangement for multiple valve sets

610.5.2 Stop valves

Stop valves shall be suited to the duty pressure, be slow closing, provide a drip tight seal and not incorporate metal to metal seating. The valve shall be housed in the cabinet. A metal or plastic label

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NZS 4541 :2007

bearing the words "OPEN BEFORE PUMPING" shall be fitted to the hand-wheel, or collocated directly adjacent.

Where there is more than one stop valve, each valve shall be numbered in contrasting numerals at least 40 mm high according to the installation which it controls.

610.5.3 Pressure gauges

A pressure gauge shall be fitted in the cabinet, connected to the installation side of each stop valve and shall be marked with a red sector between zero pressure and a pressure 100 kPa above the highest design pressure requirement for that particular installation. The remainder of the scale shall be shaded green. Where there is more than one pressure gauge, it shall be labelled with the number of the installation to which it is connected. Where the direct access to the fire sprinkler inlet is via the valve house doors, it shall be permissible, in a single installation system, to comply with this requirement by shading the installation gauge.

610.5.4 Pipe size

The size of the connecting pipework and stop valve shall be such that at the highest design flow, the pressure loss due to friction between the inlet coupling and the alarm valve does not exceed 100 kPa. In the case of any secondary fire sprinkler inlets installed on the installation, connecting pipework to the system shall be such that at the highest design flow, the pressure loss due to friction between the secondary FSI and the most hydraulically remote area of operation, plus the design point pressure, does not exceed PNC (refer to NZS 4510).

610.5.5 Pipe work bracing

The fire sprinkler inlet valves and pipework (including any permanent test outlet) shall be braced to withstand the forces developed during flow testing of sprinkler system water supplies.

610.5.6 Duty pressures exceeding 10.5 bar

If, in the event of failure of the sprinkler system water supply, the maximum required boost pressure at the fire sprinkler inlet exceeds 10.5 bar then special provisions in the fire sprinkler inlet design shall be provided. These special provisions shall be approved by a SSG.

Such special provisions may include the provision of a valved connection which would allow the building's wet riser diesel driven pumpset (designed and installed in accordance with NZS 4510) to boost the sprinkler system fire sprinkler inlet pipework. In such cases, the valve shall be operable from the sprinkler system fire sprinkler inlet cabinet and its purpose clearly and indelibly marked in letters at least 50 mm high.

NOTE - It is not acceptable to connect the sprinkler system fire sprinkler inlet to the suction side of the sprinkler system pumps, as this does not cater for any event where the sprinkler system water supply has failed. In such cases, it is expected that the sprinkler system pumps may have seized, prior to the Fire Service providing water to them.

610.5.7 Permanent test outlet

For design flows exceeding 3,500 L/min a permanent test outlet shall be connected between the fire sprinkler inlet stop valve(s) and the inlet clapper valve(s) to allow the connection of large flow testing devices. The test connection shall consist of either a 100 mm flanged or rolled groove fitting with, under normal conditions, a blank flange or cap. For design flows in excess of 9,000 L/min, two independently valved test connections shall be provided. The outlet shall be located within, or immediately adjacent to, the cabinet and so sited as to allow free discharge of 125 % of the design flow without causing damage to property.

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NZS 4541 :2007

611 PROVING OF WATER SUPPLIES

611.1 To facilitate tests to verify that the water supply satisfies the pressurelflow requirements appropriate to the installation, provision for connection of a portable flow measuring device to the fire sprinkler inlet or permanent test outlet, as applicable, shall be provided.

611.2 Where a number of installation control valves are sited together and all are associated with installations of the same hazard class, this testing facility is necessary only on one installation control valve, provided that it is fitted to the valve which is hydraulically the least favourably situated.

611.3 Where more than one hazard class is involved, whether on the same or separate installation control valves, testing facilities shall be provided to enable the full range of flows to be measured. This requirement may be waived by a SSC where it is obvious. from testing of the higher flow rate. that the lower pressure/flow requirements are satisfied.

612 PRIVATE SITE FIRE MAINS (see 602.1 Class B2)

612.1 Piping

612.1.1

Pipework may be reticulated throughout the site through a combination of buried or above ground pipework. Where pipe is above ground, it shall be located to minimise the potential that it may be damaged, by natural events, or by explosions, vehicle accidents and the like.

612.1.2

Buried pipework shall be provided with thrust restraint in accordance with best trade practice and with allowance for anticipated vehicle movements.

612.1.3

Pipework above ground shall be installed on suitably constructed pipe supports or pipe bridges designed to AS/NZS 1170 series as applicable.

612.1.4

Piping shall be sized by hydraulic calculation to allow for the isolation and/or, repair of any section of the fire main, or the impairment of either of the water supplies, and still provide the design flow and pressure.

612.2 Valves All valves shall comply with 602.1, 602.4 and 604.1.8.1 (d).

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NZS 4541 :2007

612.3 Water supply Each water supply to the fire main shall conform to this Standard except that: (a) Where the ring main forms part of a dual supply (602.1), pumps may be started by detection of

pressure drop in the fire main, providing the normal means of pressurisation can be maintained for a minimum period of 24 hours without reliance on the standard power supply (see also 607.1.5.2);

(b) The continuous rating of diesel engines forming part of a water supply shall provide the power requirements of the pump under any condition of pump discharge.

NOTE Details of how the ring main will be pressurised must be supplied to a sse as part of the information required within the basic design decision submission (see 112.1(s)).

612.4 Other

612.4.1

Details of the site fire main shall be incorporated on a block plan in every fire pump enclosure supplying the fire main.

612.4.2

The flow and pressure characteristics of each connection to the private site fire main shall be determined by applying the requirements of Appendix C2 as if the site fire main was a town's main.

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NZS 4541 :2007 --------------------------------------~------~--------

Part 7 EXTRA LIGHT HAZARD SYSTEM DESIGN DATA

701 WATER SUPPLIES

701.1 Design criteria Extra light hazard (ELH) systems shall be designed to meet one of (a) to (c):

(a) To allow the hydraulically most remote six heads to provide a flow of at least 57 Umin from each sprinkler regardless of the area covered by an individual sprinkler;

(b) In areas where residential sprinklers are fitted, to provide for the four most hydraulically demanding sprinklers; or

(c) In areas where extended coverage light hazard (ECLH) sprinklers are fitted, to include an assumed area of operation of five sprinklers, but not less than 140 m2

, discharging in accordance with the listing for the sprinkler head.

In (a) above, the hydraulically most remote group of sprinklers shall be selected to form as near as possible a square with the longest side positioned so that it imposes the greatest hydraulic demand. Except as varied by this clause, hydraulic calculation methods shall conform to the requirements of Part 10. Sprinklers in cupboards and wardrobes need not be included in the calculation.

In (b) above, the minimum discharge from each sprinkler is to be the greater of the following: the listed flow rates for ANSI/NFPA 13D and ANSIINFPA 13R systems; or a minimum discharge density of 4.1 mm/min over a design area of the four most hydraulically demanding sprinklers for the actual coverage areas for the sprinklers.

NOTE - Users of this Standard should be aware that the use of outdated data sheets may not provide the latest listing data called up for residential heads. Attention is also drawn to the need to apply the most onerous of the two design criteria provided above.

In (c) above, interpolation of criteria between listed spacings shall not be used. The minimum discharge density shall be 4.1 mm/min.

701.2 Water supplies

701.2.1

Each water supply shall be capable of providing at the installation control valves, the design flow at the design pressure. The design pressure for systems having any sections fitted with residential sprinklers shall not be less than the pressure required to operate any single residential sprinkler at its appropriate listed flow and pressure.

701.2.2

Pipe sizes shall be determined by full hydraulic calculation in accordance with Part 10.

701.2.3

Where external sprinklers impose a demand greater than that of the protected area the values of the design flow and design pressure shall be increased accordingly.

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NZS 4541 :2007

701.3 Extensions to existing systems

701.3.1

Existing systems, installed in accordance with superseded editions of this Standard, may be extended by a maximum of 4 sprinklers with pipe sizes in accordance with the method set out in 703. Where the array pipework beyond the design points is sized to table 7.1, the design flow shall be 270 Llmin and the design pressure 190 kPa plus whichever is the greater of 90 kPa or the pressure equal to the distribution pipe losses between the control valves and the hydraulically most remote design point, plus the pressure equivalent of the difference in height between the valves and the highest sprinkler. In such cases, only 10 mm sprinklers may be used.

701.3.2

Where the ranges in an area of operation are connected to a section of looped distribution pipe, the design point is the hydraulic mid-point of that section of distribution pipe.

701.3.3

Design points are those points on the pipework at an equivalent hydraulic length not greater than 7 m upstream from the fourth sprinkler on any range under consideration, or on ranges of less than four heads at the junction of the next upstream range on the distribution pipework.

701.3.4

The designs of hydraulically calculated systems may incorporate any pipe sizes that are permitted by Part 10 and proven to satisfy the design requirements of that Part.

Table 7.1 - Minimum pipe sizes for precalculated extra light hazard sprinkler arrays

Normal diameter of pipe

From last to Between 2nd Between 3rd Between 4th head

2nd head and 3rd head and 4th head and design point

(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)

Option A* 20 25 32* -

Option B 20 25 40 50 Option C 25 25 32 40

I Option 0 25 32 32 32 I NOTE - Option A' provides for a 3-head range and the 32 mm diameter therefore relates to the pipe between the 3'd

head and the desiqn point.

702 SPRINKLER TYPE AND SPACING

702.1 Sprinkler types

702.1.1

In sleeping areas, sprinkler heads shall be residential type or quick response standard spray.

In this context, "sleeping areas" includes bunkrooms, hospital wards, bedrooms, dormitories and individual suites in hotels, motels and apartment buildings. "Individual suites" means that area (whether partitioned or not) to which access is controlled by the room key i.e. bedrooms, bathroom suite, lobby, lounge and kitchen where provided.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Hospital wards containing more than four beds per room shall not be protected with residential sprinklers. Quick response standard spray sprinklers shall be used.

NOTE To achieve comparable detection some ECLH sprinklers are fitted with a more responsive heat activated element, although fitted with a more responsive element ECLH sprinklers are not necessarily listed as quick response sprinklers.

702.1.2

In all other areas, except as provided for in 702.1.3, either quick response or standard response spray pattern 10 mm or 15 mm sprinkler heads shall be used.

702.1.3

In areas related to sleeping areas, including corridors, lift lobbies, stairways and foyers, and in care institutions, day rooms or lounge areas, residential or quick response or standard response spray pattern sprinklers may be used. Residential sprinklers shall not be used in kitchens, cafeteria, restaurants, bars, storerooms, laundries, plant rooms, ceiling spaces or roof spaces.

702.1.4

Standard response sprinklers may be used in small ancillary spaces, related to sleeping occupancies, such as cupboards, laundries, toilets and bathrooms, where such spaces are protected by one head.

702.2 Coverage The maximum area coverage per sprinkler shall be:

(a) Sidewall sprinklers ................................................................................ 17 m2

(b) Extended coverage light hazard sprinklers ........................................... As indicated on the listing.

(c) Other spray sprinklers ........................................................................... 21 m2

(d) Residential sprinklers ............................................................................ As indicated on the listing.

702.3 Spacing

702.3.1

The maximum distance between sprinklers on range pipes and between adjacent rows of sprinklers shall be:

(a) Sidewall sprinklers ................................................................................ See 510.

(b) Extended coverage light hazard sprinklers ........................................... As indicated on the listing.

(c) Other spray sprinklers .......................................................................... .4.6 m

(d) Residential sprinklers ............................................................................ As indicated on the listing.

702.3.2

The maximum distance between sprinklers and walls or partitions shall be half the distance set out in the above clauses. Where staggered spacing is used see 504.1.

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NZS 4541 :2007

703 PIPEWORK

703.1 Sizing (ELH pipework)

703.1.1

Pipework shall be sized either on the basis of full hydraulic calculations in accordance with Part 10, or, in the case of extensions to existing systems in compliance with 701.3, shall have those pipes downstream of any design point (i.e. the array) sized at least as large as is specified in table 7.1. Where roof or ceiling gradients exceed 1 in 4 and ranges are fed up the slope, full hydraulic calculation shall be used.

703.1.2

Where array pipework is installed in accordance with table 7.1, pipework between the control valves and the design points shall be sized according to hydraulic calculations so as not to exceed the available water supply pressure measured at the design flow. Values for friction losses in pipes at a flow of 270 Llmin are as follows:

Pipe diameter (mm) 25 i 32 i 40 50 65 80 100

Loss (kPa/m) 29 1

7.4 I 3.6 1.1 0.33 0.15 0.04

703.2 Fittings The loss of pressure at each elbow, bend or tee, where the water is turned through an angle, shall be taken as equal to that of 1.5 m of straight pipe of the smallest diameter pipe of the waterway direction change.

704 STORAGE AREAS AND DRYING ROOMS

704.1 The fire loads in small storage rooms and drying rooms require higher discharge densities than 2.7 mm/min.

Any such rooms, which are separated from other areas by full height partitions or walls and which are of an area that may be protected by up to 6 sprinklers spaced at not more than 12 m2 when pipework is fully hydraulically calculated, or up to 4 sprinklers when installed in accordance with 701.3 spaced at not more than 12 m2

, shall be protected by 15 mm sprinklers where pipework is sized according to table 7.1. Pipework shall be sized to ensure that the density is not less than 5 mm/min.

704.2 Any storage or drying room larger than the area specified in 704.1, shall be regarded as a separate occupancy and be classified as ordinary hazard group 3 or extra high hazard. See 203.2.5.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Part 8 ORDINARY HAZARD SYSTEM DESIGN DATA

801 DESIGN CRITERIA, PIPE SIZING AND WATER SUPPLIES

801.1 Design criteria Ordinary hazard systems shall be designed either:

(a) To provide a design density of discharge of at least 5 mm/min over the following assumed area of

operation:

(i) Group I (light ordinary hazard)

(ii) Group II (medium ordinary hazard)

(iii) Group III (high ordinary hazard)

(iv) Group III Special

Any group of 6 sprinklers operating but not less than 54 m2

Any group of 18 sprinklers but not less than 162 m2

Any group of 18 sprinklers but not less than 162 m2

See 801.1(c).

NOTE - Group III Special is an extension of Group III occupancies where flash fires are likely, covering somewhat larger areas of operation, such as preparatory processes in textile mills and certain other risks.

In areas with ceiling heights exceeding 6 m, Ordinary hazard group (OH) I and II risks shall be protected in accordance with ordinary hazard Group III Criteria; or

(b) In areas where ECOH sprinklers are fitted, to include an assumed area of operation of 5 sprinklers, but not less than 140 m2

, discharging in accordance with the listing for the sprinkler head. Interpolation of criteria between listed spacings shall not be used; or

(c) For Group III Special risks, the design area, density of discharge and sprinkler orifice sizes are dependent on the height of the ceiling in the protected area:

(i) For ceiling heights of up to 6 m, the design density of discharge shall be at least 5 mm/min over a design area of 360 m2

, with the use of K = 8 sprinklers

(ii) For ceiling heights of up to 11 m, the design density of discharge shall be at least 12 mm/min over a design area of 230 m2

, with the use of K = 11.5 sprinklers

(iii) For ceiling heights of up to 18 m, the design density of discharge shall be at least 18 mm/min over a design area of 230 m2

, with the use of K = 16 sprinklers

(iv) For heights in excess of 18 m, the design criteria shall be approved by a Sprinkler System Certifier (SSC). See also table 9.7.

801.2 Water supplies

801.2.1 Each water supply shall be capable of providing at the installation control valves, the design flow at the design pressure, provided that:

(a) In OH2 occupancies other than those protected by ECOH sprinklers, each water supply need provide only % of the design flow but this shall be provided at the design pressure;

(b) In installations where the pipework downstream of the "18 sprinkler points" (see Note to Design Point definition in 103) has been sized according to table 8.1, each water supply need provide (for the OH occupancy) only the following rates, at the design pressure (see Note):

OH1 occupancy OH2 occupancy OH3 occupancy

540 L/min 1100 L/min 1350 L/min

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NZS 4541 :2007

NOTE In this context, the design pressure is that which is needed at the alarm valves to provide at each "18 sprinkler point": (1) For OH1 occupancies, 200 kPa when 540 Llmin is flowing; (2) For OH2 and OH3 occupancies, 300 kPa when a flow of 1,350 Llmin is assumed to be flowing.

801.2.2 Notwithstanding 606.1.1, in cases where 801.2.1 applies, any storage tank may be sized as if the flows permitted in 801.2.1 (a) or (b) were the "design flow".

801.2.3 Where external sprinklers impose a demand greater than that of the protected area, the values of the design flow and design pressure shall be increased accordingly.

801.2.4 Where sprinklers are installed within storage fixtures, the pipework and the water supply shall be sized to comply with both 801.1 and any combination of 18 ceiling level and in-rack sprinklers within the same floor footprint area; these requirements not to be cumulative.

Table 8.1 - Maximum number of sprinklers on tabular pipework

(1) Range pipes

Pipe size Maximum number of

Ranges (normal diameter) sprinklers allowed

(mm) on range pipes

(a) Ranges at remote end of all distribution pipes

(i) Two end-side layouts 25 1 Last two ranges 32 2

(ii) Three end-side layouts 25 2 Last three ranges 32 3

(iii) All other layouts 25 2 Last range 32 3

40 4 50 9

(b) All other ranges 25 3

32 4 40 6 50 9

NOTE - The number of sprinklers on a range pipe when the ranges run longitudinally under roofs sloping at an angle in excess of 6° shall not exceed 6. This provision shall apply only where ranges are above the elevation of the design point.

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A1 I

NZS 4541 :2007

(2) Distribution pipes

Pipe size Maximum number of

(normal diameter) sprinklers to be fed Distribution pipes within the array by distribution pipe

(mm)

Pipes at extremities of system

(a) Two end-side layouts

32 2

40 4

50 8

65 16

(b) All other layouts 32 3

40 6

50 9

65 18

801.2.5 For new sprinkler systems, ECOH installations or extension of existing sprinkler systems which exceed 18 sprinklers, or which are installed in OH3 Special occupancies, all new pipework shall be sized by full hydraulic calculation in accordance with Part 10, so as to comply with 801.1 and 801.2.

It is not a requirement of this Standard to limit water velocities in pipes.

801.3 Sizing of pipework Existing sprinkler systems (except OH3 Special occupancies) may be extended by a maximum of 18 sprinkler heads, using pipe sizes determined in accordance with table 8.1. The following criteria apply:

(a) The table, in (c) below, shall be used to size pipes downstream of the "18 sprinkler point";

(b) There shall be available at each "18 sprinkler point", the following minimum design pressure:

OH 1 occupancy

OH2 and OH3 occupancies

200 kPa

300 kPa;

(c) To calculate pressure availability at the "18 sprinkler point", allowance shall be made for any difference in height to the alarm valve. The pressure loss due to friction shall be calculated at a flow rate of 540 Llmin for OH 1 occupancies and 1350 Llmin for OH2 and OH3 occupancies using either the Hazen-Williams formula or the following values for loss of pressure per metre length of pipe:

Pipe size (NB) Flow rate 540 Llmin Flow rate 1350 Llmin (medium grade)

(mm) (kPa) (kPa) 50 3.8 21.6 65 1.1 6.0 80 0.51 2.8 100 0.14 0.76 150 0.021 0.11 200 0.005 0.028

(d) Sprinkler spacing of the extension, both between the sprinklers and between the ranges, shall not exceed 3.0 m;

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(e) Where range pipework incorporates changes of direction, and pipe sizes are not increased to compensate for the additional friction losses, it shall be demonstrated that the use of pipe sizes to table 8.1 in that situation is not hydraulically worse than the worst case permitted by table 8.1 using straight pipe;

(f) Where the roof or ceiling gradient exceeds 1 in 4, and the ranges are fed up the slope, full hydraulic calculation shall be used.

802 SPRINKLER TYPE AND SPACING

802.1 Sprinkler types

802.1.1 In sleeping areas, sprinkler heads shall be 15 mm quick response.

In this context "sleeping areas" includes bunkrooms, hospital wards, bedrooms, dormitories and indivicual suites in hotels, motels and apartment buildings. "Individual suites" means that area (whether partitioned or not) to which access is controlled by the room key, i.e. bedrooms, bathroom suite, lobby, lounge and kitchen where provided.

NOTE - To achieve comparable detection some ECOH sprinklers are fitted with a more responsive heat activated element, but are not necessarily listed as quick response sprinklers.

802.1.2 In all other areas either quick response or standard response 15 mm sprinkler heads shall be used.

802.1.3 Standard response sprinklers may be used in small ancillary spaces, related to sleeping occupancies, such as cupboards, laundries, toilets and bathrooms, where such spaces are protected by one head.

802.2 Sprinkler spacing

802.2.1 Maximum area coverage per sprinkler shall be:

Sidewall sprinklers ............................................................................. 9 m2

Other sprinklers ................................................................................. 12 m2

ECOH sprinklers ................................................................................ see sprinkler listing.

802.2.2 The maximum distance between sprinklers on range pipes and between adjacent rows of sprinklers (for other than sidewall sprinklers) shall be:

For standard spacing (see figure 5.2) ..................... 4.0 m For staggered spacing ............................................. 4.6 m between sprinklers on ranges, and ................................................................................. 4.0 m between adjacent rows of sprinklers.

For sidewall sprinklers see 510.

For spacing of ECOH sprinklers see the sprinkler head listing. Notwithstanding 505, ECOH sprinklers shall be installed at least 2.4 metres apart for upright sprinklers, and 2.7 metres apart for pendent sprinklers, or no closer than shown in the listing.

NOTE In the case of corn, provender and rice mills (other than those using the pneumatic system of conveying), film and television production studios, theatres and music halls (stage protection), the maximum area coverage is limited to 9 m2 per sprinkler and the maximum distance between sprinklers to 3 m.

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Part 9 EXTRA HIGH HAZARD SYSTEM DESIGN DATA

901 SCOPE

901.1 This Part specifies the requirements and provides necessary information and procedures for the design of standard sprinkler system protection for extra high hazard class sprinkler systems incorporating Process Occupancies and Storage Occupancies.

NOTE The existence of alternative special sprinkler systems incorporating new technologies is recognised (see 401.1).

901.2 This Standard is not intended to provide protection for packaged dangerous goods or flammable liquids.

NOTE - See 203.5.1 for guidance on the protection of flammable liquids.

902 EXTRA HIGH HAZARD CLASS TERMINOLOGY The following clauses provide brief descriptions of special terms used throughout this Part relating to the storage and protection of commodities. They are unique to this section. For other terms, see 103.

902.1 Aisle The clear access space normally maintained between commodities stored in racks or on floors. Aisle width is measured from face of upright to face of upright, or face of storage to face of storage, whichever is the lesser.

902.2 Banded paper Roll paper that is provided with one or more circumferential steel straps or wires to prevent unwinding.

902.3 Bin box storage Storage in five-sided containers where the open side faces an aisle. Height of storage is usually less than 4.6 m, with little or no space between containers. The depth of a bin is typically no more than 600 mm.

902.4 Bundled tyres A storage method in which a number of tyres are strapped together. Bundled tyres may be compressed up to 50 % of their original thickness (see figure 9.1).

Figure 9.1 - Bundled tyres (with horizontal flue spaces)

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902.5 Carpet storage Carpets are usually made from natural fibres (wool or cotton), man-made fibres or blends. See commentary C907.5.

902.6 Closed array (roll paper storage) A storage arrangement where uniform diameter rolls, on-end, are in piles of at least four stacks in both directions with stack spacing closer than 100 mm. Closed array is rarely found and usually involves stacking by crane.

902.7 Commodity The combination of product, packaging material, container, and material handling aids (e.g. pallet), upon which commodity categorisation is based.

902.8 Double row rack (ORR) A rack not exceeding 3.7 m in depth, formed by two single row racks placed back-to-back separated by a longitudinal flue space, and separated from adjacent racks by an aisle not less than 1.2 m wide (see figure 9.2(a), (b) and (c».

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A - Load depth B - Load width E - Storage height F - Commodity G Pallet

H - Rack depth HF Horizontal flue space L - Longitudinal flue space T - Transverse flue space

Figure 9.2(a) - Double row racks - Without solid or slatted shelves

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A - Shelf depth B - Shelf height E - Storage height F - Commodity

H Rack depth HF .- Horizontal flue space L Longitudinal flue space T - Transverse flue space

Figure 9.2(b} - Double row racks - With solid shelves

A - Shelf B Shelf H Rack depth

L - Longitundinal flue space E: - Storage height F - Commodity T - Transverse flue space

Figure 9.2(c} - Double row racks - With slatted shelves

NZS 4541:2007

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902.9 Draft curtain A partition, bulkhead or structure extending down, at least 600 mm from the underside of the roof/ceiling. The construction is required to be noncombustible and to fit tightly against the underside of the roof/ceiling. Openings created by channels in a ribbed deck are permitted, however openings created between purlins or other structural members need to be adequately sealed. The rolled lip of Z or C purlins does not need to be sealed off.

Examples of acceptable forms of draft curtain construction include the following:

(a) Structural features such as solid beams, girders or steel joists extending down the minimum required distance from the underside of the ceiling/roof;

(b) A purpose-built partition mounted on timber or steel framework, constructed of 10 mm gypsum board, 0.6 mm sheet steel or 7 mm high-density tempered board.

Appertures are permitted provided that such openings are for the passage of pipes, conduits and mechanical ductwork and are reasonably close fitting. Gaps should be less than 5 mm and not permit the passage of a 5 mm sphere.

902.10 Dunnage (roll paper storage) Materials, such as wood chocks, wedges and battens, used to raise roll paper commodities from the ground or floor and maintain their placement.

902.11 Encapsulation A method of packaging consisting of a plastic sheet completely enclosing the sides and top of a pallet load containing a combustible commodity or a group of combustible commodities or combustible packages. Totally noncombustible commodities on wood pallets, enclosed only by a plastic sheet as described above, are not considered to be encapsulated.

The term 'encapsulation' also applies to individual cartons, which are enclosed on the top and sides in plastic, or to cartons waterproofed by coatings on the exterior surfaces. An example of a waterproof carton is one that is used to export sensitive equipment by ship and needs to be protected From the salt-laden atmosphere.

The term 'encapsulation' does not apply to individual plastic enclosed items inside a larger nonplastic enclosed or non-waterproofed container. If holes or voids in the plastic or waterproof cover, on the top of the carton, exceed more than half of the area of the top, the term 'encapsulation' does not apply.

Encapsulation only affects protection requirements for Category 1, 2, 3 and 4 commodities that are stored in racks and protected by the type of sprinklers nominated in 904.1.1. Protection requirements for solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin box storage are not affected by the presence of encapsulation.

902.12 Face sprinkler Face sprinklers are in-rack sprinklers used to oppose vertical development of fire on the external face of the storage and to simultaneously provide a water curtain between two adjacent racks to hinder fire spread across the aisle. They are preferably located in transverse flue spaces along the aisle, or in the rack within a maximum distance of 460 mm from the aisle face of storage (see 902.20).

902.13 Flue spaces The open spaces between rows of storage. In the case of rack storage, the longitudinal flue spaces are perpendicular to the direction of loading, and transverse flue spaces are parallel to the direction of loading, (see figure 9.3). In solid-pile and palletised storage, flue spaces may run in either direction, or be non-existent.

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NZS 4541 :2007 --------------------NOTE (1) Flue spaces are necessary for rack storage arrangements to allow heat from a fire to vent vertically. This allows the

ceiling-level sprinklers (and in-rack sprinklers if provided) to operate as quickly as possible as well as slowing down the horizontal fire spread within the rack. Flue spaces are also necessary to allow sprinkler water penetration down through the racks. Without sufficient water penetration to burning commodities stored on the lower tiers of the racks, fire control may not be achieved To be effective as outlined above, flue spaces should be a minimum net width of 75 mm and ideally about 150 mm wide. Flue space net width is a measure of its gross width minus any horizontal obstructions, such as rack uprights, located within the flue space. Except where in-rack sprinklers are provided at every tier level, all rack storage arrangements require transverse flue spaces to allow the provided automatic sprinkler protection to be effective. Longitudinal flue spaces are not required within rack storage arrangements; however, if they are provided they should have a minimum 75 mm net clear width vertically throughout the height of the rack. Vertical alignment of flue spaces should be maintained as closely as possible.

(2) Transverse flues between pallet loads are critical to successful fire suppression by suppression mode sprinklers and must be maintained, regardless of building and storage height. For rack storage higher than 7.6 m both longitudinal and transverse flues are needed. In multiple-row rack storage, where pallet loads are butted together in one direction, but there are flues between each row of pallets, a lack of longitudinal flues does not necessarily create a problem for suppression mode protection. The only place where fire can develop vertically is in the flues between rows, and those flues are close together. So long as they are open for the full height of storage, water from properly designed ceiling and/or in-rack sprinklers can reach the fire. The situation where there are open flues at lower levels in racks, that are blocked at higher level does create a severe fire protection challenge as there is a place for fire growth and spread that is shielded from sprinkler discharge, If there are longitudinal flues at any level in the rack, they must be open and clear for the full height of the rack. A common example of this is high rack storage where lift operators cannot see precisely where the pallet loads at the top level, and the longitudinal flue can easily be blocked at that level but remain open at lower levels.

(NO VI[W

LONlilTUDIN "L POSSlaL[ TR"NSVE:RSL FLUE: SPACE:$ fLUE SPACE:

"'\ ~ ;f,i -o-rro:o-o:c----. --- --- --

LONGITUDINAl. .1.) •• - .... --- •• -- --f rl,.v£ SPAce -I.)

PL;,N VIEW

Figure 9.3 - Typical double row (back-to-back) rack arrangement

902.14 Fully loaded (tyre storage) A portable rack, (see 902.42) is considered to be 'fully loaded' when the open space between the top tyre in one rack and the bottom of the next rack above is less than 300 mm (see figure 9.4(a) and (b)), When the space is 300 mm or more, the load is considered 'partially loaded' (see 902.32).

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(a) Example 1 (b) Example 2

Figure 9.4 - Fully loaded (lyre storage)

902.15 Green tyres A green tyre consists of a tyre 'carcass', cylindrical in shape, approximately 0.4 m diameter by approximately 0.6 m long. The green tyre at this point in the manufacturing process is ready for moulding and curing into a finished tyre. The preparatory process results in a supply of green tyres in storage in the manufacturing area awaiting moulding and curing (see figure 9.5).

Figure 9.5 - Typical green tyre storage (storage two carts high or 4.9 m high)

902.16 Heavyweight paper (roll paper storage) All paper that weighs 98 g/m2 or greater. Examples of paper may include (but are not limited to) liner board, corrugating medium, index, cup board, tag, rolled pulp, folding box board and kraft roll wrappers.

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902.17 Horizontal barriers (within and above racks) Solid barriers on a horizontal plane within or above a rack, beneath which in-rack sprinklers are installed. They extend to both ends and both aisle faces of the racks, and are fitted to within 50 mm of any vertical rack member or other equipment which would create an opening, such as vertical in-rack sprinkler pipe drops. Their purpose is to impede vertical fire spread by blocking off normally open flue spaces, while also helping to achieve prompt in-rack sprinkler operation by banking heat down to the in-rack sprinklers.

NOTE An example of an acceptable horizontal barrier construction material is plywood with a minimum thickness of 10 mm.

902.18 Horizontal flue space An uninterrupted space in excess of 1.5 m in length between horizontal layers of storage. Such channels may be formed by pallets, shelving, racks or other storage aids, see figure 9.2(a) - (c).

Figure 9.6(a) - Typical storage arrangement - Using pallet-based portable rack (fully loaded)

NOTE There is a lack of horizontal flue spaces when pallets are fully loaded.

Figure 9.6(b) - Typical storage arrangement - On tread

NOTE - Horizontal flue spaces shown

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902.19 In-process non-rack storage (aerosols) Small quantities, of not more than six pallets, stored not more than one pallet load high.

902.20 In-rack sprinklers (IRS) (also called rack storage sprinklers or intermediate level sprinklers)

In-rack sprinklers are typically located in the longitudinal flues, the transverse flues, or at the face of the rack. Sprinklers within flue spaces oppose vertical fire growth up through the flues. Additionally, face sprinklers, (see 902.12) oppose vertical fire growth on the external face of storage and simultaneously provide a water curtain between two adjacent racks to hinder fire spread across the aisle. Depending upon the location, the IRS shall be equipped with an integral water shield or fitted with a guard incorporating a shield, which shall be approved and shall be a minimum of 76 mm in diameter. The water shield prevents wetting of the operating element by water from sprinklers at a higher elevation in the rack or at the roof/ceiling. Note that the water shield is not a heat collector and has virtually no effect on how fast the in-rack sprinkler will operate.

902.21 Locations other than warehouses (tyre storage) Tyre storage in retail stores, fleet garages and service centres. Tyres are usually on-tread in double row racks. One arrangement has tyres six high (approximately 4.8 m) with an open grid mezzanine at the three high (2.4 m) level. Another common arrangement has three high (approximately 2.4 m) storage. Generally aisles are 900 mm wide. The storage areas are usually small; typically not more than 50 % of the total room area (see figure 9.7).

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Typical 6-high racks

Bottom of ~eel joist

Grated mezzanine in aisle

~~e::K./· Automatic sprinklers in each rack

Floor

49 m maximum height

Floor or root /1//lt«II«(((({/(

Bottom of ____________ ...I§Jeel joist

Floor

Typical 3·high racks 2.4 m maximum height

Figure 9.7 - Typical storage arrangements in locations other than warehouses

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902.22 lightweight paper (roll paper storage) All paper with an absorbent, fibrous or gauze-like texture regardless of weight. Examples may include, but are not limited to, toilet tissue, napkin, crepe, facial tissue and paper towel. Also included in the lightweight paper classification is all paper with a hard, smooth or glossy finish that weighs less than 49 g/m2

. Examples of this grade of paper may include, but are not limited to, onion skin, catalogue paper, fruit wrap, carbonising paper and cigarette paper. Some newsprint may weigh as little as 429/m2.

902.23 Medium weight paper (roll paper storage) All paper with a hard, smooth or glossy finish that weighs less than 98 g/m2 but not less than 49 g/m2

.

Examples of medium weight paper may include, but are not limited to, newsprint, tablet, computer, envelope, book, butcher, label, bond, magazine, vellum and bag paper.

902.24 Movable rack A rack on fixed rails or guides. They can be moved in one direction only in a horizontal two­dimensional plane. A moving aisle is created as abutting racks are either loaded or unloaded, then moved across the aisle to abut other racks. Movable rack arrangements generally result in the same protection needs as for multiple row racks.

902.25 Multiple row rack (MRR) A rack greater than 3.7 m deep, or a combination of single row or double row racks separated by aisles less than 1.2 m wide having an overall width, including flues, greater than 3.1 m. Multiple row racks can be drive-in, drive-through, flow-through, push-back or double-deep standard racks. The rack depth is the determinant (see figure 9.8(a) - (c)).

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End View

T~ ~ -Jib f--rT I I . I

I I

I

I I (

I I I I

r ( I t=:: ::='j t=:: ~ t=::

I r~ f+-T T-+ FP1~ ( ,- _L I ( I

I I

==:r::c: I

Aisle View

T Transverse flue space

Figure 9.8(a) - Multiple row rack - Drive-in rack, two or more pallets deep

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, Aisle __

~

:

I I

I

I J 11

(

Jj

If l'i I

.l

i

End View Aisle View

Figure 9.8(b) - Multiple row rack - Flow-through racks

NZS 4541 :2007

I

I : U[=i~ I I .l

~. T I ; I

• ;., ___Aisle ;

t--

Ai I""'"

F= ~J ~ Jf ~

f II " .• ~l

~~ '! "I

.. .. r F"= t::::rc; 1 , , : .. A - ~ ~

/~ -,

" fl !o- 1'\ l " ... f:o' E- f:a='

END VIEW

L - Longitudinal flue space

Figure 9.8(c) - Multiple row rack - Double deep rack, serviced by reach (forklifts) truck

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902.26 On-floor storage (tyre storage) Tyres 1.5 m or higher stored directly on the floor, on-side or on-tread, and may be pyramided to provide pile stability (see figure 9.9(a) and (b».

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Figure 9.9(a) - On-floor storage - On-tread storage

Figure 9.9(b) - On-floor storage - Pyramid tyre storage, on-side

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902.27 On-side storage (tyre storage) Tyres 1.5 m or higher stored horizontally or flat (see figures 9.9(b) and 9.10).

Figure 9.10 - Double row rack storage with on-side paUetised storage

902.28 On-tread storage (tyre storage) Tyres 1.5 m or higher stored vertically or on their treads (see figures 9.6(b), 9.9(a) and 9.11).

Figure 9.11 - Rack frequently used for on-tread storage

902.29 Open array (roll paper storage) A storage arrangement where rolls, on-end, are in stacks separated in both directions. Stack separation is 100 mm or more. Open array storage is generally found where rolls are not uniform in diameter and where stacker trucks with clamps are used for handling.

902.30 Open-top combustible containers Five-sided, open-top containers made of wood, cardboard, plastic, or other combustible materials. They prevent water from running over the top of the container and down the flues and also can collect water from discharging roof/ceiling sprinklers, preventing that water from reaching the lower levels of burning storage, where it is needed to control the fire. Noncombustible open-top containers and open-

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top containers with non-solid sides, such as wire mesh, do not fall into this category. Timber slatted open top containers also do not fall into this category.

902.31 Palletised storage

902.31.1 General

Palletised storage refers to the use of pallets for commodity storage. Pallet loads of storage are placed one on top of another. Pallets are material handling aids upon which unit loads of commodity are placed to ease the transport of commodity from place to place, (see figure 9.12). Pallets may be wood, metal or plastic. Conventional pallets have stringers to accommodate forklift trucks for handling unit loads. Slave pallets (less than 1.9 m2

) are special flat-bottomed pallets captive to a material handling system.

(a) Conventional pallet (b) Slave pallet

Figure 9.12 - Typical pallets

902.31.2 Tyre storage on pallets

Palletised storage is also a term used by the tyre industry to designate tyre storage on portable racks, (see 902.33) as shown in figures 9.4, 9.6(a) and 9.11. The conventional piling method is to store tyres on-side when using portable pipe racks. However, using an alternative piling method, tyres are piled both on-tread and on-side, enabling more tyres to be stored per pallet (see figure 9.4).

902.32 Partially loaded (tyre storage) A portable rack, (see 902.33) is considered to be partially loaded when the open space between the top tyre in one rack and the bottom of the next rack above is 300 mm or more. When the space is less than 300 mm, the loads are considered fully 'loaded' (see 902.14).

902.33 Portable rack A rack not fixed in place. Portable racks can be arranged in any number of configurations, and include wire baskets without solid sides and bottoms and open-top containers without solid sides but with solid bottoms. Five-sided open-top combustible containers with solid sides and bottoms are treated as open-top combustible containers. Portable rack protection needs are determined by depth of racks as applicable to single row, double row, and multiple row racks, (see figure 9.13).

Figure 9.13 - Portable racks

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902.34 Rack storage Storage in racks that use combinations of vertical, horizontal and diagonal members, with or without solid shelves, to support stored material. Racks may be fixed in place or portable, (see 902.33). Loading may be manual (using forklift trucks, stacker cranes, or hand placement) or automatic (using machine-controlled storage and retrieval systems), (see figures 9.14(a), (b), (c) and (d)).

End View'

A - Load depth B - Load width T - Transverse flue space L-Lcngitudinal flue space

I I 1

ll~~ Aisle View

E - Storage height F - Commodity G-Pallet

Figure 9.14(a} - Rack storage - Automatic storage type rack

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End View

T_ ...... ~ I--T

• r---III I 1 I 'I I 1 1 tI

Ii I i I I .~

I I I

~ I I I I !- _T ! T_

Aisle View

1 - Transverse Flue Space

Figure 9.14(b) - Rack storage - Flow-through pallet rack

end View

T--j 10- --I I-T

~ I I

U. j I I ! I I

- .. F! t:: ::l '-e: ;....

/ I - ..... y I T_ f- I 1 I I r 1 1

11 .. - L. I

Aisle View

Figure 9.14(c) - Rack storage - Drive-in rack, two or more pallets deep - Forklift truck drives into rack to deposit or withdraw

loads in the depth of the rack

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902.35 Roof/ceiling sprinklers

AISLE 'III:. w

Figure 9.14(d) - Rack storage - Cantilever rack

NZS 4541 :2007

Sprinklers fixed to the underside of the roof structure, or in the case of suspended ceilings, the sprinklers installed at the ceiling surface.

902.36 Shelf storage Storage on a structure where solid shelves are less than 800 mm deep, measured from aisle to aisle, are usually less than 600 mm apart vertically. Storage height is usually not greater than 3.6 m, with BOO mm aisles and should not be confused with palletised rack storage on solid shelving, (see 902.39).

902.37 Single row rack A rack with a depth not exceeding 1.B m, separated from adjacent racks by an aisle not less than 1.2 m wide. Single row racks have no longitudinal flue spaces. Single row racks with a depth exceeding 1.8 m shall be considered as double row racks. Single row racks separated from adjacent racks by an aisle of 1.2 m or less shall be regarded as Multiple Row Racks (MRR).

902.38 Solid-pile storage On-floor storage, without pallets or other material handling devices. Unit loads are placed on top of each other leaving no horizontal spaces between unit loads.

902.39 Shelving, solid or slatted Shelving that is fixed-in-place solid, slatted, or other types of shelves located within racks. Solid shelves in racks, (see figure 9.2(b» can promote horizontal fire spread throughout the racks and obstruct sprinkler water penetration down through the racks. The area of solid shelf is defined by minimum 150 mm flue spaces at all four edges of the shelf. However, lesser flue spaces are acceptable if there is as least 75 mm of completely open flue space vertically, with no horizontal or vertical rack members obstructing that space.

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For example, 125 mm flues that have 50 mm wide horizontal rack members within the space, would be acceptable because at least 75 mm of the total flue space is completely open.

Racks with fixed slatted shelves, (see figure 9.2(c)) having uniform openings of at least 50 %, with the maximum slat width between openings not exceeding 150 mm and with at least 75 mm transverse flue spaces at rack uprights, or at least every 3.1 m of rack length, can be treated as racks without solid shelves, (see figure 9.2(a)). Racks with grated, mesh or other types of shelves having uniform openings not more than 150 mm apart, comprising at least 70 % of overall shelf area, and with adequate flue spaces between blocks of storage on the same rack level, can be treated as racks without solid shelves.

Multiple row racks that have pallet loads abutting in one direction, and with transverse flue spaces on each side of each abutting row, are not considered to be rack storage having solid shelves. Racks with slats that are not fixed in place should be treated as solid shelves.

Portable racks, (see 902.33) having solid bottoms not exceeding 1.9 m2, and having flue spaces at

least equal to those needed for multiple row racks, are not considered to be rack storage having solid shelves. Rack storage of nested or pyramided rolled fabric storage on side, or rack storage of other products which can create large shielded areas, with no chance for sprinkler water penetration, need to be evaluated carefully. It may be necessary to treat such storage as rack storage having solid shelves, depending on the total area of shielding and the degree of obstruction to water penetration.

902.40 Standard array (roll paper storage) A storage arrangement where uniform diameter rolls on-end, are in stacks abutting in one direction and 100 mm or more apart in the other direction. The standard array is the most commonly used array for roll paper storage. The standard array is generally found where rolls are uniform in diameter and clamp trucks are used for storage.

902.41 Storage height Maximum height of storage measured from the floor to the top surface of the uppermost level of stored material.

902.42 Tyre rack (tyre storage) Any combination of vertical, horizontal and diagonal members that support tyres. Racks may be fixed or portable, (see 902.33). Some portable racks use a wood pallet as the base. Portable racks, are called palletised storage in the tyre industry, (see figures 9.4 and 9.15).

Figure 9.15 - Portable rack using wood pallet base and steel frame

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NZS 4541 :2007

902.43 Vertical barriers Solid barriers on a vertical plane within a rack extending to the entire height and depth of the rack arranged to limit horizontal fire spread.

NOTE - Examples of acceptable vertical barrier construction materials include the following: (1) Suitably fixed and supported sheet metal, minimum thickness 0.76 mm; (2) Plywood, minimum thickness 9.5 mm for all commodities except in the case of idle pallets where the minimum

thickness should be 19 mm.

903 GENERAL SYSTEM DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

903.1 Wet systems Where there is no likelihood of freezing, extra high hazard class sprinkler systems shall be a wet type. extra high hazard class wet sprinkler systems shall comply with the requirements of 302.1 and this section.

903.2 Freeze protection Where there is a likelihood of freezing, a dry pipe system, an antifreeze system (if specifically listed), or a pre-action type system shall be installed. Unless otherwise noted in this Standard, the area of operation for dry pipe or pre-action shall be increased by 30 %.

NOTE This clause requires that antifreeze systems be listed. Fire testing has been carried out of common antifreeze solutions that indicate that they may fuel the fire. It is not the intent of this Standard to allow the use of antifreeze based systems, unless their suitability has been demonstrated by full scale fire testing. At the time of drafting this Standard, one manufacturer has listed a suppression-based sprinkler system, with a premixed propylene glycol solution, limited to the protection of Class 1 and Class 2 commodities.

Extra high hazard class dry or pre-action sprinkler systems shall comply with the requirements of 302.2, 302.3, 302.4, 302.5 or 302.6 as appropriate, and this section.

Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for extra high hazard class dry or pre-action sprinkler systems.

903.3 Dry pipe systems See 302.2 and 302.3 for requirements for the installation of dry systems.

FM Data Sheet 8-29 may assist in the reliable design of dry pipe sprinkler systems for cool or cold stores.

903.4 Process occupancies Process occupancies have processes using materials mainly of a hazardous nature likely to develop into rapidly and intensely burning fires, but with small, scattered amounts of in-process storage.

See 203.4 for categorisation of process occupancies and 905.11 for Sprinkler System Design Criteria.

903.5 Storage Occupancies Extra high hazard storage occupancies consist of goods and materials likely to produce exceptionally intense fires with a high rate of heat release. They are often piled or stacked at heights that can increase the fire challenge.

The design density for extra high hazard storage occupancies depends on the hazardous nature of the stock and the height of storage. These extra high hazard storage occupancies are subdivided as follows:

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NZS 4541 :2007

(a) Categorised Commodities, including rack storage, solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin box storage of commodity Categories 1 to 6 (Categories 5 and 6 include plastics);

(b) Special Commodities including roll paper, idle pallets, rubber tyres, hanging garments, baled fibres and waste paper, carpet and aerosols.

See Appendix B for categorised and special commodity listings, and the des,gn decision trees (see figures 9.22 and 9.25) for guidance in selecting the appropriate sprinkler system design criteria.

C903.5 ,""

Storag~ fires tend to be very se~ere. 111 $()Jid bl()cks o~stbrage,a fire typically develops of] an exterior face of the pile and travels upward, spreading. ouUn aJa!1-~haped pattem

. . . .

Not onlydoes the fire at the basepre:.heat the,.materia!aboV~ to prepare it forbaming, but th.e radiant heat from this flame usually comes in contact Vi/ith a parallel, vertic~/,surfClce in nearby storage preparing it too for burning. Eventually,· tqe.stlrfacelgnites:~0f1ce the fir~is estab/ishedinboth parallel vertical surfaces, the radiation and· re~radiati()n. of heat between the surfaces results in a fast qevelopingi . very .. $~vere fire. The rapidlyrisingaifcolu/"rrn l11akespenetration byrobflceilingsprinkler water very difficult. This face....fire development ctepends on the surfacema.ferial. For example, it is almost as rapid and intense on. paperi:JagsContainil]g emptysteel.cans as it is on cartons of combustibles. No we vef, fire duration depends mostly on the materialsWithirPthe containers. .

Generally, the ·'argef thfrspaces within a pile the'more severe tl)e fire lJec~use .. of the. availability of combustion air. Co,nversely, the mote a pile is closed,the)ess severe the fire will be: The fire intensity also increaseS with pile height.

The severity can be further· enhanced byhorizonta{spaces, suchCls thosebf3.tween rack levels. This space alloWs the fire to bum from one aisle to another and a/sbsliields ./he lire from sprinkler water applied from above.

The iTlorestable a pile is, the more Severe the firt;J wU/ bebecaus[/siJrfaces are he/din a position that is ideal for burning. Conversely, eClrfy pile col/apse usually contribuUJsto firegontrol.

Rack storage adds furthercomplications.ltexaggeratesthe abo'lephenomena, usually increases the number of burning surfac~s,allowsfor adequate comtfustion airanqtlo,ldsfhecombustib!es ina stable arrangement that is ideal for/J~ming. Sprinkler W.l!lter has dif[ic;ulty penetrating through.· narrow vertical spaces in.racks.

The narrower and higher the space,the less penetration can be expected. The overall result is a persistent fire that needs marwal assistance with small liosestreams[or control and mop-up operations,

A bin box storage fire usually willspread(tJpifieopeflfaceandinto the bins. Even. though the fire inside the box is shielded· from sprinkler water,adequate water wU/ confinl{thefire. to the boxes until manual aid arrives. Shelf storafle will behave sknilarly.

Metal andfke resistant-treated wo6d paitets.mayretardinitial fire.dfwelopment. HoWfwer, after the fire isestab/ished; it continues in about the same way as fire in materia/on untreated wood pallets.

The severity of the fire, ofcourSe,clfJpendscm thernaterial buming~(3enercflly,pfastics and synthetios tend to burt]more furiously than natural or ordinarycombusfibles:

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NZS 4541:2007

903.6 Incidental extra high hazard storage Where extra high hazard storage is secondary to the primary ordinary hazard group 3 classification within the same compartment, it may be determined to be 'incidental' and the design requirements of the primary occupancy classification shall apply, subject to the following requirements:

(a) The extent of any single area of extra high hazard storage shall not exceed 20 m2;

(b) The height of the extra high hazard storage shall not exceed 3 m; and

(c) Where there is more than one area of secondary extra high hazard storage, the separation between the perimeters of adjacent areas shall be not less than 9.2 m.

If the extra high hazard storage is determined as not 'incidental', the design requirements of 904.1.4 shall apply.

NOTE - This is intended to apply to small areas of EHH storage in areas of ordinary hazard occupancy, such as in manufacturing areas. If the areas of incidental storage exceed the parameters stated (for height, area or separation) the design should be evaluated in terms of either an EHH storage risk, or, alternatively, if the storage heights for commodities are less than those given in 203,3.4, the classification could remain an ordinary hazard risk.

903.7 Air handling plant For extra high hazard risks, unless engineering analysis states otherwise, air handling plant shall be automatically shut down on detection of fire.

904 GENERAL HYDRAULIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

904.1 Roof/ceiling sprinklers

904.1.1 Sprinkler types

Roof/ceiling sprinklers for Storage Occupancies, shall be 15 mm or 20 mm orifice standard spray type (SSP or SSU), extra large orifice (ELO), suppression mode or control mode specific application (CMSA) sprinklers.

NOTE CMSA sprinklers were formerly known as large drop sprinklers and suppression mode sprinklers were formerly known as ESFR sprinklers. This edition of this Standard now recognises the newer generation of such sprinklers, with differing K factors.

Roof/ceiling sprinklers for process occupancies, shall be 15 mm or 20 mm orifice standard spray type (SSP/SSU), or extra large orifice (ELO), or extended coverage high hazard (ECHH).

Roof/ceiling sprinkler types for Special Commodities shall be in accordance with the requirements as specified for the particular special commodity.

Spray sprinklers with a K factor of 8 shall only be used for roof/ceiling level densities of up to 10 mm/min.

Spray sprinklers with a K factor of 11.5 shall only be used with roof/ceiling level densities of up to 15 mm/min.

NOTE Full scale fire testing has demonstrated that for a given density of discharge, the use of larger orifices in high piled storage fires will result in few sprinklers operating, with lower levels of damage to commodities,

904.1.2 Temperature ratings

Roof/ceiling sprinklers for process occupancies or categorised commodities, shall have a nominal temperature rating as defined in table 9.1 for standard sprinklers or a temperature rating in accordance with the requirements of a selected CMSA or suppression mode sprinkler.

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NZS 4541:2007

Table 9.1 - Temperature ratings of spray sprinklers

Sprinkler K factor Temperature (L/min kPa-o.5) rating °C

8 141 DC

11.5 141 DC

16 141 DC or 68°C 20 141°C or 68 DC 24 141 °C or 68°C

36 EC 141°C or 68°C

Temperature ratings for special commodities shall be in accordance with the requirements as specified for the particular special commodity.

904.1.3 Location and orientation

For process occupancies or categorised commodities, sprinklers shall be located in accordance with the requirements of Part 5.

For special commodities, sprinklers shall be in accordance with the requirements of Part 5 unless otherwise specified for the particular commodity.

904.1.4 Extension of higher hazard into lower hazard

Where ceiling sprinklers have the same RTI, temperature rating, and where two adjacent areas within the same compartment are protected to requirements of differing design criteria, the design for the higher hazard shall be extended into the lower hazard area at least 4.6 m beyond the perimeter of the higher hazard area, or to a full height wall, see also 905.4.

Where an area of higher hazard is surrounded by a draft curtain and a clear aisle of 3.0 m is kept, centrally located below curtain board, then differing RTI and temperature ratings can be used without extending the area of higher hazard protection.

Figure 9.16 details several typical extra high hazard class storage arrangements with adjacent areas of differing design requirements.

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NZS 4541 :2007 -------------------------------------------------------------

Full height wall

(a) Corner storage area

(b) Side storage area

(c) Island storage area

Perimeter of higher hazard storage area

_ Perimeter of building/compartment height wall)

Higher hazard design density

Adjacent (lower hazard) design density

d minimum extension of higher hazard into lower hazard, see 904.1.4

Full height wall

Figure 9.16 - Examples of adjacent areas with differing design criteria

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NZS 4541 :2007

904.1.5 Spacing of roof/ceiling sprinklers

The spacing of 15 mm or 20 mm orifice Standard Spray type, or Extra Large Orifice roof/ceiling sprinklers, for Process Occupancies or Categorised Commodities, shall be in accordance with the following requirements:

(a) The maximum distance between sprinklers along range pipes and between adjacent rows of sprinklers shall be 3.7 m (see figure 5.2);

(b) The minimum distance between any two adjacent sprinklers shall be 1.B m (see 505.1);

(c) The distance of roof/ceiling sprinklers from walls or partitions shall not exceed half the design spacing.

The spacing of sprinklers for Special Commodities shall be in accordance with the requirements as specified for the particular Special Commodity.

904.1.6 Maximum area coverage per roof/ceiling sprinkler

The area covered by each sprinkler shall be defined by lines drawn midway between adjacent sprinklers at right angles to the line joining the sprinklers (see 1003.2 and 1003.3).

For Process Occupancies or Categorised Commodities, the maximum area coverage per roof/ceiling sprinkler of 15 mm or 20 mm orifice Standard Spray type, shall be in accordance with table 9,2.

Table 9.2 - Maximum area coverage per roof/ceiling sprinkler

Design density for design area I

Maximum area of coverage (mm/min) (m2

)

Up to 10 12.0

Greater than 10 9.0

The maximum area coverage per roof/ceiling sprinkler for Special Commodities shall be in accordance with the requirements as specified for the particular Special Commodity.

904.2 In-rack sprinklers In general, the following requirements also apply to in-rack sprinklers used with control mode specific application and suppression mode sprinklers. Any variations are stated in 90B and 909 respectively.

904.2.1 Types and temperature ratings

Sprinklers within racking shall have a nominal temperature rating of 74°C or less and shall be specifically listed, approved and manufactured with an integral water shield (see 902.20). Standard Spray Sprinklers may be installed where fixed solid shelves or horizontal barriers shield in-rack sprinklers from pre-wetting by sprinklers above. The use of specifically listed sprinkler guards, with an integral water shield shall meet these requirements, when fitted to Standard Spray Sprinklers.

904.2.2 Location and orientation

Sprinklers within racks shall be positioned so that there is not less than 150 mm clearance between the deflectors and the top of the storage immediately below the line of sprinklers.

Sprinklers in longitudinal flues shall be located at the intersection of a transverse and longitudinal flue wherever possible. While sprinklers may be located behind vertical rack uprights, sprinkler deflectors shall, at all times, be located below horizontal rack members.

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NZS 4541 :2007

The horizontal distance to the first in-rack sprinkler, from the end of the rack, shall be not more than half the maximum spacing specified in table 9.3.

Face sprinklers shall be located not more than 460 mm from the aisle face and positioned so that sprinkler discharge is not obstructed from reaching the aisle face of the storage. Face sprinklers located behind or adjacent to rack uprights shall be at least 75 mm clear of the uprights.

Wherever any rack or building structural member is likely to significantly interfere with water discharge distribution from sprinklers, additional sprinklers shall be installed.

Provision shall be made for the protection of pipework and sprinklers against mechanical damage.

NOTE - This clause does not mandate that in-rack sprinklers be fitted with guards.

904.2.3 Connection to distribution pipes attached to the building structure

Where storage racks are freestanding, and the in-rack sprinklers are fed by distribution pipes attached to the building structure, the rack pipework shall be connected to the distribution pipes by flexible pipes or seismic flexible joints. (See figure 4.1 for an example of a seismic flexible joint.)

Flexible pipes shall be approved and contain a continuous pressure-retaining stainless steel or non­ferrous metal inner tube.

Flexible pipes shall not be fitted in the fully extended condition.

904.2.4 Horizontal spacing - Storage height up to 7.6 m

In-rack sprinklers shall be spaced horizontally as set out below:

(a) Single row and double row racks up to 2.7 m deep, without solid shelves. In single row racks up to 1.8 m in depth the in-rack sprinkler line shall be located centrally except where it is susceptible to damage, the line may be located on the non-loading side of the rack. Where single row racks exceed 1.8 m up to 2.7 m in depth, the in-rack sprinkler line shall be located centrally. Sprinkler heads shall be located at least at every alternate transverse flue or alternate gap between pallets, subject to the spacings not exceeding the requirements of table 9.3.

In double row racks, the in-rack sprinkler line shall be located in the longitudinal flue space, with the sprinklers located at least at every alternate junction of a transverse and longitudinal flue or alternate gap between pallets, subject to the spacings not exceeding the requirements of table 9.3.

(b) Single row and double row racks, greater than 2.7 m and up to 3.7 m deep, without solid shelves. In single row and double row racks without solid shelves, greater than 2.7 m deep and up to 3.7 m deep, two lines of in-rack sprinklers shall be provided at each in-rack sprinkler level. The distance between the two lines, and the distance of the two lines from the aisle faces shall be approximately equal. The in-rack sprinklers shall be staggered in relation to those in the tiers immediately above and below, be located in the transverse flues or over gaps between the pallets, and where possible within the longitudinal flues.

The maximum longitudinal spacing between in-rack sprinklers shall be as nominated in table 9.3.

Single row and double row racks deeper than 3.7 m shall be treated as multiple row racks.

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Table 9.3 - Maximum in-rack sprinkler horizontal spacing (racks without solid shelves)

Rack arrangement Categorylmaximum sprinkler spacing (m)

1 and 2 I 3 4,5 and 6 SRR and ORR with 3.7

! 3.1 3.1

aisle width of 1.2 m to 2.4 m and/or rack depth up to 3.7 m I

SRR and ORR with 3.7

I

3.7 3.1 aisle width greater than 2.4 m and/or rack depth up to 3.7 m MRR, 3.7 3.7 3.1 SRR or ORR with aisle width less than 1.2 m and/or

I SRR or ORR with rack depth greater than 3.7 m

(c) Multiple row racks without solid shelves. In multiple row racks without solid shelves, in-rack sprinklers shall be located and spaced in accordance with table 9.3. Figure 9.17(a) or (b) shall also apply as appropriate.

Where only one level of in-rack sprinklers is installed, they shall be staggered horizontally with respect to those sprinklers in adjacent lines, (see figure 9.17(a)).

Where multiple levels of in-rack sprinklers are installed, sprinklers at each level shall be staggered vertically with respect to those sprinklers on levels above and below, (see figure 9.17(b)).

The maximum area coverage per in-rack sprinkler shall be as nominated in 904.2.7.

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DDDDDD

B·B·B·B·B-B DDDDDD DDDDDD

ELEVATION

Loading aisle

Locate at 113 to 2/3

of storage height

Maximum horizontal / spacing as per

11& I table 9.3 and 904.2.4(c)

Loading aisle

PLAN

IS'--"--i- Distance from end 1/2

maximum spacing as per table 9.3

Figure 9.17(a) - Multiple row racks up to 7.6 m high - Only one level of in-rack sprinklers

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A1

ELEVATION

Stagger alternate

L d· . I lines oa mg alse

PLAN

Vertical spacings as per lab!e 9.4

Maxjmum horizontal spacing as per table 9.3 and 904.2.4(c}

Distance from end lIz maximum spadng as per table 9.3

Figure 9.17(b) - Multiple row racks up to 7.6 m high - More than one level of in-rack sprinklers

NZS 4541 :2007

(d) Racks with solid shelves. Where in-rack sprinklers are installed in racks with solid shelves, the requirements of this clause shall be followed as closely as possible. However, when there are flue spaces in the shelves, the in-rack sprinklers shall be located over the flues (especially the transverse flues) wherever possible. Increases up to 600 mm, in the sprinkler horizontal spacings nominated in table 9.3 are acceptable in order to achieve location over flue spaces in solid shelves only.

904.2.5 Vertical spacing - Storage height up to 7.6 m In-rack sprinklers shall be spaced vertically in accordance with table 9.4.

Table 9.4 -In-rack sprinkler vertical spacings, storage height up to 7.6 m

Number of levels of ! Vertical spacing in-rack sprinklers

One 1/2 to % of storage height Two 1/4 to 1/3 and 2/3 to 3/4 of storage height

More than two Locate so that approximately equal heights are protected by each level of in-rack sprinklers and roof/ceiling sprinklers

904.2.6 Horizontal and vertical spacing - Storage height greater than 7.6 m

Horizontal and vertical spacing of IRS shall be in accordance with the requirements of the relevant tables as determined by the design decision tree, figure 9.22.

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904.2.7 Maximum area coverage per sprinkler in multiple row racks

The maximum area coverage per in-rack sprinkler installed within multiple row racks, and single row racks or double row racks with aisle width less than 1.2 m, shall be as follows:

(a) Category 1,2 and 3 commodities...... ....... ........ ...... ............. .......... ... 9.6 m2

(b) Category 4, 5 and 6 commodities....... ....... .................................... 7.4 m2.

904.2.8 In-rack sprinkler installation control assemblies

A supervised subsidiary stop valve may be provided to allow the rack sprinklers to be isolated without isolating roof level protection.

904.3 Sprinkler protection of concealed spaces Should a concealed space (including ducts or plenums) be formed partially or wholly of EPS panel or similar then the requirements of 212 shall apply.

904.4 Sprinkler protection of exposed steel building columns Where rack, solid-pile, shelf, bin-box or palletised storage is greater than 4.6 m in height and is protected by spray or ELO sprinklers at the ceiling or roof level only, in accordance with this section, and exposed steel building columns, or vertical rack members that support the building structure, are within the storage array, sprinkler protection shall be provided in accordance with the following requirements. as appropriate:

(a) A sidewall sprinkler installed on each building column, located between 3.1 m to 4.6 m elevation, pOinted towards one side of the steel column, capable of providing a flow rate of at least 114 Llmin. The flow rate from each sidewall sprinkler within the design area shall be added to the flow rate required for roof/ceiling sprinklers when sizing system pipework. At the point where column protection pipework meets the roof/ceiling pipework, the respective flows shall be balanced in accordance with the requirements of Part 10; or

(b) For hollow tube or box columns provide two sidewall sprinklers, on opposite corners of the column, directed at the column located between 3.1 m to 4.6 m elevation, capable of providing a combined flow rate of at least 114 Llmin; or

(c) The roof/ceiling protection for rack storage of Category 1, 2 and 3 commodities, stored at heights up to 6.1 m, shall be hydraulically designed to provide the applicable design density, as nominated in table 9.5, over a design area of 186 m2

. (No column sprinklers required.)

NOTE Building columns with one side of the column flush with the aisle face of the storage array are not considered to be within the array.

Table 9.5 - Steel column sprinkler protection, option 904.4 (c) - Category 1, 2 and 3 commodities (Higher density in lieu of column sprinklers)

Category I

Multiple row racks and racks with aisle Single and double row racks with width less than 2.4 m aisle width 2.4 m or greater

i (mm/min) (mm/min)

1 I 15.0 I 13.5 2 I 18.0 15.0

3 I 20.0 17.0 NOTE - Column protection requirements are separately specified for areas where special commodities are stored. See 907.12(d) and 907.6.4(d).

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NZS 4541 :2007

904.5 System drainage Supplementary drain valves shall be provided at low points of in-rack sprinkler pipework. Drain stop valves shall be plugged and be located not more than 1.B m above a floor or platform.

905 HYDRAULIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS This section applies to EHH systems using standard spray and extra large orifice. Control mode specific application sprinklers also comply with this section unless modified by 90B.

905.1 Sizing of pipework All extra high hazard class sprinkler systems shall be hydraulically designed in accordance with the methods defined within Part 10.

The appropriate sizing of pipework for extra high hazard class sprinkler systems depends on the following factors:

(a) Required design density and design area or listed minimum head pressure and design number of sprinklers required;

(b) Spacing of sprinklers;

(c) Size of sprinkler orifice used;

(d) Pressure and flow characteristics of the water supply.

905.2 Orifice plates Where it is considered necessary to fit orifice plates in order to assist in hydraulically balancing a system or to meet pump characteristic curves, the diameter of the orifice shall be not less than 50 % of the diameter of the pipe into which the plate is to be fitted. Such orifice plates shall be fitted only in pipes of 50 mm diameter or larger. Orifice plates shall comply with the requirements of Appendix E.

The relationship between the size of the orifice, the flow and the pressure loss, shall be calculated on the basis of the information given in Appendix E.

NOTE The use of orifice plates as a design practice or for the purposes of balancing the hydraulic characteristics of a sprinkler system, is not recommended.

905.3 Roof/ceiling slope The design area, for roof/ceiling protection, shall be increased by 30 % where the pitch of the roof/ceiling slope exceeds 10°, for roof slopes up to 20°. This Standard does not provide design solutions for the protection of extra high hazard occupancies with a roof slope exceeding 20 0.

NOTE-(1) Sawtooth roofs, where the fire plume will be naturally contained, are exempt from this requirement. (2) This clause does not apply to suppression mode sprinklers. See 518.2.2.

905.4 Hydraulic calculation for mixed hazard classifications Where two adjacent areas within the same building are protected to requirements of differing design criteria, the effect of one type of protection on the other shall be carefully analysed to ensure that the greatest hydraulic demand on the system is established. Hydraulic analysis shall include moving the boundaries of the design area by one sprinkler along the length of range pipes, progressively, in each direction, until the area of greatest hydraulic demand has been established.

NOTE This procedure is commonly known as peaking.

Hydraulic calculations shalf incorporate the requirements of 904.1.4 (4.6 m extension of higher hazard into lower hazard), and any group of four adjacent sprinklers within this 4.6 m zone which fall within the design area shall discharge at a flow rate appropriate to the higher density.

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NZS 4541 :2007

Regardless of the number and mixture of sprinklers meeting differing design criteria within each of the areas of operation being analysed, the following requirements shall apply:

(a) The design area for each hydraulic analysis shall be the greater of the two occupancy classification design requirements;

(b) Hydraulic calculation methods and the shape of the design area in each hydraulic analysis shall be in accordance with the requirements of Part 10;

(c) The flow rate for any group of four adjacent sprinklers within the design area shall be not less than that required to maintain the minimum density appropriate to the occupancy classification of each of the two adjoining areas.

905.5 Concealed spaces Where sprinkler protection of concealed spaces is necessary to satisfy the requirements of 207, it shall be hydraulically designed in accordance with the requirements of Part 7.

905.6 Concealed spaces formed of EPS Should a concealed space (including ducts or plenums) be formed partially or wholly of EPS panel or similar then the requirements of 212 shall apply.

905.7 Sprinklers beneath ducts, cable trays and so on Where sprinklers are installed beneath obstructions such as ducts, cable trays and conveyors, sprinklers within the design area up to a maximum of four, at the hydraulically most unfavourable location beneath obstructions shall be assumed to be operating simultaneously with the sprinklers at roof or ceiling level. The Standard Spray sprinklers beneath obstructions shall be hydraulically designed to operate at a minimum discharge pressure of 100 kPa, unless a greater pressure is required by the design criteria of the hazard being protected.

905.8 Platforms and mezzanines with solid floors Solid platforms and mezzanines not more than 2 m wide shall be treated as ducts, cable trays etc. (see 905.7). In the case of walkways between storage fixtures, the requirements of 905.10 shall apply.

Where the area beneath a solid platform or mezzanine greater than 2 m wide is separated from adjoining areas on all sides by a draft curtain, (see 902.9) the flow demand of the sprinklers beneath the platform or mezzanine shall not be required to be added to the flow demand of the sprinklers at roof or ceiling level. However, distribution pipes common to both levels shall be hydraulically sized for the greater of the two hydraulic demands. A clear aisle of 1,200 mm shall be kept centred below the draft curtain.

In all other cases, hydraulic calculations shall be based on simultaneous operation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level and sprinklers beneath the platform or mezzanine within the design area. Hydraulic design requirements for the sprinklers at each level shall be appropriate to the occupancy classification at that level.

905.9 Non-solid floors (including platforms and mezzanines) This clause shall apply in situations where sprinklers at more than one elevation may be expected to operate due to fire spread (and water obstruction) from one level to other levels through non-solid floors such as grated or slatted platforms and mezzanines, (see 905.10 for solid and non-solid walkways between storage fixtures).

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905.9.1 Design constraints

The requirements of 905.9 are subject to the following design constraints:

(a) Occupancies above and below a non-solid floor shall be the same, either both Storage or Process areas, except that a combination of extra high hazard process occupancy and ordinary hazard classification areas is acceptable;

(b) Where rack, shelf or bin box storage exists above or below a non-solid floor, the storage structures at one level shall run parallel to the storage structures at the level above or below;

(c) The total storage height (from base floor to top of storage at uppermost level) of solid pile, palletised, shelf or bin box storage, shall not exceed the height limits nominated in tables 9.11 (a) to 9.11 (e), as appropriate.

Where compliance with the above requirements is not possible, it shall be necessary to cover the non-solid floor with a solid deck and to apply the requirements of 905.8.

905.9.2 Design requirements - General

The following general design requirements shall apply for non-solid floors: (a) Areas above and below non-solid floors shall be treated as one combined fire area; (b) The total storage height shall be taken as the distance from the base of storage at the lowest

level, to the top of storage at the uppermost level; (c) Sprinklers installed beneath the non-solid floor shall be in-rack sprinklers as described in 904.2.1,

fitted with a water shield; (d) The general design and hydraulic design requirements of 904 and 905 shall apply, unless

otherwise required by this section.

905.9.3 Design requirements - Process occupancies

The following design requirements shall apply for process occupancy areas with non-solid floors:

(a) The design criteria for roof/ceiling sprinklers shall be in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905 and table 9.7, based on the highest hazard occupancy present, above or below the non­solid floor;

(b) The design criteria for sprinklers below non-solid floors shall be based upon eight (8) operating sprinklers flowing 84 Llmin each for ordinary hazard or 114 Llmin each for extra high hazard process occupancies;

(c) Sprinklers below non-solid floors shall be in-rack sprinklers, (see 905.9.2(c» with a maximum area per sprinkler of 12 m2

, and a maximum spacing of 3.7 m;

(d) Hydraulic calculations shall be based on roof/ceiling sprinklers and sprinklers beneath non-solid floors operating simultaneously.

905.9.4 Design requirements Solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin box storage

The following design requirements shall apply for solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin box storage areas with non-solid floors:

(a) Where the longitudinal faces of shelf and bin box storage structures at one level are vertically aligned with those above and below non-solid floors throughout the design area, the requirements of 905.10.2 shall apply as an alternative to this clause;

(b) The design criteria for roof/ceiling sprinklers shall be in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905 and table 9.11 (a) to (e), as appropriate, based on the total storage height, (see 905.9.2(b» and the highest category of storage present, above or below the non-solid floor;

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(c) The design criteria for sprinklers below each non-solid floor shall be in accordance with the requirements of table 9.6, based on the highest category of storage present below each non-solid floor;

(d) Sprinklers below non-solid floors shall be in-rack sprinklers, (see 905.9.2(c)), with a maximum area per sprinkler of 9 m2

, and a maximum spacing of 3.7 m;

(e) Hydraulic calculations shall be based on roof/ceiling sprinklers and sprinklers beneath non-solid floors operating simultaneously.

Table 9.6 - Water demands for sprinklers under non-solid floors; solid-piled, palletised, shelf and bin box: storage

Category Demand for sprinklers under non-solid floors

No. of operating Minimum discharge sprinklers rate per sprinkler

(Umin) 1 to 3 6 84

4 8 84 5and 6 8 114

905.9.5 Design requirements Rack storage

The following design requirements for rack storage areas with non-solid floors shall apply:

(a) For total storage heights, (see 905.9.2(b)) not greater than 7.6 m, the design criteria for roof/ceiling sprinklers, and the number of levels of in-rack sprinklers required, shall be in accordance with the requirements of tables 9.12(a) to (r), as appropriate. Horizontal and vertical spacing of in-rack sprinklers shall be in accordance with the requirements of 904.2.4 and 904.2.5;

(b) For total storage heights (see 905.9.2(b» greater than 7.6 m, the design criteria for roof/ceiling sprinklers, and the number of levels, horizontal spacing and vertical spacing of in-rack sprinklers, shall be in accordance with the requirements of tables 9.13(a) to (f), as appropriate;

(c) In determining the design criteria from the foregoing tables, each aisle width shall be taken as the least continuous clear space present, from the base of storage at the lowest level, up to the top of storage at the uppermost level (see 'clear aisle' examples 1 and 2 in figure 9.18(a»;

(d) Hydraulic design requirements for in-rack sprinklers shall be in accordance with 905.12.2;

(e) When one of the required number of levels of in-rack sprinklers can be located directly beneath the non-solid floor without exceeding the vertical spacing limitations for in-rack sprinklers, the sprinklers beneath the non-solid floor may be considered as one level of in-rack sprinklers, and shall be installed as follows:

(i) The design criteria shall be the same as for in-rack sprinklers

(ii) For single-row racks the sprinklers shall be located longitudinally along the centre of each rack

(iii) For double-row racks the sprinklers shall be located as shown in figure 9.18(b)

(iv) For multiple-row racks the sprinklers shall be located as shown in figure 9.18(c).

Hydraulic calculations shall be based on roof/ceiling sprinklers and in-rack sprinklers (including the sprinklers directly beneath the non-solid floor) operating simultaneously, as necessary to satisfy the requirements of 905.12.2;

(f) When one of the required number of levels of in-rack sprinklers cannot be located directly beneath the non-solid floor without exceeding the vertical spacing limitations for in-rack

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sprinklers, an additional level of in-rack sprinklers shall be installed beneath the non-solid floor.

The design criteria for the additional level of in-rack sprinklers shall be the same as for other in­

rack sprinklers. Hydraulic calculations shall be based on roof/ceiling sprinklers and in-rack

sprinklers (excluding the sprinklers directly beneath the non-solid floor) operating simultaneously

in accordance with the requirements of 905.12.2.

Roof I ceiling

« « H2 ; E E

E E 0 0

..L (,) (,)

x x x

Example 1 Comm. A:;;; commodity Category 2

Comm. B commodity Category 3

(table 9.12(g), 1 level IRS)

HT :::: 6.1 m h1 ::; 2.4 m Hz:::: 3.0 m Clear aisle:;;: 1.6 m

M7

Total water demand:::: Roof/ceiling sprinklers +

sprinklers under non-solid floor

Roof/ceiling demand 11.5 mm/min/186 m2 with

141°C sprinklers (see table 9.12(g))

12m

Sprinklers under non-solid floor:::: 6 sprinklers, each

discharging 84 Llmin (see table 9.6)

Total water demand 2,140 + 505 Llmin [4J

NOTE

Roof !cedmg ---------------------------,

« « « Hz E E E

§ E E 0 0

(,) ..L_

(,) (,) 12m . . .

Example 2 Comm. A :;;: commodity Category 5

(table 9.12(m), 2 levels IRS) Comm. B = commodity Category 3

HT = 6.7 m h1 = 3.0 m Hz:::: 3.0 m Clear aisle = 1.8 m

Ilr

Total water demand = Roof/ceiling sprinklers + Rack

Roof/ceiling demand = 12 mm/min/186 mZ with

141°C sprinklers (see table 9.12(m))

Rack demand [2] :;;; 14 sprinklers, each

discharging 114 Llmin (see table 9.6) Total water demand:;;: 2,235 + 1,600 Llmin [4]

(1) In Example 1, table 9.4 establishes that the sprinklers beneath the non-solid floor are deemed to be one level of IRS. They are to be installed in accordance with figure 9.18(b) (in the case of MRR figure 9.18(c) would apply).

(2) In Example 2, neither of the 2 levels of IRS, required by table 9.12(m), can be located beneath the non-solid floor without exceeding the vertical spacing requirements of table 9.4. Therefore 905.9.5(f) applies, resulting in the requirement for sprinklers beneath the non-solid floor as well as the 2 levels of IRS. They are to be installed in accordance with figure 9.18(b) (in the case of MRR figure 9.18(c) would apply).

(3) In Example 2, the rack demand shall also be available under the non-solid floor, but not simultaneously with the rack demand (see 905.9.5(f)).

(4) Water demands given above are theoretical minimum rates only. The actual flow rates will be greater due to wastage as pressure increases at sprinklers due to friction losses in pipework.

Figure 9.18(a} - Design examples for rack storage on a non-solid floor structure showing clear aisle

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00 00

DO DO

Non solid fIOO~ 0 0 _l} l} __

r" x x x x

00 DO Maximum height

00 DO "A"

j 00 00 End View' Plan View

For Categorised Commodities (see 906)

Dimensions "A" and "8" see: 904.2.4 Horizontal spacing - Storage height up to 7.6 m

904.2.5 Vertical spacing - Storage height up to 7.6 m 904.2.6 Horizontal and vertical spacing - Storage height greater

than 7.6 m

Figure 9.18(b) - Design examples for double row rack storage under a non-solid floor structure to be considered as one level of in-rack sprinklers

Maximum height

"A"

Non solid Floor

)( )(

DODD DODD DODD

End View

Maximum spacing "8"

)(

)( x

Plan View

Maximum spacing "C"

Distance from end not more than 11, "C"

For Categorised Commodities (see 906)

Dimensions "A", "8"

and "C"

see 904.2.4 Horizontal spacing Storage height up to 7.6 m 904.2.5 Vertical spacing - Storage height up to 7.6 m

904.2.6 Horizontal and vertical spacing Storage height greater than 7.6 m

Figure 9.18(c) - Design examples for multiple row rack storage under a non-solid floor structure under non-solid floor structure to be considered as one level of in-rack sprinklers

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905.10 Walkways (Solid and non-solid)

905.10.1 Rack storage

Where any walkways are installed between racks, the roof/ceiling and in-rack sprinkler design requirements shall be determined as if the walkway does not exist.

The flow demand for sprinklers beneath the walkway shall be in accordance with the requirements of table 9.6 as applied to sprinklers beneath a non-solid floor, and shall be based on the highest category of commodity being stored. However, when sprinklers are installed in racks, the sprinklers beneath the walkway shall meet the same criteria as the in-rack sprinklers. The flow demand for the in-rack sprinklers shall not be required to be added to the flow demand for sprinklers under the walkways, however, total design area demand shall include the greater of the two flow demands.

Sprinklers under walkways between rack storage can be considered as one level of in-rack sprinklers when they are:

(a) Within 460 mm of the face of racks;

(b) In line with at least every alternate transverse flue;

(c) Horizontal and vertical spacings do not exceed the maximum spacing nominated in 904.2 for in­rack sprinklers.

See figure 9.19 for an example of the application of these requirements.

NOTE-

Roof/ceiling

x x x x )( x

- ..----<;( <;(

E E E

)( E Grated, slatted 0 0

0 0 or solid walkway ,..----x

Flo or

ht '" 7.6 m Comm. A commodity Category 4 Without solid shelves Clear aisle = 1.2 m Floor to ceiling height'" 13.5 m

)( )( x x

- -« « E E E x E 0 0 0 0

h

t

Total water demand = roof/ceiling + rack demand Roof/ceiling demand:;; 16 mm/min/186 m2 (table 9.120)) Rack demand!1] = 8 sprinklers, each discharging 84 Llmin (table 9.9) Total water demand = 2975 + 675 = 3650 Llmin[2]

(1) This demand should also be available from the sprinklers under the walkway, but not simultaneously with the rack demand.

(2) Total water demands given above are theoretical minimum rates only. The actual flow rates will be greater due to wastage as pressure increases at the sprinkler due to friction losses in pipework.

Figure 9.19 - Design example for rack storage with grated, slatted or solid walkway

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905.10.2 Shelf and bin box storage

The design criteria for sprinklers at roof/ceiling level over shelf and bin box storage, shall be in

accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905, based on the height of storage above the walkway and on the highest category of commodity being stored.

The height of storage above the walkway shall be limited to 4.6 m.

The design criteria for sprinklers beneath walkways shall be in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905 for in-rack sprinklers.

Design area demand calculations shall be based on the assumption that sprinklers at roof/ceiling level

and sprinklers beneath walkways are operating simultaneously.

See figure 9.20 for an example of the application of these requirements.

Roof I Ceiling

x x x x x x x x x x

« « « « Ha

E E E E E Grated, E Grated, E Grated, E a slotted or a slotted or a slotted or a U solid walkway U solid walkway U solid walkway U

x x X

HT

Floor .I...-_.....L. ___ ...J..._.-...JI...-__ --l __ ..L-___ ..L-_--L __ ....l-

NOTE

HT = 6.1 m Comm. A = commodity Category 4 H}1J = 2.4 m

Floor to ceiling height = 12.0 m Aisle = 1.1 m Total water demand = roof/ceiling sprinklers + sprinklers under walkway Roof/ceiling demand = 7 mmlmin/186 m2 (table 9.11 (a))

Sprinklers under walkway demand = 8 sprinklers, each discharging 84 Llmin, (table 9.9) Spacing between sprinklers under walkway is 3.1 or 3.7 m maximum (table 9.3) Total water demand 1,300 + 675 Llmin [2]

(1) Shelf storage of Category 1 to 6 commodities is limited to 4.6 m high above walkway. (2) Total water demands given above are theoretical minimum rates only. The actual flow rates will be greater due to

wastage as pressure increases at sprinklers due to friction losses in pipework.

Figure 9.20 - Design example for bin box and shelf storage with grated, slatted or solid walkway

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905.11 Process occupancies For extra high hazard process occupancies, design densities and design areas shall be as given in

table 9.7.

General design requirements (Le. type, temperature rating, area coverage and spacing) for roof/ceiling level sprinklers, shall be in accordance with 904.1.1 to 904.1.6.

Table 9.7 - Design density and design area for process occupancies

Occupancy Design Design area density, (m

2)

(mm/min)

Aircraft engine testing 10.0 260 Aircraft hangars (1) 7.5 Zone protection (deluQe system)

Celluloid manufacturers and celluloid 12.5 260 goods manufacturers

Coal fired energy plants 10.0 260 Distilleries (still houses) 12.0 260

Electrical/electronic manufacturing and 7.5 260 assembly (predominantly plastic

components)

Exhibition halls with unusually high 12.0 360 ceilings and high concentration of

combustibles Firelighter manufacturers [2] 10.0 260 Firework manufacturers 10.0 Complete deluge protection

required for each building

Flammable liquid spraying 12.0 260 Floor cloth and linoleum manufacturers 7.5 260 Foam plastiCS goods manufacturers and 12.0 260 processing

Foam rubber goods manufacturers and 12.0 260 rocessing

storage tanks 10.0 Entire exterior of tank

t and varnish works 7.5 260 ! (solvent based) [2)

Plastics goods manufacturing and 12.0 260 process works (where plastic is one of the basic materials in the operation)

Resin and turpentine manufacturers [2) 7.5 260 Theatrical scenery store 10.0 260 Tar distillers [2) 10.0 260 Heavy vehicle repair workshops 10.0 260 NOTE (1) A suitable alternative design approach to the protection of aircraft hangars is provided in

ANSI/NFPA 409. (2) Supplementary protection by high or medium velocity sprayers, as appropriate, will be required in

these occupancies in areas where solvents or other flammable liquids are stored or handled (see 203.5)

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905.12 Storage occupancies

905.12.1 Roof/ceiling sprinklers

Design densities and design areas for roof/ceiling sprinklers shall be in accordance with tables 9.11 (a) to (e), tables 9.12(a) to (r) and tables 9.13(a) to (f) as appropriate.

See 906.1 and the design decision tree, (figure 9.22) for guidance in the selection of an appropriate table and figure.

General design requirements (i.e. type, temperature rating, area coverage and spacing) for roof/ceiling level sprinklers, shall be in accordance with 904.1.1 to 904.1.6.

Roof/ceiling sprinkler design density adjustments, in accordance with the requirements of table 9.8, are permissible after all other necessary adjustments have been made.

Table 9.8 - Roof/ceiling sprinkler design density adjustments

~.rack sprinkler levels Roof/ceiling sprinkler design density adjustment one None

One level, when none needed. When the design table gives options for either 'roof/ceiling sprinklers only' or for 'roof/ceiling plus in-rack sprinklers', use the roof/ceiling design density for the 'roof/ceiling plus in-rack sprinklers' entry. When the only option is 'roof/ceiling only' sprinklers, the design density may be reduced by 20 %.

More than one level when none needed, or more Reduce the design density by 20 % from that than one level when one needed. applicable to one level of in-rack sprinklers. More than two levels when two levels needed. Reduce the design density by 20 % from that

applicable to two levels of in-rack sprinklers. Sprinkler levels spaced vertically, at intervals Reduce the design density by 40 % from that between 1.1 m and 1.8 m, when the applicable applicable to the minimum number of required levels design requirements specify a greater vertical of in-rack sprinklers. spacinQ.

905.12.2 In-rack sprinklers

In-rack sprinkler pipework shall be hydraulically designed to provide the nominated minimum discharge rate from each of the nominated number of sprinklers operating simultaneously at the hydraulically most unfavourable location within the design area, in accordance with the requirements of table 9.9.

Where more than one level of in-rack sprinklers is installed, the nominated number of operating sprinklers from table 9.9, shall be assumed to be operating at each of the two hydraulically most unfavourable aqjacent levels.

Where more than one row of in-rack sprinklers is installed at a level, the nominated number of operating sprinklers from table 9.9 shall be assumed to operating in the hydraulically most unfavourable arrangement of up to three rows of in-rack sprinklers at each level. For example if 6 heads are nominated in table 9.9 then hydraulic calculations shall check 1 row of 6 heads, 2 rows of 3 heads and 3 rows of 2 heads to determine the most unfavourable demand.

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In the sizing of distribution pipework, the water flow required by the in-rack sprinklers shall be added to that required by the roof/ceiling sprinklers and sprinklers protecting building columns, (see 904.4). At the points where the in-rack pipework meets the roof/ceiling pipework, the respective flows shall be balanced in accordance with Part 10.

General design requirements (I.e. type, temperature rating, area coverage and spacing) for in-rack sprinklers, shall be in accordance with 904.2.1 to 904.2.8.

Other in-rack sprinkler design and installation requirements for Categorised Commodities shall be in accordance with tables 9.12(a) to (r); and tables 9.13(a) to (f) as appropriate (also see design decision tree figure 9.22 for guidance in selection of appropriate tables).

In general these requirements also apply to Special Commodities (see 907), however some aspects of the design requirements may differ.

Table 9.9 - Minimum in-rack sprinkler hydraulic design criteria

Category Number of Total number Storage height Storage height levels of in- of sprinklers up to 7.6 m greater than 7.6 m

rack '--"

sprinklers Min. sprinkler discharge Min. sprinkler discharge rate rate

(L/min) (Llmin) 1,2 and 3 1 6 84 114

2 or more 5 on 2 levels 4 1 8 84

2 or more 7 on 2 levels 5 and 6 1 8 114

I 2 or more 7 on 2 levels

905.12.3 Concealed space sprinklers

Should a concealed space (including ducts or plenums) be formed partially or wholly of EPS panel or similar then the requirements of 212 shall apply.

905.12.4 Excessive clearance - Categorised commodities

Where the clearance between roof/ceiling sprinklers and the top of rack storage exceeds 6.1 m, one of the following four options shall be applied:

(a) Sprinkler protection shall be provided that complies with the requirements of this section for a storage height that would correspond to a maximum clearance. (For example, if storage is 4.6 m high in a 12.2 m high bullding, sprinkler protection shall satisfy the requirements for a 6.1 m high storage);

(b) A suspended ceiling shall be installed, at least 1 m above the top of the storage and above the aisles between storage, with sprinklers installed beneath the suspended ceiling. The design criteria for the sprinklers beneath the suspended ceiling shall be in accordance with the requirements of 905.12.1.

NOTE - Suspended ceilings should be of substantial construction, capable of withstanding temperatures above 550°C for up to 10 minutes, and uplift velocity pressures of at least 0.14 kPa.

Concealed spaces above suspended ceilings should be protected in accordance with the requirements of 207. In the sizing of distribution pipework, the water flow required for concealed

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NZS 4541 :2007

space sprinklers is not required to be added to that required for the sprinklers beneath the suspended ceiling;

(c) In the case of rack storage, a line of in-rack sprinklers shall be installed 900 mm to 1500 mm above the top of the rack storage, designed in accordance with the requirements of 905,12,2 (see figure 9.21), Roof/ceiling sprinkler protection shall be the same as for racks without solid shelves and with a clearance not exceeding 6,1 m; or

Pipe support

900 mm 1500 mm

t LOAD LOAD

Figure 9.21 - Optional arrangement for all categorised commodities with clearance greater than 6.1 m

(d) A horizontal barrier (see 902,17), extending to the full length and width of storage within each rack shall be installed 1 m to 1,5 m above the top of the storage, with in-rack sprinklers installed beneath the barriers designed in accordance with the requirements of 905,12,2, These sprinklers do not require shields, In addition, the sprinklers at roof/ceiling level shall be hydraulically designed to satisfy the minimum design criteria specified in table 9.10. Hydraulic calculations shall incorporate the flow and pressure requirements for roof/ceiling sprinklers and sprinklers beneath barriers operating concurrently.

Table 9.10 - Minimum roof/ceiling sprinklers hydraulic design criteria for excessive clearance

Category Design density Design area (mm/min) (m2

)

1 6,1 186 2 to 6 inclusive 8.2 186

905.12.5 Excessive clearance - Special commodities

Where the clearance between roof-ceiling sprinklers and the top of storage exceeds the maximum clearance nominated for the particular Special Commodity storage configuration, sprinkler protection shall be provided that complies with the design requirements for a storage height which would correspond to a maximum clearance. (For example, if the maximum clearance nominated is 3 m, and storage is 5 m high in a 9 m high building, sprinkler protection shall satisfy the requirements for a 6 m storage height.)

Where this design alternative cannot be applied, a suspended ceiling shall be installed, at least 1 m above the top of the storage and above the aisles between storage, with sprinklers installed beneath the suspended ceiling. The design criteria for the sprinklers beneath the suspended ceiling shall be in accordance with the requirements specified for the particular commodity,

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NOTE - Suspended ceilings should be of substantial construction, capable of withstanding temperatures above 550°C for up to 10 minutes, and uplift velocity pressures of at least 0.14 kPa.

Concealed spaces above suspended ceilings should be protected in accordance with the requirements of 207. In the sizing of distribution pipework, the water flow required for concealed space sprinklers is not required to be added to that required for the sprinklers beneath the suspended ceiling.

906 CATEGORISED COMMODITIES This section specifies the requirements and procedures for the design of standard sprinkler system protection for commodities that can be categorised by their occupancy classification (see Appendix B).

For protection of Special Commodities see 907.

906.1 Design decision trees for categorised commodities The design decision tree in figure 9.22 is provided for general guidance in selecting the appropriate level of protection for high piled storage of categorised commodities, but should be used with particular consideration of Appendix B. Alternative design approaches using control mode specific application and suppression mode Sprinklers are provided in 908 and 909.

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KEY­

BB

SP

P

ShS

WSS

pss SS

SRR

ORR

MRR

Cat. 5

Cat. 6

Cat, 1 to 4

Bin box

Solid pile

Palietised

Shelf

Without solid shelves

Cat. 5

wss

PSS

SS

WS5

PS5

SS

WSS

PSS

55

WSS

PSS

5S

WSS

PSS

55

Partial solid shelves (1.9 m 2 to 5.9 m 2)

Solid shelves (> 5.9 m2)

Single row rack

Double row rack

Multiple row rack

Table No.

fl. 11(d!

!l.II(e)

9.11(a)

9.11(l:»

g.lt(e)

9.12(,,)

9. 12(b)

9. 12(e)

9. 12(g)

9. 12(h)

9.12(11

9. 1201

9.12(/<1

9.12(11

9. 12(m)

9. 12(nl

9.12(0)

Figure 9.22 - Categorised commodities design decision tree

9 -42

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NZS 4541 :2001

906.2 Solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin box storage Categorised Commodities for solid pile, pailetised. shelf and bin box storage, shall be in accordance with tables 9.11 (a) to (e).

Table 9.11 (a) - Design criteria for categories 1 to 4: Solid pile, palletised, shelf and bin box storage

, Storage Category height rOD, mmlmin

i (m) 1 2 3 ! 4 4.6 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 4.8 6.0 6.0 6.5 7.5 5.0 6.0 6.5 7.0 8.0

5.2 6.0 6.5 7.0 8.5 ,....-..

,---5.4 6.0 6.5 7.5 9.0

f--5.6 i 6.0 6.5 8.0 9.5 5.8 6.0 7.0 8.5 10.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 10.5 6.2 6.0 7.0 9.0 11.5 6.4 6.5 7.5 9.5 12.0

6.6 7.0 8.0 10.0 12.5 6.8 7.5 8.5 10.5 13.5 7.0 8.0 9.0 11.0 14.0 7.2 8.0 9.0 11.0 14.5 7.4 8.5 9.5 11.5 15.5 r---

12.0 7.6 9.0 10.0 16.0 7.8 i 9.5 10.5 12.5 17.0 8.0 10.0 11.0 13.5 18.0 8.2 10.0 11.5 14.0 19.0

8.4 10.5 12.0 14.5 19.5 8.6 11.0 12.5 15.5 20.5 8.8 11.5 13.0 16.0 21.5 9.0 12.0 ! 13.5 16.5 22.5 9.2 nip 9.4 nip 9.6 nIp 9.8 n/~ 10.0 nIp 10.2 nIp 10.4 nIp 10.6 nIp 10.7 nIp

Table 9.11(a) design constraints

The requirements of this table shall apply, subject to the following design constraints: (i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1). (ii) A design area of 186 m2 at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notation 1). (iii) The various design densities and design areas are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry

notations 1 and 2). (Iv) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905. (v) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2). (vi) Shelf storage as defined in 902.36. (vii) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2). (viii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

9 ·43

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.11(a) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements) 1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2). 2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4. 3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3). 4. No adjustment to these requirements is necessary for encapsulated commodities (see 902.11). 5. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2. 6. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4. 7. rOO - Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min. 8. nIp - not permitted.

9 -44

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.11{b) - Desjgn criteria for category 5: Solid pile, palletised and shelf storage

Maximum storage Maximum rooflceiling height

height Up to 4.6 m 4.7 to 6.1 6.2 to 7.6 7.7t09.1m 9.2 to 10.7 m 10.8 to 12.2 m

(m) m m

rOO rOA rOO rOA rOO rOA rOO rOA rOO rOA rOO rOA

1.5 8.0 232 12.0 186 12.0 186 (Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

1.6 8.0 232 12.0 188 12.5 189 18.0 232

(Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

1.8 8.0 232 12.5 191 13.0 195 18.0 232

(Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

2.0 8.0 232 13.0 194 14.0 201 18.0 232

(Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

2.2 8.0 232 13.5 197 14.5 207 18.0 232

(Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

2.4 8.0 232 13.5 200 15.5 214 18.0 232

(Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

2.6 8.0 232 14.0 203 16.5 220 18.0 232

(Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

2.8 8.0 232 14.5 206 17.0 226 18.0 232

(Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

3.0 8.0 232 15.0 209 18.0 232 18.0 232

(Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

3.2 15.5 211 15.5 211 18.5 235 18.5 235 24.0 280 (Note (Note

(Note 2) 2) 2)

3.4 15.5 214 15.5 214 19.0 242 19.0 242 24.0 280 (Note (Note

(Note 2) 2) 2)

3.6 16.0 217 16.0 217 20.0 248 20.0 248 24.0 280 (Note (Note

(Note 2) 2) 2)

3.8 nip 16.5 220 21.0 255 21.0 255 24.0 280 (Note 2)

(Note 2)

4.0 nip 17.0 223 21.5 261 21.5 261 24.0 280 (Note (Note

(Note 2) 2) 2)

4.2 nip 17.0 226 22.5 267 22.5 267 24.0 280 (Note (Note

(Note 2) 2) 2)

4.4 nip 17.5 229 23.0 274 23.0 274 24.0 280 (Note (Note

(Note 2) 2) 2)

4.6 nip 18.0 232 24.0 280 24.0 280 24.0 280 (Note (Note

2) 2)

4.8 nip 24.0 280 24.0 280 24.0 280 nip

5.0 nip 24.0 280 24.0 280 24.0 280 nip

5.2 nip 24.0 280 24.0 280 nip

5.4 nip 24.0 280 24.0 280 nip

5.6 nip 24.0 280 24.0 280 nip

5.8 nip 24.0 280 24.0 280 nip

6.0 nip 24.0 280 24.0 280 nip

6.1 nip 24.0 280 24.0 280 nip

9 - 45

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.11(b) design constraints

The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints:

(i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

(ii) The various design densities and design areas are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

(iii) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

(iv) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2).

(v) Shelf storage as defined in 902.36.

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2).

(vii) Rooffceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10.0°) (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.11(b) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements)

1. For dry or pre-action systems multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 903.2).

2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10.0°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3).

4. No adjustment to these requirements is necessary for encapsulated commodities (see 902.11).

5. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2.

6. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4.

7. rDD - Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

8. rDA Roof/ceiling design area, m2.

9. nip not perm itted.

9 -46

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.11{c) - Design criteria for category 6: Solid pile, palletised and shelf storage

Maximum Maximum roof/ceiling height

storage ! Up to 4.6 m 4.7 to 6.1 m 6.2 to 7.6 m 7.7t09.1 m 9.2 to 10.7 m

height rOO rOA rOO rDA rOO rOA rOD rOA rOD rDA

(m)

1.50 12,0 186 12.0 186 12.0 186 Note 2) (Note 2)

1,60 13,0 188 no 192 13,0 192 24,0 280 (Note 2) (Note 2)

1.80 14.5 191 14,5 204 ~4 24.0 280 (Note 2) (Note 2)

2.00 16.0 194 16.0 216 1 6 24,0 280 (Note 2) (Note 2'

2.20 17.5 197 17.5 227 1 . 7 24.0 280 (Note 2) (Note 2)

2.40 19,0 200 19.0 239 19.0 239 240 280 (Note 2) (Note 2)

2,60 20,5 203 20.5 251 20.5

~ 24,0 280 (Note 2) (Note 2)

2,80 22,0 206 22.0 263 22.0 24.0 280 (Note 2) (Note 2'

3.00 23.5 209 23.5 274 23.5 274 24.0 280 (Note 2) (Note 2\

3,20 24,0 285 24,0 285 24.0 293 24.0 293 24,0 465

(Note 2)

3.40 24,0 294 24.0 294 24,0 317 24,0 317 24.0 465

(Note 2)

3.60 24,0 303 24.0 303 24.0 342 24,0 342 24.0 465

(Note 2)

3.80 nIp 24.0 312 24,0 367 24.0 367 24.0 465

(Nole2)

4,00 n 24,0 321 24.0 391 24.0 391 24.0 465

(Note 2)

4,20 nip 24.0 330 24,0 416 24,0 416 24,0 465

{Note 2)

4.40 nip 24,0 ! 339 24,0 441 24,0 441 24.0 465

, (Note 2)

4.60 nip 24.0 348 24,0 465 24.0 465 24.0 465

Table 9.11 (c) design constraints The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints: (i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

10.8 to 12.2 m

rOO rDA

(Note 2)

{Note 2)

(Note 2)

(Note 2)

(Note 2)

(Nole 2)

(Note 2)

(Note 2)

(Note 2)

(Nole 2) ! (Note 2)

(Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

(Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2) {Note 2)

(ii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2). (iii) The various design densities and design areas are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry

notations 1 and 3). (iv) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905. (v) Shelf storage as defined in 902.36. (vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2). (vii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.11 (c) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements) 1. For dry or pre-action systems multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 903.2). 2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4. 3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3). 4. No adjustment to these requirements is necessary for encapsulated commodities (see 902.11). 5. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2. 6. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4. 7. rDD - Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min. 8. rDA - Roof/ceiling design area, m2

,

9. nIp - not permitted.

9·47

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.11 (d) - Design criteria for category 5: Bin box storage

Maximum storage Maximum roof/ceiling height

height Upto 4.6 4.7 to 6.1 6.2 to 7.6 7.7 to 9.1 m 9.2 to 10.7 m 10.8 to 12.2 m (m) m m m

rOO rOA rOO rOA rOO rOA rOO rDA rOO rOA I rOO rOA

1.50 8.0 2:iL 12.0 186 12.0 186 (Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

1.60 8.0 232 12.0 189 12.0 189 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

1.80 8.0 232 12.0 195 12.0 195 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

2.00 8.0 232 12.0 201 12.0 201 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

2.20 8.0 232 12.0 206 12.0 206 12.0 232 I (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

2.40 8.0 232 12.0 212 12.0 212 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

2.60 8.0 232 12.0 218 12.0 218 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

2.80 8.0 232 12.0 224 12.0 224 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

3.00 8.0 232 12.0 229 12.0 229 12.0 232 (Note (Note 2) (Note 2)

2)

3.20 12.5 229 12.5 229 12.5 232 12.5 232 18.0 232 (Note (Note2)

(Note 2) 2)

3.40 13.0 223 13.0 223 13.0 232 13.0 232 18.0 232 (Note (Note 2)

(Note 2) 2)

3.60 14.0 217 14.0 217 14.0 232 14.0 232 18.0 232 (Note (Note 2)

(Note 2) 2)

3.80 nIp 15.0 211 15.0 232 15.0 232 18.0 232 (Note 2)

I (Note 2)

4.00 nip 1

15.5 205 15.5 232 15.5 232 18.0 232 (Note (Note (Note 2)

2) 2)

4.20 nIp 16,5 199 16.5 232 16.5 232 18.0 232 (Note (Note 2)

(Note 2) 2)

4.40 nIp 17.0 192 17.0 232 17.0 232 18.0 232 (Note (Note 2) I (Note 2) 2)

4.60 nIp 18.0 186 18.0 232 18.0 232 18.0 232 (Note (Note 2) I

2)

4.80 nip 18.0 232 18.0 232 18.8 232 18.8 232 24.0 232

(Note 2)

5.00 nip 18.0 232 18.0 232 19.6 232 19.6 232 24.0 232

(Note 2)

5.20 nIp 18.0 232 20.4 232 i 20.4 232 24.0 232

(Note 2)

5.40 nip 18.0 232 21.2 232 21.2 232 24,0 232

(Note 2)

5.60 nip 18.0 232 22.0 232 22.0 232 24.0 232

(Note 2)

5.80 nip 1

18.0 232 22.8 232 22.8 232 24.0 232

(Note 2)

9 -48

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.11 (d) - Design criteria for category 5: Bin box storage (continued)

Maximum roof/ceiling height I Maximum storage height !

• (m) I Up to 4.6 m 4.7 to 6.1 m 6.2 to 7.6 m 7.7to 9.1 m 9.2 to 10.7 m 10.8 to 12.2 m

i rOD I rOA rOD I rDA rOD rDA rOD rDA rDD rDA rDD I rDA

6.00 nip

~ 232 23.6 23.6 232 24.0 232 (Note 2)

6.20 nip 232 24.0 232

6.40 nIp 24.0 232 24.0 232

6.60 nip I 24.0 232 24.0 232

6.80 nIp 24.0 232

7.00 n/~ 24.0 232

7.20 nit! 24.0 232

7.40 nl~ 24.0 232

7.60 nIp 24.0 232

Table 9.11(d) design constraints

The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints:

(i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

nip

nIp

nip

nip

nip

nip

nIp

nip

(ii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for, dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2).

(iii) The various design densities and design areas are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry

notations 1 and 3).

(iv) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 90S.

(v) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2).

(vi) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°). (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.11(d) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements)

1. For dry or pre-action systems multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 903.2).

2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10 degrees), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3).

4. No adjustment to these reqUirements is necessary for encapsulated commodities (see 902.11).

S. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2.

6. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4.

7. rOD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

8. rDA Roof/ceiling design area, m2

9. nIp - not permitted.

9·49

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.11(e) - Design criteria for category 6: Bin box storage

Max. Maximum roof/ceiling heil ht

storage Up to 4.6 m 4.7 to 6.1 m 6.2 to 7.6 m 7.7109.1 m 9.2 to 10.7 m 10.8 to 12.2 m height rOD rOA rOD rOA rOD rOA rOD rOA rOD rOA rOD rOA

(m)

150 8.0 232 12.0 186 12.0 186 (Note 2) (Note 2) J.Note ~

1.60 8.0 232 12.0 189 12.0 189 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

I I (Note 2)

1.80 8.0 232 12.0 195 12.0 I 195 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

I ~Note~

2.00 8.0 232 12.0 201 12.0 I 201 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

i I (Note 2)

2.20 8.0 232 12.0 I 206 12.0 I 206 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

i (Note 2)

2.40 8.0 232 12.0 212 12.0 212 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

2.60 8.0 232 12.0 218 12.0 218 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note ~

2.80 8.0 232 12.0 224 12.0 i

224 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

J (Note 2)

3.00 8.0 232 12.0 ! 229 12.0 i 229 12.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

I (Note 2)

3.20 12.5 229 12.5 I 229 12.5 232 12.5 232 18.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

3.40 13.0 223 13.0 223 13.0 232 13.0 232 18.0 232

J (Note 2) (Note 2)

{Note ~ .. i

3.60 14.0 217 14.0 i 217 14.0 I 232 14.0 232

I 18.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

3.80 nip 15.0 i

211 15.0 232 15.0 232 J 18.0 232 (Note 2) i

(Note 2)

4.00 nip 15.5 205 15.5 232 15.5 232 I 18.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

i lNote~

4.20 nip 16.5 199 I

16.5 232 16.5 232 18.0 232 (Note i (Note 2) (Note 2)

I 2)

4040 nip 17.0 192 17.0 232 17.0 232 18.0 232 (Note 2) (Note 2)

(Note 2)

4.60 nip 18.0 186 I 18.0 232 18.0 232 18.0 232 (Note 2) (Note~

4,80 nip 18.0 i 232 18.0 i 232 18.8 232 18.8 232 24.0 232

(Note 21. 5.00 nip 18.0 232 18.0

i 232 19.6 232 19.6 232 24.0 232

jNote21

5.20 nip 18.0 i

232 I 20.4 232 2004 232 24.0 232

(Note~

5040 nip 18.0 : 232 I 21.2 232 21.2 232 24.0 232

J.Note~

5.60 nip 18.0 232 22.0 232 22,0 232 24.0 232

JNote~

5.80 nip 1

18,0

232 22.8 232 22,8 232 24.0 232

(Note 2l 6.00 nip i 18.0 232 23.6 232 23.6 232 24.0 232

i JNote 2l

9 -50

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.11 (e) - Design criteria for category 6: Bin box storage (continued)

I Max. Maximum roof/ceiling hei ht

I storage Upto4.6m I 4.7 to 6,1 m I 6.2to7.6m 7.7 to 9.1 m 9.2 to 10.7 m 10.8 to 12.2 m

height rOO I rOA i rOO I rOA I rOO I rOA I rOO rOA rOO I rOA

(m) • I! 6.20 nip i 24,0 232 24,0 232 nIp

6.40 n/!2 I 24,0 232 24,0 232 nIp

6,60 nIp I 24,0 232 24,0 232 nl!2

6.80 nip 24,0 232 nl!2

7,00 nip 24,0 232 nip

7.20 nip 24,0 232 nip

r-- 7.40 nIp 24,0 232 nip

7,60 nip 24,0 232 nip

Table 9.11(e) design constraints

(i) The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints:

(ii) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1),

rOD

(iii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for, dry or pre-action systems (see 903,2),

I rOA

(iv) The various design densities and design areas are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry

notations 1 and 3),

(v) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905,

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2),

(vii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3),

Table 9.11(e) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements)

1. For dry or pre-action systems multiply the specified design area by 1.3 (see 903.2).

2, For clearance in excess of 6,1 m, see 905,12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3). 4. No adjustment to these requirements is necessary for encapsulated commodities (see 902,11),

5. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2.

6. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4.

7. rOD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

8. rOA Roof/ceiling design area, m2.

9. nIp - not permitted.

906.3 Rack storage height up to 7.6 m Standard sprinkler system protection for categorised commodities stored in racks up to 7.6 m in height, shall be in accordance with tables 9.12(a) (r).

9 - 51

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.12(a) - Design criteria for category 1: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, without solid shelves

Storage Aisle width (m) height 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4

(m) rOD No. rOD I No. I

rOD No. rOD (mmlmin) of (mm/min) lof (mm/min) of ~mm/min)

Without With IRS Without With IRS Without With IRS Without • With IRS IRS levels IRS IRS levels IRS IRS levels . IRS • IRS

3.1 6,00 n/r - 6,00 n/r - 6,00 n/r - 6,00 n/r

3,2 6,00 n/r - 6,00 n/r - 6,00 n/r - 6,00 n/r

3.4 6,50 n/r - 6,50 n/r - 6,00 n/r - 6,00 n/r

3,6 6,50 n/r - 6,50 n/r - 6,50 n/r - 6,50 n/r

3,8 7,00 n/r - 7,00 n/r - 6,50 n/r - 6.50 n/r

4,0 7,00 n/r - 7,00 n/r - 6,50 n/r - 6,50 n/r

4,2 7,50 n/r - 7,00 n/r - 7,00 n/r - 6,50 n/r

4.4 7,50 n/r - 7,50 n/r - 7,00 n/r -I

7,00 n/r

4,6 8,00 n/r - 7,50 n/r - 7,50 n/r - 7,00 n/r

4,8 8,50 n/r - 8,00 n/r 8.00 n/r - 750 n/r

5,0 9,50 n/r - 9,00 r - 9.00 n/r - 8,50 8,00

5.2 10.00 n/r - 9,50 n/r - 9.50 n/r - 9,00 8.00

5.4 10,50 n/r - 10,00 n/r - 10.00 n/r - 9,50 8,00

5.6 11.50 n/r - 11.00 n/r - 11.00 n/r - 10,50 8.00

5,8 12,00 n/r - 11,50 n/r - 11.50 n/r - 11.00 8,00

6,0 12,50 n/r - 12,00 n/r - 12,00 n/r - 11.50 8.00

6.2 1350 9,00 1 13.00 8.50 1 13.00 8.50 1 12.50 • 8,00

6.4 15,00 9,00 1 14,50 8.50 1 14,50 8,50 1 14,00 8.00

6.6 16,50 9,00 1 16.00 8.50 1 15.50 8.50 1 15.00 8.00 ..

6.8 17,50 9,00 1 17,00 8.50 1 16,50 8,50 1 16.00 8.00

7.0 19,00 9.00 1 18.50 8,50 1 18.00 8,50 1 17.50 8,00

7.2 20.50 9.00 1 20,00 8,50 1 19.00 8.50 1 18,50 8,00

7.4 21,50 9.00 1 21.00 8.50 1 20.50 8,50 1 20.00 8,00

7,6 23,00 9.00 1 22.50 8,50 1 21.50 8.50 1 21.00 8.00

Table 9.12(a) design constraints

(i) The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints:

(ii) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1),

(iii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2),

(iv) A design area of 186 m2 at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

(v) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and 5),

(vi) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

I No. • of

IRS levels

--

----

----1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

(vii) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2).

(viii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths.

Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks;

- Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks;

- Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles,

(ix) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3),

9 -52

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.12(a) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements)

1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2).

2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3).

4. For encapsulated commodities adjust the design density as follows:

(a) For roof/ceiling sprinklers only, multiply the roof/ceiling design density by 1.5.

(b) For roof/ceiling and in-rack sprinklers, multiply the roof/ceiling design density by 1.25.

5. Where extra levels of in-rack sprinklers are provided, in excess of those specified in the table, adjust the

design density, after making any adjustments for encapsulation, in accordance with the requirements of table

9.8.

6. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.1

7. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4.

8. rOD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

9. rDA Roof/ceiling design area, m2

10. n/r - not required.

9·53

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.12(b) - Design criteria for category 1: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves 1.9 to 5.9 m2

Storage height 1.2 1.6 2.4

(m) rOD No. rOD No. No. rOD mm/min of mm/min of of mm/min

Without With IRS Without With IRS IRS Without IRS IRS levels IRS IRS levels levels IRS

3.1 6.00 n/r 6.00 n/r 6.00 n/r 6.00

3.2 n/r 6.00 n/r 6.00 nlr 6.00

3.4 n/r 6.00 n/r 6.00

3.6 n/r 6.50 n/r 6.50

3.8 n/r 6.50 n/r 6.50

4.0 n/r 6.50 n/r 6.50

4.2 7.50 n/r 7.00 n/r 7.00 6.50

4.4 7.50 n/r 7.50 n/r 7.00 n/r 7.00

4.6 8.00 nlr 7.50 n/r 7.50 nlr 7.00

4.8 9.00 8.50 8.50

5.0 9.00 8.50

5.2 9.00 8.50

5.4 9.00

5.6 9.00

5.8

6.0 8.50

6.2 8.50 2 8.50

6.4 8.50 2 8.50

6.6 8.50 2

6.8 2 8.50 2

7.0 9.00 2 8.50 2

7.2 9.00 2

7.4 9.00 2 8.50 2

7.6 9.00 2 8.50 2

Table 9.12(b) design constraints (i) The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints:

(ii) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

(iii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2).

(iv) A design area of 186 m2 at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

With IRS

n/r

nlr

nlr

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

(v) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and 5).

(vi) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

No. of

IRS levels

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

(vii) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2).

(viii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths.

- Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks;

- Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks;

- Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles.

(ix) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.12(b) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements) 1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2).

2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3).

4. No adjustment is necessary for encapsulation (see 902.11).

9 -54

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NZS 4541 :2007

5. Where extra levels of in-rack sprinklers are provided, in excess of those specified in the table, adjust the

design density, in accordance with the requirements of table 9.8.

6. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2.

7. Steel column protection may be required. see 904.4.

8. rOD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

9. nIp not permitted.

10. n/r - not required.

Table 9.12(c) - Design criteria for category 1: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves greater than 5.9 m2

Maximum Aisle width (m)

storage 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4

height rOO No. of rOO No. of rOD No. of rOO

(m) (mmfmin) IRS I

(mmf~ IRS (mmfmin) IRS (mmfmin) Without With levels Without h levels Without With levels Without

IRS IRS IRS IRS IRS IRS

3.1 I 8.00 nfr ofr 8.00 I nfr nfr 8.00 nfr nfr 8.00

7.6 nfp 6.00 l@ET nIp I 6.00 1@ET nIp 6.00 l@ET nIp

Table 9.12(c) design constraints (i) The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints:

(ii) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

(iii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2).

(iv) A design area of 186 m2 at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

(v) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notation 4).

With IRS

nfr

6.00

(vi) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

No. of

IRS

levels

nfr

1@ET

(vii) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2).

(viii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths:

- Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks;

- Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks;

- Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles.

(ix) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.12(c) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements)

1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2).

2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (1 GO), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3).

4. No adjustment is necessary for encapsulation (see 902,11).

5. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2.

6. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4.

7. rOD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

8. nip - not permitted.

9. n/r - not required.

10, 1@ET IRS levels spaced between 1.1 m and 1,8 m vertically.

9·55

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NZS 4541 : 2007

Table 9.12(d) - Design criteria for category 2: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, without solid shelves

Storage Aisle width (m) height 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4

(m) rOD No. rOD No. rDO No. of rOD (mm/min of (mm/min) of (mm/min) IRS (mm/min)

Without IRS Without With IRS Without With levels IRS levels IRS IRS levels IRS IRS

3.1 6.00 - 6.00 n/r - 6.00 n/r -3.2 6.00 - 6.00 n/r - 6.00 n/r -

3.4 6.50 - 6.50 n/r - 6.50 n/r -3.6 7.00 n/r - 7.00 n/r - 6.50 n/r -3.8 7.50 n/r - 7.50 nlr - 7.00 n/r -4.0 8.00 n/r - 7.50 nl - 7.50 n/r -4.2 8.00 n/r - 8.00 n/r - 7.50 n/r -4.4 8.50 n/r - 8.00 n/r - 8.00 n/r -4.6 9.00 n/r - 8.50 n/r - ! 8.50 n/r -4.8 10.00 n/r - 9.50 n/r - 9.00 n/r -5.0 10.50 n/r - 10.00 n/r - 10.00 n/r -5.2 11.50

~ - 11.00 n/r - 10.50 n/r -

5.4 12.00 n/r - 11.50 n/r - 11.00 n/r -

5.6 13.00 - 12.50 n/r - 12.00 n/r -5.8 14.00 - 13.50 n/r - ! 12.50 n/r -6.0 14.50 n/r - 14.00 n/r - 13.00 nlr -6.2 16.00 10.00 1 15.00 9.50 1 14.50 9.50 1 6.4 17.50 10.00 1 16.50 9.50 I 1 16.00 9.50 1 6.6 19.00 10.00 1 18.00 9.50 1 17.50 9.50 1 6.8 20.50 10.00 1 19.50 9.50 1 18.50 9.50 1 7.0 22.00 10.00 1 21.00 9.50 1 2OW5O 1 7.2 24.00 10.00 1 23.00 9.50 1 21.50 9.50 1 7.4 25.50 10.00 1 24.00 9.50 1 23.00 9.50 1 7.6 27.00 1000 1 25.50 9.50 1 24.50 9.50 1

Table 9.12(d) design constraints The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints: (i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

Without IRS 6.00 6.00 6.50 6.50 7.00 7.00 7.50 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.50

10.00 10.50 1150 12.00 12.50 13.50 15.00 16.50 17.50 19.00 20.50 21.50 23.00

(ii) Gridded pipework confi~urations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2). (iii) A design area of 186 m at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

With IRS n/r n/r n/r n/r nlr n/r n/r n/r n/r n/r n/r n/r n/r nlr n/r n/r

9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00

(iv) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and 5). (v) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

No. of

IRS levels

----

----

--------1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table entry notation 2).

(vii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths: Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks;

- Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks; - Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles.

(viii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.12(d) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements) 1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2). 2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4. 3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3). 4. For encapsulated commodities adjust the design density, after making any adjustments for roof/ceiling

sprinkler temperature rating, as follows: (a) For roof/ceiling sprinklers only, multiply the roof/ceiling design density by 1.5. (b) For roof/ceiling and in-rack sprinklers, multiply the roof/ceiling design density by 1.25.

5. Where extra levels of in-rack sprinklers are provided, in excess of those specified in the table, adjust the design density, after making any adjustments for encapsulation, in accordance with the requirements of table 9.8.

6. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.1. 7. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4. 8. rOD - Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min. 9. n/r not required.

9 -56

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NZS 4541:2007

Table 9.12{e) - Design criteria for category 2: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves 1.9 to 5.9 m2

Storage ! Aisle width (m) height 1.2 I 1.6 -2.0 I 2.4

(m) rOD No. of I rOD I No. of rOD No. of rOD (mm/min) IRS . (mm/mint IRS~ IRS (mm/minl

Without With levels Without With levels Wit With levels IRS IRS IRS IRS IR IRS

3.1 6~C - 6.00 n/r 6.00 Ir -3.2 6. Ir - 6.00

±! q: 6.00 n/r -

3.4 6. /r - 6.50 - 6.50 n/r -3.6 7.00 n/r - 7.00 - 6.50 I n/r -

3.8 7.50 t! - 7.50 n/r - 7.00 n/r -

4.0 8.00 - 7.50

~ - 7.50 n/r -

4.2 8.00 - 8.00 - 7.50 n/r -4.4 8.50 n/r - 8.00 n/r - 8.00 n/r -4.6 9.00

~ - 8.50 n/r - 8.50 n/r -

.8 nip 10. 1 nip 9.50 1 nip 9.50 1

5.0 nip 10. 1

~ 1 nip 9.50 1

5.2 nip 10.00 1 nl 50 1 nip 9.50 1

5.4 nip 10.00 1 nIp 0 1 nip ! 9.50 1

5.6 nip ~oo 1 nip 9.50 1 nip ! 9.50 1

5.8 nip .00 1 nip 9.50 1 nIp 9.50 1

6.0 nIp .00 1 nIp 9.50 1 nip 9.50 1

6.2 nip 10.00 2 nIp I ~ ~A I 2 nip 9.50 2

6.4 nip 10.00 2 nIp 9.50 2 nIp ~~ 6.6 nip 2 nIp 'it' nIp

6.8 nIp 2 nip 9. 2 nIp 9.50 2

7.0 nip 10.00 2 nIp 9. 2 nip 9.50 2

7.2 nIp 10.00 2 nIp 9.50 2 nIp 9.50 2

7.4 nip 10.00 2 nIp 9.50 2 nip 9.50 2 7.6 nIp 10.00 2 nip 9.50 2 nip 950 2

Table 9.12(e) design constraints The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints: (i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

Without IRS

6.00

6.00

6.50

6.50

7.00

7.00

7.50

7.50

8.00

nip

nip

nIp

nip

nIp

nIp

nIp

nIp

nIp

nIp

nip

nIp

nip

nIp nip

(ii) Gridded pipework confi~urations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2). (iii) A design area of 186 m at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

With IRS

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00 9.00

(iv) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and S). (v) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 90S.

No. of IRS

levels

---------1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table entry notation 2).

(vii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths: - Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks; - Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks; - Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles.

(viii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.12(e) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements) 1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2). 2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 90S.12.4. 3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 90S.3). 4. No adjustments are necessary for encapsulation (see 902.11). 5. Where extra levels of in-rack sprinklers are provided, in excess of those specified in the table, adjust the

design density, after making any adjustments for encapsulation, in accordance with the requirements of table 9.8.

6. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2. 7. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4. 8. rDD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min. 9. nIp - not permitted. 10. n/r- not required.

9 - 57

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.12(f) - Design criteria for category 2: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves greater than 5.9 m2

Maximum Aisle width {m}

storage 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4

height rOD I No.of rOD No. of rOD No. of i rOD (m) (mm/min) IRS (mm/min) IRS (mm/min) IRS (mmfmin)

I

I

i

levels I Without I With levels levels Without With Without With : Without With I IRS IRS 'IRS IRS IRS IRS i IRS IRS

3.1 8.00 n/r - 8.00 I nfr - 8.00 n/r - 8.00 n/r i

No. of

IRS

levels

-

7.6 nIp 6.00 1@ET nIp I 6.00 1@ET nIp 6.00 1@ET nIp 6.00 I 1@ET

Table 9.12(f) design constraints

The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints:

(i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

(ii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2).

(iii) A design area of 186 m2 at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

(iv) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and 5).

(v) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2).

(vii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths: - Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks;

Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks; - Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles,

(viii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.12(f) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements)

1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2),

2. For clearance in excess of6.1 m, see 905.12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3).

4. No adjustments are necessary for encapsulation (see 902.11).

5. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2.

6. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4.

7. rDD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

8. nIp - not permitted.

9. n/r - not required.

10. ET one at each tier, IRS levels spaced between 1.1 m and 1.8 m vertically.

9 - 58

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NZS 4541 : 2007

Storage

height

(m)

3.1

3,2

3.4

3,6

3,8

4,0

4,2

4.4

Table 9.12(g) - Design criteria for category 3: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, without solid shelves

Aisle width (I'll)

1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4

rOD No. rDD No. rDD No. rOD

(mm/min) of (mm/min) of (mm/min) of (mm/min)

I Without With IRS Without With IRS Without With IRS Without With

I IRS IRS levels IRS IRS levels IRS IRS levels IRS IRS

6,00 nlr - 6.00 n/r - 6,00 n/r - 6,00 n/r

r 6,50 n/r 6.00 n/r - 6,00 n/r

n,r - 7,00 n/r - 6.50 n/r - 6,50 n/r

7,50 n/r - 7,50 n/r - 7.00 n/r - 7,00 n/r

8.50 n/r - I 8,00 n/r - 8.00 n/r - 7,50 n/r

9,00

I "Ie I := I 8.50 n/r - 8,50 n/r - 8,00 n/r

9.50 9,00 n/r - 8.50 n/r - 8,00

10,50 10,00 n/r - 9,00 n/r - 8,50

m n/r - 10.50 n/r - 9,50 n/r - 9.00 n/r

12.00 n/r - 0 n/r - 10,50 n/r - 10,00 n/r

n/r - Ir - 11,50 n/r - 10,50 n/r

n/r - 13,00 n/r - 12,50 n/r - 11,50 n/r

n/r - 13.50 n/r - 13.00 n/r - 12,00 n/r

56 15.50 n/r - 14,50 n/r - 14,00 n/r - 13,00 n/r

5,8 16.50 n/r - 15,50 n/r - 15,00 n/r - 14,00 n/r

6,0 17.50 n/r - 16,50 n/r - 15.50 n/r - 14,50 n/r

No.

of

IRS

levels

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

--

-

-

---

6,2 nIp 12.00 1 nip 11,50 1 nip 10,50 1

* 6.4 nl nip 11,50 1 nip 10,50 1

nip 10.00 : 6.6 nIp 12.00 1 nip 11.50 1 nip 10.50 1

6.8 nIp 12.00 1 nip 11,50 1 nip 10.50 1 nip 1

nip 12,00 1 r-!- 11,50 1 nip 10.50 1 I nip 1

7.2 nip 12,00 1 11,50 1 nip 10,50 1

7.4 nip 12,00 1 nip 11,50 1 nIp 10.50 1

7,6 nip 12.00 1 nIp 11.50 1 nip 10,50 1

Table 9.12(g) design constraints

The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints:

(i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

nip

nip

nip

(ii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2).

(iii) A design area of 186 m2 at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

10.00

10,00

10,00

(iv) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and 5).

(v) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

1

1

1

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2),

(vii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths. Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks;

- Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks; - Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles.

(viii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

9 - 59

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.12(g) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements)

1, For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2). 2, For clearance in excess of 6,1 m, see 905.12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3).

4. For encapsulated commodities adjust the design density as follows: (a) For roof/ceiling sprinklers only, multiply the roof/ceiling design density by 1.5; (b) For roof/ceiling and in-rack sprinklers, multiply the roof/ceiling design density by 1.25 (see 902.11).

5. Where extra levels of in-rack sprinklers are provided, in excess of those specified in the table, adjust the

design density, after making any adjustments for encapsulation, in accordance with the requirements of table

9.8. 6. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.1.

7. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4.

8. rDD - Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

9. nip - not permitted,

10, n/r- not required.

9 -60

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NZS 4541:2007

Table 9.12(h) - Des~gn criteria for category 3: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves 1.9 to 5.9 m2

Storage Aisle width (m)

height 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4

(m) rOD No. rOD No. rOD No. of rOD

(mm/minJ of (mm/minJ of (mm/min) IRS (mm/min)

Without With IRS Without With IRS Without With levels

IRS IRS levels IRS IRS levels IRS IRS

3.1 6.00 n/r - 6.00 n/r - 6.00 n/r -

3.2 6.50 n/r - 6.50 n/r - 6.00 n/r -3.4 7.00 n/r - 7.00 n/r - 6.50 n/r -3.6 7.50 n/r - 7.50 n/r - 7.00 n/r -3.8 8.50 n/r - 8.00 n/r - 8.00 n/r -4.0 9.00 n/r - 8.50 n/r - 8.50 n/r -4.2 9.50 n/r - 9.00 n/r - 8.50 n/r -

4.4 10.50 n/r - 10.00 n/r - 9.00 n/r -4.6 11.00 n/r - 10.50 n/r - 9.50 n/r -4.8 nip 12.00 1 nip 11.50 1 nip 10.50 1

5.0 nip 12.00 1 nip 11.50 1 nip 10.50 1

5.2 nip 12.00 1 nip 11.50 1 nip 10.50 1

5.4 nip 12.00 1 nip 11.50 1 nip 10.50 1

5.6 nip 12.00 1 nip 11.50 1 nip 10.50 1

5.8 nip 12.00 1 nip 11.50 1 nip 10.50 1

6.0 nip 12.00 1 nip 11.50 1 nip 10.50 1

6.2 nip 12.00 2 nip 11.50 2 nip 10.50 2

6.4 nip 12.00 2 nip 11.50 2 nip 10.50 2

6.6 nip 12.00 2 nip 11.50 2 nip 10.50 2

6.8 nip 12.00 2 nip 11.50 2 nip 10.50 2

7.0 nip 12.00 2 nip 11.50 2 nip 10.50 2

7.2 nip 12.00 2 nip 11.50 2 nip 10.50 2

7.4 nip 12.00 2 nip 11.50 2 nip 10.50 2

7.6 nip 12.00 2 nip 11.50 2 nip 10.50 2

Table 9.12(h) design constraints The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints: (i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

Without

IRS

6.00

6.00

6.50

7.00

7.50

8.00

8.00

8.50

9.00

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

(ii) Gridded pipework conf~urations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2). (iii) A design area of 186m at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

With

IRS

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

10.00

(iv) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and 5). (v) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

No. of

IRS

levels

-

-----

-

-

-

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table entry notation 2).

(vii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths: - Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks; - Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks; - Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles.

(viii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.12(h) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements) 1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2). 2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4. 3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3). 4. No adjustments are necessary for encapsulation (see 902.11). 5. Where extra levels of in-rack sprinklers are provided, in excess of those specified in the table, adjust the

design density, in accordance with the requirements of table 9.8. 6. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2. 7. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4. 8. rDD - Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min. 9. nip - not permitted. 10. n/r - not required.

9 - 61

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.12(i) - Design criteria for category 3: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves greater than 5.9 m2

Storage

height

(m)

3.1

7.6

Table 9.12(i) design constraints

rOD

1.6

With

IRS

nlr

6.00

Aisle width m

No. of rOD

IRS

levels Without

IRS

8.00

2.0

With

IRS

nlr

6.00

No. of

IRS

levels

1 ET

The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints: (i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

rOD

Without

IRS

8.00

nIp

(ii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2).

(iii) A design area of 186 m2 at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

2.4

With

(iv) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and 5).

(v) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

No. of

IRS

levels

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2).

(vii) Design densities apply to double row racks with varying aisle widths: - Protect single row racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as double row racks.

Protect single row racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as multiple row racks. Protect multiple row racks as double row racks with 1.2 m aisles.

(viii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.12(i) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements)

1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2).

2. For clearance in excess of6.1 m, see 905.12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3).

4. No adjustments are necessary for encapsulation 902.11).

5. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2.

6. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4.

7. rDD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

8. nIp not permitted.

9. n/r not required.

10. ET - IRS levels spaced between 1.1 m and 1.8 m vertically.

9 - 62

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.120) - Design criteria for category 4: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, without solid shelves

Storage r------

Aisle width (m) height 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 (m) rOD No. rOD No. of rOD

(mm/min) of (mmlmin) IRS (mm/min of 'DD~ No (mm/min) IRS levels IRS

Without With levels Without With Without levels Without

IRS IRS IRS IRS IRS IRS

3.1 i 8.00 nfr - 8.0 nfr - 8.00

~~ 3.2 8.50 nfr - 8.5 nfr - 8.50 nfr - 8.

3.4 9.00 nfr - 9.0 nfr - 9.00 nfr 9.00

36 10.00 n/r - 10.0 nfr - 9.50 n/r 9.50

3.8 11.00 n/r - 10.5 nfr - 10.50 n/r - 10.00

4.0 11.50 n/r - 11.0 n/r - nfr - 10.50

4.2 12.50 nfr - 12.0 o/r - 11.50 I n/r - 11.00

4.4 13.00 nfr - 12.5 n/r - 12.00 n/r - d:=l 4.6 14.00 9.00 1 13.5 8.50 1 12.50

~ 4.8 nIp 10.00 1 nIp 9.50 1 nip nip

5.0 nip 11.00 1 nIp 10.50 1 nip nIp

5.2 nip 12.00 1 nIp 11.50 1 nIp ";=t 5.4 nip 12.50 I 1 nIp 12.00 1 Ip 11.00 1 nl

56 nfp 13.50 1 nlo 13.00 1 nIp 12.00 1 nIp

5.8 nip 14.50 1 nip 13.50 1 nip 13.00 1 nip

6.0 I nIp 15050+=*= nip 14.50 1 nIp 13.50 1 nip

6.2 nip 16.00 nip 15.00 1 nip 14.00 1 nip

6.4 nIp 16.00 nip 15.00 1 nip 14.00 1 nip

6.6 nip 16.00 1 nip 15.00 1 nIp 14.00 1 nip

.8 nIp 16.00 1 nip 15.00 1 nip 14.00

~ nip 16.00 1 nip 15.00 1

~~ 7.2 nip 16.00 1 nip 15.00 1 nl 1 nIp

7.4 nip 16.00 1 nfp 15.00 1 nfp 1 nip

7.6 nIp 16.00 1 nip 15.00 1 nip 1 nIp

Table 9.12(j) design constraints

The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints:

(i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

(ii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2).

(iii) A design area of 186 m2 at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

With

IRS

nfr

nlr

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

nfr

8.00

8.50

9.50

10.00

10.50

11.50

12.00

12.50

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

(iv) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and 5).

(v) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905,

No. of IRS

levels

-

----

-

--1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2).

(vii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths: Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks;

- Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks; - Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles.

(viii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

9 -63

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.12(j) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements)

1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2).

2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3).

4. For encapsulated commodities adjust the design density as follows: (a) For roof/ceiling sprinklers only, multiply the roof/ceiling design density by 1.5; (b) For roof/ceiling and in-rack sprinklers, multiply the roof/ceiling design density by 1.25 (see 902.11).

5. Where extra levels of in-rack sprinklers are provided, in excess of those specified in the table, adjust the

design density, after making any adjustments for encapsulation, in accordance with the requirements of table

9.8.

6. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.1.

7. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4.

8. rOD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

9. nIp not permitted.

10. n/r not required.

9 - 64

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NZS 4541 :2007 -----

Table 9.12(k) - Design criteria for category 4: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves 1.9 to 5.9 m2

Maximum Aisle width (m) storage 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 height rOO No. of rOO No. of rOO No. of . rOO

(m) (mm/min) IRS (mm/min) IRS (mm/min) IRS (mm/min) Without With levels Without With levels Without With levels

IRS IRS IRS IRS IRS IRS

3.1 8.00 n/r - 8.00 n/r - 8.00 n/r

3.2 8.50 nlr - 8.50 n/r - 8.50 n/r

3,4 10.00 n/r - 10.00 nlr - 10.00 nlr -3.6 11.50 n/r - 11.50 nlr - 11.50 nlr -

3.8 12.50 n/r - I 12.50 nlr - 12.50 n/r -

4.0 1400 n/r - 14.00 n/r - 14.00 n/r -4.2 15.50 n/r - 15.50 n/r - 15.50 n/r -

4.4 16.50 n/r - 16.50 n/r - 16.50 n/r -

4.6 18,00 9,00 1 18.00 8.50 1 18.00 8.50 1

4.8 nip I 10.00 1 nip 9.50 1 nip 9,00 1

5.0 nip 11.00 1 nIp 10.50 1 nIp 10.00 1

5.2 nIp 12.00 1 nIp 11.50 1 nIp i 10.50 1

5,4 nip 12.50 1 nip 12.00 1 nIp 11.00 1

5.6 nip 13.50 1 nIp 13.00 1 nip I 12.00 1

F:: nIp 14.50 1 nIp 13. 1 nIp 13.00 1

tn/P 15.50 1 nip 14.50 1 nIp ! 13.50 1

6.2 nip 16.00 2 nIp 15.00 2 nip 14.00 2

6,4 nIp 16.00 2 nIp 15.00 2 nIp 14.00 2

6.6 nIp 16.00 2 nIp 15.00 , 2 nIp 14.00 2

6.8 nIp 16.00 2 nIp 15.00 2 nIp 14.00 2

7.0 nIp 1600 2 nIp 15.00 2 nIp 14.00 2

7.2 nip 16.00 2 nIp 15.00 2 nIp 14.00 2

7.4 nIp 16.00 2 nIp 15.00 2 nip 14.00 2

7.6 nIp 16.00 2 nIp 15.00 2 nip 14.00 2

Table 9.12(k) design constraints The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints: (i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system: (see table entry notation 1).

Without IRS

8.00

8.50

10.00

11.50

12,50

14.00

15.50

16.50

18.00

nip

nIp

nIp

nIp

nip

nIp

nIp

nip

nIp

nIp

nIp

nIp

nIp

I nIp

nip

(ii) Gridded pipework confi~urations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2). (iii) A design area of 186 m at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

With IRS

n/r

n/r

nlr

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

n/r

8.00

8.50

9,50

10.00 '

10.50

I 11.50

12,00

12.50

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

(iv) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and 5), (v) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

No. of IRS

levels

--------1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table entry notation 2).

(vii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths: - Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks; - Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks; - Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles.

(viii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10°) (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.12(k) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements) 1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2). 2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4. 3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10°), multiply the design area by 1,3 (see 905.3). 4. No adjustments are necessary for encapsulation (see 902.11) . 5. Where extra levels of in-rack sprinklers are provided, in excess of those specified in the table, adjust the

design density, in accordance with the requirements of table 9.8. 6. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2. 7. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4. 8. rDD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min. 9. nIp - not permitted. 10. n/r - not required.

9 -65

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NZS 4541 :2007

Table 9.12(1) - Design criteria for category 4: Rack storage height up to 7.6 m, solid shelves greater than 5.9 m2

Storage Aisle width (m)

height 1.2 1.6 I 2.0 2.4

(m) rOO I No. of rOO I No.of rOD I No. of rOD I No. of

(mm/min) IRS (mm/min) i IRS (mm/min) IRS (mm/min)

Without With levels Without With levels Without With levels

IRS IRS IRS IRS IRS IRS

3.1 8.00 n/r - 8.00 n/r - I 8.00 n/r -7.6 nIp 8.00 1@ET nIp 8.00 1@ET I nIp 8.00 I 1@ET

Table 9.12(1) design constraints

The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints: (i) A wet, dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1).

Without

IRS

8.00

nIp

(ii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903.2).

(iii) A design area of 186 m2 at roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 1 and 3).

With

IRS

n/r

8.00

i

(iv) The various design densities are applicable at the roof/ceiling level (see table entry notations 4 and 5).

(v) The installation of sprinklers at roof/ceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904 and 905.

IRS

levels

-

1@ET

(vi) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the roof/ceiling (see table

entry notation 2).

(vii) Design densities apply to Double Row Racks with varying aisle widths: Protect Single Row Racks with aisles 1.2 m or greater, as Double Row Racks; Protect Single Row Racks with aisles less than 1.2 m as Multiple Row Racks;

- Protect Multiple Row Racks as Double Row Racks with 1.2 m aisles.

(viii) Roof/ceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10") (see table entry notation 3).

Table 9.12(1) entry notations (modifications and additional design requirements)

1. For dry or pre-action systems, increase the design area to 248 m2 (see 903.2).

2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4.

3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10"), multiply the design area by 1.3 (see 905.3).

4. No adjustments are necessary for encapsulation (see 902.11).

5. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.2.

6. Steel column protection may be required, see 904.4.

7. rDD Roof/ceiling design density, mm/min.

8. nIp not permitted.

9. n/r not required.

10. ET -IRS levels spaced between 1.1 m and 1.8 m vertically.

9 -66

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-I III 0-

Maximum roof/ceiling height <D Max (Q

storage Upl04.6m 4.7106.1 m 6.2107.6 m 7.7109.1 m 9.21010.7m 10.81012.2 m 12.3 to 13.7 m :....

heigh I t-J

(m) IRS levels lAS levels lAS levels lAS levels lAS levels lAS levels IRS levels ]: 0 0 I 1 I 2 0 I 1 I 2 0 I 1 I 2 0 I 1 I 2 1 I 2 2 I

rOD I rDA rOD I rDA I rOD I fDA I rOD I rDA rOD I rDA ! rOD I rDA I rOD 1 rDA rOD I rDA I rOO I rDA I rOD I rOA rOD I rOA I rOD I rOA 1 rOD 1 ,DA rOD I rDA I rOD I rDA rOD 1 rOA 0 (t) t.n

3.1 I 12.0 I 186118.0 I 186112.01 186 I nlf 118.01 186112.01 1861 nlr 118.01 186 112.0 1 186 I nlr 124.0 I 232 I 12.0 1 186 I nlf 1-1-1-1-1-1 c.Q' ::I (") :!.

3.2 I 18.0 I 186118.01186112.0 I 1861 nk 118.51189112.01 186 1 nlr 118.5 I 189 I 12.0 1 186 I nlr 124.01 232 12.0 1 186 1 nlf 1 -(if

(Note 2) :!. III

3A I 18.0 I 186118.01186112.01 186 I nlr 119.01195 112.01186 I nlr 119.01195112.01186 I nlr 124.0 I 232112.0 1 186 I nlf - 1 - I-I 0-...

(Note 2) (Note 2) (") III -(t)

3.6 I 18.0 I 186 118.01186112.0 I 186 I nlr I 20.0 1 202 112.0 I 186 I n/r 120.0 I 202112.0 I 186 1 nlr 124.01 232112.0 1 186 1 nlr - I - I CO (No1e 2) (Note 2) 0

t.n-< ::r(1l

3.8 nip 118.0 I 186 112.0 I 1861 nlr I 21.0 1 208 I 12.0 1 186 I nlr 121.0 I 208 1120 I 186 1 nlr 124.01 232 12.0 1 186 1 nlr (Ncle2) (t) ••

~Not(2) <" ;:0 (t) III t.n (")

4.0 nip 118.01186 112.0 I 186 I nlr I 21.51 214 112.0 I 186 I nlr 121.51 214 112.0 I 186 I nlr 124.0 232 12.0 I 186 I nlr - I - I - I - I - ~

t.n jNot(2) ....

0 Ql

4.2 nip 1 18.0 1 186 112.0 I 186 I nlr 122.5 I 220 112.0 I 186 I nlr 122.51220112.0 I 186 I n/r 124.0 232 12.0 I 186 I nlr - I - I - I - I CO !Note2) (t)

::r (t)

4.4 nip 118.01186112.011861 nlr I 23.0 I 226 112.0 I 186 I n/r 123.0 I 226 112.0 I 186 I nlr 124.0 I 232 I 12.0 II~o~62l I nlr - I - I - I cO' ::r .... c:

4.6 nip 118.01186 112.01186 I nlr I 24.0 I 232 112.0 I 186 I nlr 124.0 I 232 112.0 I 186 I nlr 124.0 I 232 I 12.01 186 nlr I - I "C -0 .......

4.8 nip 124.0 I 232 11281186 112.011861 24.0 I 232 113.0 I 186 112.01186 I nip 113.01186 112.01186 I nip 118.01 186 112.01186118.0 186 12.011861 en (NOle2)

3 Z N

~ (J) ;::;:

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~I t.n N 2.. 0 a: 0

.......

New NZS 4541: Automatic fire sprinkler systemsdocshare02.docshare.tips/files/22007/220078628.pdf· 1995. 1. 17.· NZS 4541 :2007 Incorporating Amendment No.1 New Zealand Standard - [PDF Document] (290)

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0'> (Xl

Maximum

storage

height

(m)

5.0

5.2

5.4

5.6

5.8

6.0

6.2

6.4

6.6

Upto

4.6m

IRS

levels

rOD I rDA

nip

4.7 to 6.1 m

IRS levels

0 1

,OD ,DA ,DO ,DA

24.0 232 13.6 186

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

nip

6.2 to 7.6 m

IRS levels

2 0 1 2

,DD ,DA ,DD ,DA ,OD ,DA ,DD rOA

12.0 186 24.0 232 13.5 186 12.0 186

24.0 232 14.5 186 12.0 186

24.0 232 15.0 186 12.0 186

24.0 232 16.0 186 12.0 186

24.0 232 17.0 186 12.0 186

24.0 232 17.5 186 12.0 186

18.5 183 12.0 186

19.0 177 12.0 186

20.0 171 12.0 186

Maximum roof/ceiling height

7.7t09.1 m 9.2 to 10.7 m

IRS levels IRS levels

0 1 2 0 1 2

rOD I rCA rOO rOA rOD rOA rOD I rDA rOD rOA rOD rOA rOD

nip 13.5 186 12.0 186 nip 18.0 186 12.0 186 18.0

nip 14.5 186 12.0 186 nip 18.0 186 12.0 186 18.0

nip 15.0 186 12.0 186 nip 18.0 186 12.0 186 18.0

nip 16.0 186 12.0 186 nip 18.0 186 12.0 186 18.0

nip 17.0 186 12.0 186 nip 18.0 186 12.0 186 18.0

nip 17.5 186 12.0 186 nip 18.0 186 12.0 186 18.0

nip 18.5 183 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186

nip 19.0 177 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186

nip 20.0 171 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186

10.8 to 12.2 m

IRS levels

1 2

rOA rOD rOA

186 12.0 186 (Note 2) (Note 2)

186 12.0 186 (Note 2) (Note 2)

186 12.0 186 (Note 2) (Note 2)

186 12.0 186 (Note 2) (Nale2)

186 12.0 186 (Note 2) (Note 2)

186 12.0 186 {Note 2) {Note 2)

nip 12.0 186

nip 12.0 186

nip 12.0 186

12.3 to

13.7 m

IRS levels

2

rOD rOA

- -

- -

(Note 2)

- -

- (Note 2)

- (Note 2)

12.0 186 (Note 2)

12.0 186 (Noh~ 2)

12.0 186 (Note 2)

I

i

I

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I/) a ::r(j) (j)CO -0 15-< I/) UI

8:iJ :::l I\) =-C')

:::l " C I/) co _ 0.0

iil co (j)

::r (j)

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New NZS 4541: Automatic fire sprinkler systemsdocshare02.docshare.tips/files/22007/220078628.pdf· 1995. 1. 17.· NZS 4541 :2007 Incorporating Amendment No.1 New Zealand Standard - [PDF Document] (291)

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0'.> <0

Maximum Maximum rOof/ceiling height

storage ---------- ----

Up to 4.7 to 0.1 m 0.2 to 7.6 m height

4.6m (m)

IRS levels IRS levels IRS levels

0 0 I 1 I 2 0 I 1 T 2 0

rDD _l~~~ __ ~~_~~_L rOD I rCA I rOD I rOA rOD I rDA I rOD I rOA I rDD I rDA rOD I rOA

6.8 nip

--------_._-

7.0 nip

------------

7.2 nip

7.4 nip

7,6 nip

------------

Table 9.12(m) design constraints

The requirements of this table are applicable, subject to the following design constraints: (i) A wet. dry or pre-action type system (see table entry notation 1). (ii) Gridded pipework configurations are not permitted for dry or pre-action systems (see 903_2)_ (iii) The various design densities and Design Areas are applicable at the rooflceiling level (see table

entry notations 1,3 and 5). (iv) The installation of sprinklers at rooflceiling level in accordance with the requirements of 904. (v) A maximum clearance of 6.1 m from the top of the storage to the underside of the rooflceiling

(see table entry notation 2). (vi) Rooflceiling slope up to 1 in 6 (10") (see table entry notation 3)_

7.7109.1 m 9.2 to 10.7 m 10.8 to 12.2 m 12.310

13.7 m

IRS levels IRS levels IRS levels IRS levels

1 2 0 I

1 2 1 2 2

rOD rOA rOD rOA rDo~J rOD I rDA rOD rDA rOO I rDA rOD rDA rOO rDA

21.0 165 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186 12.0 186 (Note 2)

21.5 159 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186 12.0 186 {Nole2)

22.5 153 12,0 186 nip 12,0 186 nip 12.0 186 12,0 186 (Nolo 2)

23.0 146 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186 12.0 186

INote2)

24.0 140 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186 nip 12.0 186 12.0 186 (Note 2)

------------

Table 9.12(m) enlry notations (modifications and additional design requirements) For dry or pre-action systems mulliply the Design Area by 1.3 (see 903.2).

2. For clearance in excess of 6.1 m, see 905.12.4 3. For roof/ceiling slopes greater than 1 in 6 (10"), multiply the Design Area by 1.3 (see 905.3). 4. No adjustment to these requirements is necessary for encapsulated commodities (see

902.11).

5. Where extra levels of in-rack sprinklers are provided. in excess of those specified in the table, adjust the design density, in accordance with the requirements of table 9.S.

6. Protection shall be provided beneath walkways in accordance with 905.10.1. 7. Steel column protection may be required. see 904.4. 8. rOD - Roofloeiling design density, mm/min. 9. rDA- Rooflceiling Design Area. m'. 10. nip - not permitted 11. nlr - not required.

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:.... '" i I C (1) til

cO" :::l (') .., it .., iii" -0 ... (')

til a ::T(1) (1)10 -0 Ciio< til ~

:;:a I» (') ;:III;"

til -0 ~

10 (1)

::T (1)

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til 2- N

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New NZS 4541: Automatic fire sprinkler systemsdocshare02.docshare.tips/files/22007/220078628.pdf· 1995. 1. 17.· NZS 4541 :2007 Incorporating Amendment No.1 New Zealand Standard - [PDF Document] (292)

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Maximum

storage

height

(m)

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.6

3.8

4.0

4.2

Upto

4.6m

IRS levels

0 0

I rOO rOA rOD ,OA

12.0 186 18.0 186

18.0 186 18.0 186

18.0 186 18.0 186

18.0 186 18.0 186

nip 18.0 186

nip 18.0 186

nip 18.0 186

-------

4.7 to 6.1 m

IRS levels

1 2 0

'DO rOA rOO rOA rOD rOA

12.0 186 - - 18.0 186

12.0 186 - - 18.5 189

12.0 186 - - 19.0 195

12.0 186 - 20.0 201

12.0 186 nlr 21.0 207

12.0 186 - 21.5 214

12.0 186 - 22.51 220

Maximum roof/ceiling height

6.2107.6 m 7.7 to 9.1 m

IRS levels IRS levels

1 2 0 1 2

rOO rOA rOD rOA ,DO rOA rOO rOA rOD rOA

12.0 186 - - 18.0 186 12.0 186 -

12.0 186 - 18.5 189 12.0 186

12.0 186 - 19.0 ' 195 12.0 186 -

12.0 186 - 20.0 201 12.0 186 - -

12.0 186 nfr 21.0 207 120 186 nlr

12.0 186 - 21.5 214 12.0 186

I 12.0 186 - 22.5 220 112.0 186

-i Z

III N C" (J)

! CD ,flo.

-------- -------

~ ~ .... N ..a.

9.2 to 10.7 m 10.8 to 12.2 m 12.3 to

13.7 m 2: N 0

I 0 IRS levels IRS levels IRS levels C ......

-------- ---- (J) 0 1 2 1 2 2 t/J

-----

rOD rOA rOO tOA rOO rOA rOO rOA rOO rOA 'DO rOA IE' :::J (')

24.0 232 12.0 186 - - - - - -(Note 2) (Note 2)

.., ;:;: (J) ...

! .... ili'

24.0 232 12.0 186 - - - - - - -[Nole2) (NOlc2} 0-..,

'--- (') III

24.0 232 12.0 186 - - - _. - - a;-(Nate 2) (Note 2) ce

.... 0

24.0 232 12.0 186 - - - - -{Note?} (Nole2)

(£)-< -<11 o .. <11;:0

24.0 232 12.0 186 nlr (Nole2) (Note 2) (Note 2)

(NOlc2) {Note:?}

• III <D(') 3 ~

"'t/J 0

24.0 232 12.0 186 - - - -.., III

(Note 2) (Note 2) ce (J)

j 24.0 232 12.0 186 - - - -

(Notu2l (NotA?)

=r (J)

cC' =r .... c:

"tJ .... 0 ""4 CD _3 t/J 2-a: t/J =r (J)

<" (J) t/J